SSUSH3: Explain the primary causes of the American Revolution. SSUSH4: Identify ideological, military and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution. The American Revolution 1765 to 1783 ◦ Section 1: Causes of the Revolution ◦ Section 2: Declaring Independence ◦ Section 3: Turning Points of the War ◦ Section 4: War’s End and Lasting Effects ◦ ◦ SSUSH3: The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution. ◦ SSUSH4: Identify ideological, military and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution. With which statement do you agree? ◦ A) The Patriots were treated unfairly and were right to declare independence. ◦ B) The Patriots were treated fairly and were wrong to declare independence. ◦ C) The Patriots were treated fairly but were right to declare independence to avoid future conflicts with Britain. ◦ D) The Patriots were treated unfairly but should have used diplomacy rather than war to settle their differences. Discuss Adams’s definition of the American Revolution. How does his definition differ from many people’s initial ideas about the American Revolution? How did the American Revolution change American ideas? What harsh conditions at Valley Forge does this image show? ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What caused the colonists to rebel against the British? What events led the colonists to declare their independence from Britain? What factors helped the Patriots win the war? What did the Revolution accomplish, and what ideas did it set in motion? PROCLAMATION OF 1763 SUGAR ACT (1764) QUARTERING ACT (1765) STAMP ACT (1765) TOWNSHEND ACT (1767) TEA ACT (1773) INTOLERABLE ACTS (1774) To prevent conflict with the Native Americans the British set forth a law which banned all colonial settlement West of the Appalachian Mountains (Ohio River Valley area/old French lands). The colonists felt they helped the British win those lands and they did not like the Native Americans receiving the land and it convinced the colonists the British government did not care about their needs. The colonists ignored the law and continued to move westward disobeying British laws. The British could not enforce the ban effectively. This law raised duties (taxes) on goods imported from any place other than England or another British-controlled colony, especially on refined sugar and textiles (cloth). Financial expert/Prime Minister George Grenville began suspecting colonial smuggling goods into the country and enacted the Sugar Act, which was an extra tax on goods due to stop colonial smuggling. It halved the duty/taxes on foreign made molasses; placed a duty on certain imports; and strengthen the enforcement laws against smugglers. The colonists reduced their smuggling of goods and continued to disagree about how the colonists should be taxed and governed. Tensions began between the colonists and the British government. Colonists began making their own goods from their raw materials. The Stamp Act, enacted by parliament in 1765, was the first law that taxed the American colonists directly, rather than through duties on imports; therefore it is called—a direct tax. The Stamp Act required colonists to purchase special stamped paper for legal documents (wills), licenses, newspapers, pamphlets, almanacs, playing cards, and dice. The colonist disobeyed the law, organized protests, boycotted goods, and many times harassed the British Stamp Agents. They were angry. Colonists held the Stamp Act Congress. This act was passed to increase revenues of the British government. It was an indirect tax on imported materials such as glass, lead, rubber, paint, paper, etc. & A threepenny tax on tea. The colonists felt the tax was unfair because they had no representation in the taxing body of the British parliament. The indirect is levied on goods or services ultimately paid by the consumer in higher prices. The colonists reacted with rage and well-organized resistance; protesting “no taxation without representation”; colonists began making their own goods; committees of correspondence. The Townshend Acts angered the colonists because this was an indirect tax on imports, such as glass, lead, paint, and paper as they came into the colonies from Britain. It also imposed a three-penny tax on tea, the most popular drink in the colonies. The price of goods was higher. The colonists felt the tax was unfair because they had no representation in the taxing body of the British parliament. The indirect is levied on goods or services ultimately paid by the consumer in higher prices. The colonists reacted with rage and wellorganized resistance; protesting “no taxation without representation”; colonists began making their own goods; formed committees of correspondence. The East India Company (official monopoly on tea imports) was hit hard economically by colonial boycotts. This tax granted the company the right to sell tea to the colonies free of the taxes that colonial tea sellers had to pay. The colonial merchants opposed this law due to it would cut colonial merchants out of the tea trade because the East India Company could sell its tea directly to the consumers for less. The colonial merchants continued to protest violently; a large group of rebels disguised themselves as Native Americans and dumped approximately 18,000 pounds of tea into the Boston harbor (the Boston Tea Party). This act authorized British commanders to house soldiers in vacant homes/rooms or other buildings of the colonists. The Quartering act completely disregarded the colonists privacy. This definitely upset the colonists….Eventually will become protected by amendment #3 of the Bill of Rights. The colonists organized the 1st Continental Congress (protests and boycotted goods) Declaration of Colonial Rights which stated that parliament lacked the power to impose taxes on the colonies because the colonists were not represented in parliament. King George III issued a series of laws (these acts were passed due to the incident of the Boston Tea Party): (1) shut down the Boston Harbor, (2) issued the Quartering Act, (3) General Thomas Gage became new Royal governor of Massachusetts, (4) Boston placed under martial law. The colonists would lose their revenue from trading and England tighten control over the colonies which prevented any type of smuggling, etc. The Committees of Correspondence assembled the First Continental Congress; in September 1774, 56 delegates met in Philadelphia and drew up a Declaration of Colonial Rights which was to defend their colonial rights to handle their own affairs, supported protest in Massachusetts, and stated if the British used force against the colonies, the colonies