Lecture 2 Sustainable urban transport / mass transit systems, BRT models and success examples Dr. Muhammad Adnan Lecture Outline • • • • • • • Sustainable Transport (Definition & Concept) TSM and TDM Strategies Sustainability through TDM strategies Various TDM Strategies and their effects Mass Transit Systems BRT Definitions and Examples Succesful Models of BRT Sustainable Transportation • There is no universally accepted definition of sustainability, sustainable development or sustainable transport • European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT 2004) – A sustainable transport system is one that is accessible, safe, environmentallyfriendly, and affordable • Transport Canada • • “The goal of sustainable transportation is to ensure that environment, social and economic considerations are factored into decisions affecting transportation activity.” Richardson (1999) – A sustainable transportation system is “one in which fuel consumption, vehicle emissions, safety, congestion, and social and economic access are of such levels that they can be sustained into the indefinite future without causing great or irreparable harm to future generations of people throughout the world.” Who is More Sustainable? (An Example) • Who is more sustainable, somebody who drives a fuel-efficient vehicle high annual miles, or somebody who drives an inefficient vehicle low annual miles? An appropriate Answer • If sustainability is defined only in terms of fuel efficiency and related emissions, it can be achieved by driving a fuel efficient vehicle, such as a 60 mile-per-gallon (MPG) hybrid car. However, such a car does not reduce traffic congestion or the barrier effect (delay and risk to pedestrians and cyclists), road and parking requirements, accident risk, or sprawl. • A motorist who lives in a more accessible location and relies on alternative modes as much as possible (for example, commuting by bicycle, carpool or transit most days) and so drives an average efficiency vehicle low annual miles, consumes a similar amount of fuel, but imposes far lower costs on society overall. Objectives of Sustainability & Transportation Impacts • TDM Encyclopedia Measuring Sustainability (1) • Sustainability and sustainable transportation are difficult to measure directly, so various Performance Indicators are used to evaluate them. Some are relatively narrow, focusing on just a few impacts, such as air pollution emissions, while others attempt to represent a broader range of economic, social and environmental objectives (Gilbert and Tanguay 2000; Litman 2009 and 2011). Below are examples of indicators. – Quality of Overall Accessibility (ability to reach desired goods, services and activities). More is better. – Land Use Mix - Number of job opportunities and commercial services within 30-minute travel distance of residents. Higher is better – Children’s accessibility - Portion of children who can walk or bicycle to Schools, shops and parks from their homes. Higher is better. – Commute speed - Average commute travel time. Lower is better, particularly for disadvantaged populations. – Transport diversity - Variety and quality of transport Options available in a community. Higher is better. Measuring Sustainability (2) • Transit service – Public transit service quality, including coverage (portion of households and jobs within 5-minute walking distance of 15-minute transit service), service frequency, comfort (portion of trips in which passenger can sit and portion of transit stops with shelters), affordability (fares as a portion of minimum wage income), information availability, and safety (injuries per billion passenger-miles). • Motor Transport Options - Quantity and quality of airline, rail, public transit, ferry, rideshare and taxi services. Higher is better. • Congestion delay - Per capita traffic Congestion delay. Lower is better. • Consumer Transport costs - Portion of household expenditures devoted to transport (Transport cost). Lower is better TSM vs TDM • TSM: Transportation Supply Management • TDM: Transportation Demand Management • Transportation supply management (TSM) strategies maintain or improve safety for all users, defer the need for major infrastructure investments, provide the best possible level of service, and minimize the impacts of transportation activities on community livability. • Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategies include a variety of measures to reduce individual transport and change transport demand types. SUPPLY SIDE (TSM) DEMAND SIDE (TDM) • Efficient Use of Existing Facilities • Manage Existing Demand • Increase Supply • Control Demand Growth TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (Supply Side) Traffic Management Efficient use Via Traffic Engineering Measures Improvement of Alternative Modes Public Transportation, Paratransit, Bicycle/Walking Integrated Multi-Mode Transport System Park and Ride Facilities, Kiss and Ride Facilities Transportation Infrastructure Development Functional Roads (Ring Roads/ Bypass, increase in road capacity), New Technology Intelligent Transportation System, Low Emission vehicles, etc. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (Demand Side) Transportation Demand Management Travel Reduction, Peak Spreading, Modal Shift, road pricing, car pooling, telecommuting Land Use / Urban Planning Growth Management, Compact city, Transit-Oriented Development Regional / National Development Policy Development of secondary cities Industrial / Labor Policy Work/Business Styles, Production and Distribution Processes Social Policy Life Style, Leisure Significance of TDM Strategies • TDM strategies are important part of the transportation plan due to the inherent ability to provide the following benefits to the commuting public: – – – – – Better Transportation Accessibility Better Transportation Predictability More, and timelier information A range of commute choices; and Enhanced Transportation system performance TDM Strategies (1) • Flextime: Flextime allows workers to adjust their commuting time away from the peak periods. – For example, rather than all employees working 8:00 to 4:30, some might work 7:30 to 4:00, and others 9:00 to 5:30. • Compressed Work Week: This means that employees work fewer but longer days, • such as four 10-hour days each week (4/40), or 9-hour days with one day off every two weeks (9/80) Travel Impact Summary TDM Strategies (2) • Telework: It is a general term for the use of telecommunications (telephone, fax, email, websites, video connections, etc.) to substitute for physical travel. As telecommunications service quality improves (particularly high speed Internet), the feasibility of