Chapter 10

Report
Chapter 10
Development Processes
“We Need to Support Other Watches and
Mobile Devices, and at Least Android Phones.”
• Need to define and document business
procedures, train staff, involve other partners
• Make system more generally available
• Strategic implication: Spin off PRIDE as
separate business?
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Study Questions
Q1: How are business processes, IS, and applications
developed?
Q2: How do organizations use business process management
(BPM)?
Q3: How is Business Process Modeling Notation used to model
processes?
Q4: What are the phases in the systems development life cycle
(SDLC)?
Q5: What are the keys for successful SDLC projects?
Q6: How can scrum overcome the problems of the SDLC?
Q7: 2023?
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Q1: How Are Business Processes, IS,
and Applications Developed?
• Process of creating and maintaining information
systems
• Requires:
– Establishing system goals
– Setting up the project
– Determining requirements
– Business knowledge and management skill
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Activities in a Business Process and the
Correlating Information Systems
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Relationship of Business Processes and
Information Systems
1. Business processes, information systems, and applications have
different characteristics and components.
2. Relationship of business processes to information systems is
many-to-many, or N:M.
– A business process need not relate to any IS, but IS relates to
at least one business process.
3. Every IS has at least one application because every IS has a
software component.
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Scope of Development Process
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Role of Development Personnel
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Q2: How Do Organizations Use Business
Process Management (BPM)?
• Business process
– Network of activities, repositories, roles,
resources, and data flows that interact to
accomplish a business function
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Why Do Processes Need Management?
• Improve Process Quality
• Change in Technology
• Change in Business Fundamentals
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Market (new customer category, change in customer
characteristics)
Product lines
Supply chain
Company policy
Company organization (merger, acquisition)
Internationalization
Business environment
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What Are BPM Activities?
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Q3: How Can BPMN Process Diagrams Help
Identify and Solve Process Problems?
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As-Is
Business
Order
Process:
Existing
Ordering
Process
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Check
Customer
Credit
Process
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Q4: What Are the Phases in the Systems
Development Life Cycle (SDLC)?
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Define System Goals and Scope
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SDLC: Requirements Analysis Phase
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Role of a Prototype
•
•
•
•
Provides user direct experience
Can be expensive to create
Parts often reused
Cost occurs early, sometimes before full
project funding available
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SDLC: Component Design Phase
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SDLC: Implementation Phase
Conversion
types
1. Pilot
2. Phased
3. Parallel
4. Plunge
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Design and Implementation for the Five
Components
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SDLC: System Maintenance Phase
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Ethics Guide: Estimation Ethics
• Estimating is just “theory”—average of many
people’s guesses.
• Buy-in game
• Overly optimistic schedules and cost
estimates
• At what point is buy-in within accepted
boundaries of conduct?
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Ethics Guide: Estimation Ethics
• Contractor agrees to produce system for less than
what will really be required
Time and materials contract
Fixed-cost contracts
• In-house projects often started with buy-ins
Projects start with hopes of more money later
Team members disagree about costs. Do you report it?
Not all costs included in initial estimates. Report it?
• Do you buy-in on project schedule if you can’t
make that schedule?
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Q5: What Are the Keys for Successful
SDLC Projects?
•
•
•
•
•
Create a work-breakdown structure.
Estimate time and costs.
Create a project plan.
Adjust plan via trade-offs.
Manage development challenges.
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Work
Breakdown
Structure
(WBS)
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Gantt Chart of the WBS for the Definition
Phase of a Project
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Gantt Chart with Resources Assigned
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Primary Drivers of Systems
Development
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Manage Development Challenges
1. Coordination
2. Diseconomies of scale
3. Configuration control
4. Unexpected events
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Difficulty of Requirements Determination
•What specifically is system to do?
•What, exactly, does the report doctors receive look like?
•Will they have both a standard and exception report? Are
those reports fixed in structure or can user adapt them? If
so, how?
• How many practices and how many patients per practice
will PRIDE support?
• How much cloud resource needed?
 Must create environment where difficult questions are
asked and answered.
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Changing Requirements
• Systems development aims at moving target
• The bigger system, the longer the project,
the more requirements change.
• What should development team do?
• Incorporate changes, build, complete and
make changes in maintenance phase?
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Scheduling and Budgeting Difficulties
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
How long to build it?
How long to create data model?
How long to build database applications?
How long to do testing?
How long to develop and document procedures?
How long for training?
How many labor hours? Labor cost?
What’s the rate of return on investment?
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Changing Technology
• Do you want to stop your development to
switch to the new technology?
• Would it be better to finish developing
according to the existing plan?
• Why build an out-of-date system?
• Can you afford to keep changing the
project?
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Diseconomies of Scale
Brooks’ Law
• “Adding more people to a late project makes the
project later.”
• New staff must be trained by productive members
who lose productivity while training.
• Schedules can be compressed only so far.
• Once a project is late and over budget, no good
choice exists.
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Experiencing MIS InClass Exercise 10:
GardenTracker
• Suppose you and two or three other students decide to open
a business that offers landscaping services. Your goal is to
develop a list of clients for whom you provide regular and
recurring services.
• Need information system for tracking customers, services you
have provided, and services you are scheduled to provide in
the future.
• As a new small business, you want a simple and affordable
system based on Excel or Access. The name of the system is
GardenTracker.
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Experiencing MIS InClass Exercise 10:
GardenTracker (cont’d)
1. Explain how you would use SDLC to
develop GardenTracker.
2. Define the scope of your system.
3. Explain process you would use to
determine feasibility of GardenTracker.
4. List data you need for such an assessment,
and explain how you might obtain or
estimate that data.
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Q6: How Can Scrum Overcome the
Problems of the SDLC?
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Scrum
Essentials
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Scrum Process
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When Does Scrum End?
• Customer is satisfied with product created
and accepts it.
• Project runs out of time.
• Project runs out of money.
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How Do Requirements Drive the Scrum
Process?
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Summary of Scrum Estimation
Techniques
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Q7: 2023
1. Continuing focus on aligning business
processes and information systems with
business strategy, goals, and objectives
2. Computer systems will be more easily
changed and adapted
3. The cloud will lead to substantially more
innovation
4. Emergence of new software vendor business
models
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Security Guide: Psst. There’s Another
Way, You Know . . .
• Do you think servers in China were actually shut
down?
• Large organizations with good IS departments that
had a firewall set up on port 24 to only allow traffic to
go to IP address of ISP did not lose any designs.
• What about smaller organizations with minimal IS
Department, or supported by small, unsophisticated
VAR?
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Guide: The Real Estimation Process
• Software developers are optimists.
• People can’t work all the time.
• Apply a factor like 0.6 to compute number of
effective labor hours for each employee.
• Be aware of consequences of negotiating a
schedule.
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Active Review
Q1: How are business processes, IS, and applications
developed?
Q2: How do organizations use business process management
(BPM)?
Q3: How is Business Process Modeling Notation used to model
processes?
Q4: What are the phases in the systems development life cycle
(SDLC)?
Q5: What are the keys for successful SDLC projects?
Q6: How can scrum overcome the problems of the SDLC?
Q7: 2023?
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Case Study 10: Cost of PRIDE
• Typical example of a new software venture
• So focused on technology and making it work,
they neglect to consider what will happen,
longer term, if it is a success.
• Some problem solutions involve staff training
and procedures.
• Longer term, Flores and his partners need a
direction.
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Sources of PRIDE Costs
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