should fight back . Compare and contrast the reactions of the colonists to the Stamp Act and the Intolerable Acts. The Stamp Act colonists harassed British stamp agents/distributors with the help of the Sons of Liberty, boycotted British goods, and drew up the Declaration of Rights and Grievances (stated that parliament lacked the power to impose taxes on the colonies because the colonists were not represented in parliament.) The Townshend Act colonists verbally protested and organized new boycotts; began making American goods similar to British goods. The colonists reacted with rage and well organized resistance Colonial government had a Governor appointed by and served the king but paid by the colonial legislature. Colonial government had Colonial Legislatures with Upper House or Council (appointed by the Governor and usually a prominent colonists but without inherited titles) and Lower House (elected by men who help property with about 2/3 of colonial men qualified to vote). Formal documents provided the basis for colonial government. British government had a King which was an inherited executive power. British government had a Parliament with House of Lords (Aristocrats with inherited titles also inherited legislative power) and House of Commons (elected by men who held significant amounts of property with less than ¼ of British men qualified to vote). British government consisted of a collection of accumulated laws. The Stamp Act, —a direct tax required colonists to purchase special stamped paper for legal documents (wills), licenses, newspapers, pamphlets, almanacs, playing cards, and dice. This act also caused the colonists to lose respect for the King’s office holders. The colonists realized that British ideas were not the same as the colonists. British tax on printed material in the colonies that outraged colonists, resulted in boycotts against British goods, and eventually helped lead to colonial calls for independence. The colonists organized a secret resistance group called the Sons of Liberty. The colonist disobeyed the law, organized protests, boycotted goods, and many times harassed the British Stamp Agents. They were angry. The Stamp Act Congress issued a Declaration of Rights and Grievances which demonstrated a sense of unity among the colonies by repealing the act. The Declaration of Rights and Grievances stated that parliament lacked the power to impose taxes on the colonies because the colonists were not represented in parliament. Benjamin Franklin helped write a Declaration of Rights and Grievances to repeal the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act Congress issued a Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which stated that Parliament lacked the power to impose taxes on the colonies because the colonists were not represented in parliament. The Stamp Act Congress demonstrated a sense of unity among the colonies. *NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION* "The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people… This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people was the real American Revolution." John Adams -- 1818 Shortly afterwards, the Declaratory Act was put in place which asserted Parliament’s full right “to bind the colonies and people of America”. This act stated that Parliament had the supreme authority to impose laws on the colonies. It was in effect and asserted parliament’s full right to make laws (to bind the colonies and people of America). One of the leaders of the Stamp Act Congress that protested the tax proclaiming, “No taxation without representation!" To refuse to buy items from a country thereby withholding money from its treasury. Patrick Henry was a young Virginia representative apart of the individual colonial assembly. He helped the Virginia Lower house adopt several resolutions. As a lawyer he put together a strong collective protest stating Virginians could be taxed only by the Virginia assembly and only by their own representatives. These resolutions were known as the Virginia Resolves. Samuel Adams was an influential political activist who helped to found the Sons of Liberty. The Sons of Liberty was a secret resistance group formed by Boston Shopkeepers, artisans, and laborers who protested the Stamp Act.that led in the boycott of British goods. A successful colonial group of women formed in 1766 who showed their loyalty by participating in boycotts against British goods after the passing of the Townshend Acts. These women used their natural abilities of weaving cloth and making clothes while boycotting British products. These home made products were called “homespun”. Colonial consumer boycotts of British exports as a response to taxes passed by Parliament. It threatened British merchants and manufacturers with economic ruins. Charles Townshend, the leading government minister who decided a new measure (other than the stamp act) to create revenue from the colonies. This was a new way to make revenue from the American colonists. In 1767, parliament passed the Townshend acts. Taxes were placed on colonial imports of glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. A ship belonging to a merchant (John Hancock) was suspected of smuggling goods by the British soldiers. The inspector claimed Hancock neglected to pay custom taxes. This seizure triggered riots against custom agents. In response the British stationed 2,000 Redcoats (British soldiers). If Yes, England’s policy of taxing goods that the colonists traded with other countries was unjust. If No, custom agents were simply doing their duty by searching ships they believed to be involved in smuggling. Off duty British soldiers and colonists had been competing for shipyard work in Boston. A mob gathered outside a custom house and taunted British soldiers. This disagreement and tension led to the Boston Massacre. *Snowballs started the fight. Crispus Attucks, a sailor of African American and Native American ancestry, was an early hero of America’s struggle for freedom. He was the first to die in the Boston Massacre. It was established to help the colonies communicate with other colonies about threats to American liberties and to stay informed on the British troops movements. The British East India Company was almost bankrupt. They could not sell their tea. So the parliament passed a law allowing them to sell the tea without a tax to the colonists. This angered many colonial merchants because it was cutting them out. Several rebels (Sons of Liberty) disguised as Native Americans dumped 18,000 pounds of tea into Boston Harbor which began the Boston Tea Party. In reaction, parliament passed the Intolerable Acts.