Geo-Political and Economic Impacts of the Mandate

Geo-Political and
Economic Impacts of the
Mandate System
By: Ben Hilse, Christina Morrissey, Conner Taylor,
Kayla McCollum, Jesse Sutherland, and Amy Toner
What is a Mandate?
Established by Article 22 of
the League of Nations
June 28, 1919
Put into force by the League
of Nations
Legal status for territories
Transferred power from 1
country to another
Africa pre-mandate
What is a Mandate?
The territories subject to the League of Nations Mandates
Countries Defeated in WWI
Ottoman Empire
Process of establishing the mandate:
Removal of sovereignty of state previously in control
Transfer of power to winning nations
The Class “A” Mandates
Class A Mandates
Class A Mandates were the holdings of the Ottoman Empire that
were broken up and divided by the League of Nations.
These were territories deemed to "... have reached a stage of
development where their existence as independent nations can be
provisionally recognized subject to the rendering of administrative
advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are
able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a
principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory.“ –
Article 22, Treaty of Versailles
The Class A Mandates were divided amongst Britain and France.
The Ottoman territories were first addressed by the League in the
Treaties of Sevres (1920), formally divided up at the San Remo
Convention (1920), and finalized in the Treaty of Lausanne (1923)
Class A Mandates
British Mandate of Palestine
September 29th, 1923 – May 15th, 1948
The land was taken by the British in 1917 to prevent the
Ottomans from cutting off Britain’s access to India.
British control of Palestine facilitated trade between Britain and
Gave British better access to Middle Eastern oil.
The mandate was divided into two sections:
- Palestine, which was ruled directly by the British.
- Transjordan, which was autonomous but still under heavy
British influence.
British Mandate of Palestine
Geopolitical Impact
In 1917, the British expressed support for the Zionist movement in
the Balfour Declaration.
In In 1922, in the Transjordan Memorandum, Britain proposed the
establishment of a National Home of the Jewish People west of the
Jordan River.
Britain had promised Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca independence
for an Arab country covering most of the Arab Middle East in
exchange for his support, while also promising to create and foster a
Jewish national home in Palestine in the Balfour Declaration of 1917,
in return for Jewish support.
According to official records, 367,845 Jews and 33,304 non-Jews
immigrated legally between 1920 and 1945. It was estimated that
another 50–60,000 Jews and a small number of non-Jews immigrated
illegally during this period.
By the end of World War II, roughly one third of the population of
Palestine was Jewish. This has led to the longest-running conflict in
the Middle East and one of the most dramatic clashes between East
and West in history.
Present-Day Israel
Estimates place the number of causalities of the IsraeliPalestinian conflict at around 15,000 since Israel’s
creation, but the number of civilians killed is probably
much higher.
5 full-scale wars have been fought between Israel and
the Arab states over Palestine.
The conflict has made it much more difficult for the
nations of Europe to accomplish anything in the Middle
East, as a result of strained diplomatic relations
because of European support of Israel.
During the Interwar Period, fighting happened almost
everyday between Arab natives and Jewish settlers.
Eventually, the economically advanced Jews won out,
leading to the creation of Israel after WWII.
British Mandate of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia was given to Britain in August of 1920 after the
Ottoman Empire was divided (Treaty of Sevres)
In the beginning, the mandate was met with much opposition
because Islamic rules state that Muslims should not be ruled by
The Great Iraqi Revolution of 1920: brought Sunnis and Shias
Britain assigned Faisal ibn Husayn as the first king, they assigned
an army under British control, and proposed the Anglo-Iraqi
Treaty of 1922 (Cairo Conference of March 1921)
Anglo-Iraqi Treaty – the king would follow all British advice on all
matters affecting British interests and on fiscal policy, and British
officials would be appointed as advisers and inspectors.
British Mandate of Mesopotamia
Military was stronger than the political structure of
Iraq. Sunnis that had served for the Ottoman
Empire were in the higher ranks and the tribal Shias
filled the lower ranks.
Iraqi politics shifted towards an alliance of important
personalities and cliques rather than a democracy.
New Anlgo-Iraqi treaty signed in 1930; a close
alliance, consultations between countries about
foreign policy, and mutual assistance in case of war
Intended to last 25 years and become relevant when
Iraq joined the League of Nations (1932)
British Mandate of Mesopotamia
Turkish Petroleum Company – owned by Britain and
claimed the Mosul region, but French had 25% of the
share (1919).
In 1923, the Iraqis attempted to get a share of the TPC,
but were unsuccessful when the League of Nations
voted on their demands.