telework increases. TDM Strategies (3) • Economists have long advocated Road Pricing as an efficient and equitable way to Finance Roads other Transportation Programs, and encourage more efficient transportation. Road Pricing has two general objectives: revenue generation and congestion management. They differ in several ways, as compared in the table below. Road Pricing (Variants) • • Toll Roads: – Tolls are a common way to fund highway and bridge improvements. Such tolls are a feefor-service, with revenues dedicated to roadway project costs. This is considered more equitable and economically efficient than other roadway improvement funding options which cause non-users to help pay for improvements Congestion Pricing: – Congestion Pricing (also called Value Pricing) refers to variable road tolls (higher prices under congested conditions and lower prices at less congested times and locations) intended to reduce peak-period traffic volumes to optimal levels. Tolls can vary based on a fixed schedule, or they can be dynamic, meaning that rates change depending on the level of congestion that exists at a particular time. • HOT Lanes: – High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lanes are High Occupancy Vehicles (HOV) lanes that also allow use by a limited number of low occupancy vehicles if they pay a toll (Stockton and Daniels 2000; Poole and Orski 2001). It is a type of Managed Lane (Goodin 2005). This allows more vehicles to use HOV lanes while maintaining an incentive for mode shifting, and raises revenue. HOT lanes are often proposed as a compromise between HOV lanes and Road Pricing. • Vehicle Use Fees: – Distance-Based Charges such as mileage fees can be used to fund roadways or reduce traffic impacts, including congestion, pollution and accident risk. A proposal by the UK Commission for Integrated Transport (CFIT, 2002) proposes that existing vehicle registration fees and fuel taxes be replaced by a variable road user charge using GPSbased Pricing Methods, as a way to reduce traffic congestion and more equitably reflect the roadway costs imposed by each vehicle. Bus Rapid Transit • According to TRB (USA): BRT can be defined as a flexible, rubber-tired rapid-transit mode that combines stations, vehicles, services, running ways, and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) elements into an integrated system with a strong positive identity that evokes a unique image. BRT definitions (2) • Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) refers to a set of bus system design features that provide high quality and cost-effective transit service. These include: • Grade-separated right-of-way, including busways (for bus use only, also called O-bahn or Quickways) HOV lanes (for buses, vanpools and carpools), and other Transit measures. Some systems use guideways which automatically steer the bus on portions of the route. • Frequent, high-capacity service that results in passenger waits of less than 10-minutes during peak periods. • High-quality vehicles that are easy to board, quiet, clean and comfortable to ride. • Pre-paid fare collection to minimize boarding delays. • Integrated fare systems, allowing free or discounted transfers between routes and modes. • Convenient user information and Marketing programs. • High quality bus stations with Transit Oriented Development in nearby areas. • Modal integration, with BRT service coordinated with walking and cycling facilities, taxi services, intercity bus, rail transit, and other transportation services. • Excellent customer service. • Improved Security for transit users and pedestrians. Conditions of BRT Systems • (Result of a case study, 29 systems) • Running ways, attractive stations and bus stops, distinctive easy-to-board vehicles, off-vehicle fare collection, use of ITS technologies, and frequent all-day service (service should operate at least 16 hours each day, with midday headways of 15 minutes or less and peak headways of 10 minutes or less) • Over 80% of the systems have some type of exclusive running way—either a busonly road or bus lane. More than 75% provide frequent all-day services, and about 66% have “stations” in addition to the usual bus stops. • In contrast, only about 40% of the systems have distinctive vehicles or ITS applications, and only 17%(ﬁve systems) have or will have off-vehicle fare collection. • Three existing systems have all six basic features, including Bogotá’s TransMilenio, Curitiba’s median busways, and Quito’s Trolebus. Several systems under development (e.g., Boston, Cleveland, and Eugene) will have most BRT elements. Details of BRT Features • Running ways: Running ways for BRT include mixed traffic lanes, curb bus lanes, and median busways on city streets; reserved lanes on freeways; and bus-only roads, tunnels, and bridges • Stations: The spacing of stations along freeways and busways ranges from 2,000 to almost 7,000 feet, enabling buses to operate at high speeds. Spacing along arterial streets ranges upward from about 1,000 feet. Overhead walks with fences between opposite directions of travel, low platforms etc • Vehicles: Conventional standard and articulated diesel buses are widely used for BRT operations. There is, however, a trend toward innovations in vehicle design. These innovations include (1) “clean” vehicles (e.g., lowsulfur diesel fuel, diesel-electric hybrids, compressed natural gas [CNG], and possibly fuel cells in the future); (2) dual-mode (diesel-electric) operations through tunnels; (3) low-ﬂoor buses; (4) more doors and wider doors; and (5) use of distinctive, dedicated BRT vehicles. Details of BRT Features • ITS : Applications of ITS technologies include automatic vehicle location systems; passenger information systems; and transit preferential treatment systems at signalized intersections, controlled tunnel or bridge approaches, toll plazas, and freeway ramps. • Service Pattern : Service patterns reflect the types of running way and vehicles utilized. Many systems provide an “overlay” of express (or limited-stop) service on top of all-stop (or local) service and “feeder” bus line services at selected stations. Travel Impact Summary of BRT Concluding Remarks • Sustainable Transportation & relevant concepts are discussed at length. • Importance of TDM measures are understood with discussion of varieties of such measures that help introduce sustainability in transportation. • Sustainable transportation is unavoidable; Policy makers need to completely revamp institutional framework that support policies to introduce sustainability in transport infrastructure. • Introduction of BRT and other supporting measures may be the step forward to introduce sustainability.