The Excretory System

By: Sarah, Vannyta, & Devon
The excretory system’s role in the human body.
The levels of organization in humans.
How the excretory system is connected to two other systems in the
human body.
The excretory system’s major organs.
How the excretory system’s organs work together.
Maintaining a healthy system.
Two common diseases or disorders that affect the excretory system.
Two professions that work with the excretory system.
“Did you know” facts about the excretory system.
The excretory system’s role in the human
body is to get rid of chemicals through a
form of wastes called urine. One of the
most important organs in the excretory
system are called the kidneys, which
filter all of the liquid that the human
consumes in a day. All of the liquid must
pass through the kidneys for the system
to work properly. The kidneys are given
about one quarter of the blood pumped
out by the heart, and all of the harsh
chemicals are then filtered out from the
blood and turned into urine. The
excretory system also helps to maintain a
normal fluid and electrolyte(sodium,
potassium, etc.) balance in the humans
body, which keeps our bodies healthy.
Organism> Organ System> Organ> Tissue> Cells
The kidneys are made up of different types of tissues and
cells, one example being the Epithelial tissue and cells.
There are two different types of Epithelial tissue: Simple- one layer of
cells, and Stratified- more than one layer of cells. There are many
different types of Epithelial cells as well. Examples found in the
kidneys are:
 “Simple Squamous Epithelium”- A single layer of flattened cells.
“Simple Cuboidal Epithelium”- A single layer of cube like cells.
The system in you body that pumps
all of your blood from your heart to
different parts of your body is called
the circulatory system. Your urine is
not only made up of liquids you
consume in the matter of a day, part
of your urine comes from your
blood! Everyday, your kidneys filter
out metabolic wastes, excess ions(an
atom or molecule that is no longer
neutral) and chemicals from your
blood to form urine. This means that
the excretory system is connected to
the circulatory system.
The system in your body that absorbs
nutrients and eliminates the unhealthy
materials from the food you eat is
called the digestive system. Without
your digestive system, you would not
be able to properly digest your food!
Little did everyone know, all of the food
we eat eventually breaks down into a
liquid that passes through your kidneys
to be turned into urine. Your kidneys
filter 120ml of liquid a minute, but only
1ml a minute is turned into urine. This
means that the excretory system is
connected to the circulatory system.
Kidneys are two small bean
shaped organs inside the
humans body. This organ filters
chemicals from the blood to
form urine. The kidneys are
covered up in a layer of
adipose (loose connective
tissue and fat) that protects
them from damage.
Ureters are a pair of tubes that
carry urine from the kidneys to
the urinary bladder. They can
range from 10 to 12 inches
Urinary Bladder is a hollow
organ which is a sac-like shape.
This organ is used for the
storage of urine. The walls of
the bladder stretch to hold
anywhere from 600 to 800
milliliters of urine.
Urethra is the organ which
allows urine to pass from the
bladder to the exterior of the
The “Urinary Tract”
begins at the kidneys,
where filtration of
chemicals from the
blood occurs and are
turned into urine. These
chemicals can be
anything from metabolic
wastes to excess ions(an
atom or molecule that is
no longer neutral.)
From there, the ureters carry
urine from the kidneys to the
urinary bladder. The ends of the
ureters are sealed at the entrance
to the bladder by the
“Ureterovesical Valves,” allowing
for no urine to go back into the
kidneys. The process ends at the
urethra, where the urine flows
from the urinary bladder to the
exterior of the humans body.
Urinary Bladder
Exterior of humans body
The excretory system often is referred to as the
“cleaner” for your body, so it is important that
it stays healthy. In order to keep your excretory
system healthy, a good place to start is by
eating healthy and drinking plenty of water.
The healthy foods will help to supply minerals
and vitamins to help control the kidneys, and
drinking water will help to remove all the
toxins in in your body. Doctors recommend
everyone drinks eight (8) glasses of water a
day to keep a healthy excretory system.
Exercising will also help your excretory system
in many ways. An example is simply when you
exercise, you sweat, which helps to remove
toxins from your body as well.
Kidney Stones: Kidney stones are stones made
of mineral and acid salts that form overtime
inside your body. This disease affects your
entire urinary tract, simply because they
block the flow of urine in your body. The
stones usually start because the individuals
urine becomes concentrated, therefore
minerals crystalize and come together.
Kidney stones are often very painful, but very
rarely do they cause permanent damage or
harm to the body. To get rid of the stones,
some patients only need to drink lots of fluid
and take pain medication, while others need Kidney Stones
to see a specialist.
Electrolyte Disorders: Electrolyte (sodium, calcium, etc.) disorders are
simply when minerals in your body are not balanced. It is important that
you keep minerals in your body balanced, as eventually it could lead to
the shut down of important organs such as your brain! For each
electrolyte disorder there a usually multiply causes, examples being
Hypocalcemia (too little calcium), and even small things like taking
medication. Depending on your situation, there are different treatments
to cure electrolyte disorders, including rehydrating the blood through IV,
or oral medication to get rid of excess minerals fast.
Nephrologist: A nephrologist is a physician who studies the kidneys
and its diseases. They help deal with the management of different
viruses involving the kidneys. Examples of different viruses are
kidneys stones and fluid and electrolyte disorders. Nephrologists
work in different hospitals and medical centers all over the world.
Urologists: A urologist is an occupation that deals with the urinary
tract of males and females. Urologists are trained to treat all
problems or urological disorders a human may have. Hairdressers,
miners, painters, etc. all more prone to be diagnosed with bladder
cancer, which would be treated by a urologist. These doctors also
work at hospitals and medical centers around the world.
The ends of the ureters are
sealed at the entrance of the
bladder by the “Ureterovesical
valves.” This allows for no urine
to go back into the kidneys.
Kidney stones can be the size of
a golf ball.
Water forms 95% of the urine.
One (1) kidney is about four
(4) inches long.
On average, a human urinates
3000 times a year.
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