Syria and Lebanon
Given to France in 1923 by the League of
Nations after the division of the Ottoman
Skyes-Picot Agreement – between Britain and
France saying that Britain controlled Ottoman
Mesopotamia and the southern part of
Ottoman Syria, while France controlled the
rest of Ottoman Syria (Syria, Lebanon,
Alexandretta and parts of Turkey).
French were oppressive
Syria and Lebanon
France established a loose federation between states in Syria.
There was general unrest in the states.
1936, the Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence - was not
ratified by the French, just intended to make peace.
The Class “B” Mandates
Class “B” Mandates
Not considered advanced enough politically/economically
to have complete independence
Greater level of control from mandatory power
Former German territories in Western and Central Africa
"...the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration
of the territory under conditions which will guarantee
freedom of conscience and religion.“
Article 22, Treaty of Versailles
MandatesRwanda and Burundi (Belgium) July 20th, 1922
Tanzania (Great Britain) July 20th, 1922
Cameroon (France) July 20th, 1922
Togo (Great Britain/ France) July 20th, 1922
Rwanda and Burundi
Geo-Political Impact
Most of East Africa mandated to Britain
Rwanda- Belgium
Economic Impact
Economy relies mostly on agriculture
Coffee/ tea
Belgium took tons of money from the
revenue of the coffee and tea industry in
Rwanda and Burundi
Treated natives with little respect
Geo-Political Impact
Fell under British control
Didn’t suffer an influx of European settlers
Significant factor when the country
approached independence
Economic Impact
Economy relies mostly on agriculture
Resources also include valuable minerals
British were greedy when it came to
Tanzania’s valuable resources
Geo-Political Impact
Mandated to France
2 small sections on the border
given to Britain (British
British Cameroon was neglected
Large influx of people from
Britain wanted ports in
Cameroon to aid their
landlocked African colonies.
Economic Impact
French Cameroon
Agriculture development
growth, limited growth in
Geo-Political Impact
Split along an east/west line
1/3rd to the west went under
British control
2/3rd to the east went under
French control
Became part of French West
Economic Impact
The economy was booming under
German rule
Agriculture (Cocoa, Coffee,
Togolese weren’t happy with
German rule
Welcomed British with “open
Parts of Ghana used to be part of Togo
The Class “C” Mandates
Class “C” Mandates
not considered capable of sustaining an independent
state due to its
sparse population
small size
Class “C” Mandate
former German possessions:
Namibia to South Africa
New Guinea and Naura to Australia
Samoa to New Zealand
North Western Pacific Islands to Japan
South Pacific Mandate
October 1, 1922
Rich in resources, mining was the single most important
contributor to the economy
Rich amounts of diamonds
gas deposits in the Atlantic Ocean
Economy was similar to South Africa
The Territory of New Guinea
Australians expected New Guinea to be profitable
New Guinea was costly
Served more as a militarist base
Had to fight off various countries including
1884:Germany claims
1906: total responsibility transferred Australia.
During the war, Australian forces seized German New Guinea
1920:became the Territory of New Guinea by League mandate territory of
World’s smallest island
Phosphate Mining
few other resources, and most
necessities are imported
Nauru was captured by Australian troops.
Nauru Island Agreement (1919):
Australia, New Zealand, and UK
Creates British Phosphate Commission (BPC) which took
over the rights to phosphate
1923: the League of Nations gives Australia a trustee
mandate over Nauru, with the UK & New Zealand as cotrustees.
Western Samoa
Germans produced mass amounts of cocoa beans and rubber
The value of natural rubber fell drastically, about the end of the World War I
Then New Zealand government encouraged the production of bananas, for
which there is a large market in New Zealand.
Samoan cocoa beans are of very high quality and used in fine New Zealand
The Only crops that can be successfully grown are copra, cocoa beans, and
Tripartite Convention: splits into two parts(eastern goes to US)
Germans get after Britain vacated all claims to Samoa and accepted
termination of German rights in Tonga and certain areas in the
Solomon Islands and West Africa.
Aug. 29th,1914: New Zealand seize German authorities.
Britain said: "great and urgent imperial service.“
From the end of WW1until 1962, New Zealand controlled Samoa as a class C
mandate under trusteeship of the League
South Pacific Mandate
(South Sea Mandate)
Northern Mariana Islands
Federated States of Micronesia
Marshal Islands
Area was more for its strategic military usefulness
The mandated territories produced significant quantities of sugar
cane, bananas, pineapples, taro, coconuts and other tropical
farming products
Large qualities of pearls
Mineral production of phosphates
The population of the South Seas Mandate was too small to
provide SUBSTANSTIAL markets and the indigenous people
had very limited financial resources for the purchase of imported

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