Emphysematous abomasitis in month old lambs

Report
Emphysematous
abomasitis in one month
old lambs
Hein Snyman BVSc
DVSc Anatomic Pathology Resident
Department of Pathobiology
Ontario Veterinary College
University of Guelph
Signalment
• One month old
lambs (n=3)
• Male
• Rideau Arcott
History
• Novice small scale operation
• Farmer away on the weekend
• Returned to find 3 lambs dead
• Acute death within last 36
hours
• Growing well
Gross findings
• Good body condition
• Fibrinous peritonitis & serosal
petechiae
• Abomasal mucosal haemorrhage,
necrosis and ulceration
• Exuberant autolysis of the kidney
and liver
Gram + Rods
Ancillary diagnostics
• Faecal flotation – NAD
• Bacterial culture:
4 + Clostridium perfringens
3 + Mannheimia haemolytica
• Clostridial Fluorescent
antibody test (FAT)
Clostridium septicum
www.vet.uga.edu
Diagnosis
Mdx - Emphysematous,
necrotizing and suppurative
abomasitis, trans mural,
regionally extensive, acute.
Edx - Clostridial gangrenous
abomasitis/Braxy
Etiology – Clostridium septicum
& C. perfringens
Braxy
•
•
•
•
Highly fatal
Acute to peracute
Treatment rarely successful
NW Europe
• Norway, Denmark, North Germany,
Iceland and the Faroe islands – Bradsot
• UK, Ireland, North America and Australia
Braxy
• Low prevalence
• Cold winters
• Overwintering
on summer
pasture
• Autumn, early to
mid winter
• North America –
early spring
Braxy
• Severe oedema, necrosis and
gangrenous inflammation of the
mucosa of the abomasum
• C. septicum, C. novyi, C.
perfringens type A & C
Braxy
• Good condition
• 6 to 18 months
• Morbidity up to 50 %
• Calves
• Abomasal ulcers
Pathogenesis
• Poorly understood
• Mucosal invasion and proliferation
without any predisposing lesion
• Coarse and frozen vegetation
• Toxin production
• Abomasal canula – Glucose & VFA’s
• Centrifugal emphysematous lesions
Ellis T.M., Rowe J.B. and Lloyd J.M. (1983). Acute abomasitis
due to Clostridium septicum infection in experimental sheep.
Aust. Vet. J. 60, 308-309.
Prevention
• Immunoprophylaxis
• Toxoid/Bacterin
• No vaccination
protocol
• No Clostridial
vaccines
References
•
Coetzer J.A.W., Tustin R.C. Infectious
diseases of livestock, 2nd Edition,
Volume Three, Section Five: Bacterial
diseases, 183 Clostidium septicum
infections, pg. 1869-1873.
•
Ellis T.M., Rowe J.B. and Lloyd J.M.
(1983). Acute abomasitis due to
Clostridium septicum infection in
experimental sheep. Aust. Vet. J. 60,
308-309.
•
Eustis S.L. and Bergeland M.E.
(1981). Suppurative abomasitis
associated with Clostridium septicum
infection. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
178, 732-734.
•
Songer JG. (1996). Clostridial enteric
diseases of domestic animals. Clin.
Microbiol. Rev. 9, 216-234.

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