U.S. History Standard 3

Report
SSUSH3: Explain the primary causes of the American
Revolution.
SSUSH4: Identify ideological, military and diplomatic aspects
of the American Revolution.
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The American Revolution 1765 to 1783
◦ Section 1: Causes of the Revolution
◦ Section 2: Declaring Independence
◦ Section 3: Turning Points of the War
◦ Section 4: War’s End and Lasting Effects
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◦ SSUSH3: The student will explain the primary
causes of the American Revolution.
◦ SSUSH4: Identify ideological, military and
diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution.
With which statement do you agree?
◦ A) The Patriots were treated unfairly and were
right to declare independence.
◦ B) The Patriots were treated fairly and were wrong
to declare independence.
◦ C) The Patriots were treated fairly but were right
to declare independence to avoid future conflicts
with Britain.
◦ D) The Patriots were treated unfairly but should
have used diplomacy rather than war to settle
their differences.
Discuss Adams’s definition of the
American Revolution. How does his
definition differ from many people’s
initial ideas about the American
Revolution?
 How did the American Revolution
change American ideas?
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What harsh conditions at Valley Forge does this
image show?
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
What caused the colonists to rebel against the
British?
What events led the colonists to declare their
independence from Britain?
What factors helped the Patriots win the war?
What did the Revolution accomplish, and what
ideas did it set in motion?
PROCLAMATION OF 1763
 SUGAR ACT (1764)
 QUARTERING ACT (1765)
 STAMP ACT (1765)
 TOWNSHEND ACT (1767)
 TEA ACT (1773)
 INTOLERABLE ACTS (1774)
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To prevent conflict with the Native Americans the
British set forth a law which banned all colonial
settlement West of the Appalachian Mountains
(Ohio River Valley area/old French lands).
The colonists felt they helped the British win those
lands and they did not like the Native Americans
receiving the land and it convinced the colonists
the British government did not care about their
needs.
The colonists ignored the law and continued to
move westward disobeying British laws. The British
could not enforce the ban effectively.
This law raised duties (taxes) on goods imported
from any place other than England or another
British-controlled colony, especially on refined
sugar and textiles (cloth).
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Financial expert/Prime Minister George Grenville
began suspecting colonial smuggling goods into
the country and enacted the Sugar Act, which was
an extra tax on goods due to stop colonial
smuggling.
 It halved the duty/taxes on foreign made molasses; placed a
duty on certain imports; and strengthen the enforcement laws
against smugglers.
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The colonists reduced their smuggling of goods
and continued to disagree about how the colonists
should be taxed and governed.
Tensions began between the colonists and the
British government. Colonists began making their
own goods from their raw materials.
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The Stamp Act, enacted by parliament in 1765,
was the first law that taxed the American
colonists directly, rather than through duties on
imports; therefore it is called—a direct tax. The
Stamp Act required colonists to purchase special
stamped paper for legal documents (wills),
licenses, newspapers, pamphlets, almanacs,
playing cards, and dice.
The colonist disobeyed the law, organized
protests, boycotted goods, and many times
harassed the British Stamp Agents. They were
angry. Colonists held the Stamp Act
Congress.
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This act was passed to increase revenues of the British
government. It was an indirect tax on imported materials
such as glass, lead, rubber, paint, paper, etc. & A threepenny tax on tea.
The colonists felt the tax was unfair because they had no
representation in the taxing body of the British
parliament. The indirect is levied on goods or services
ultimately paid by the consumer in higher prices.
The colonists reacted with rage and well-organized
resistance; protesting “no taxation without
representation”; colonists began making their own goods;
committees of correspondence.
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The Townshend Acts angered the
colonists because this was an indirect
tax on imports, such as glass, lead,
paint, and paper as they came into the
colonies from Britain. It also imposed
a three-penny tax on tea, the most
popular drink in the colonies. The
price of goods was higher.
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The colonists felt the tax was unfair because
they had no representation in the taxing body
of the British parliament. The indirect is
levied on goods or services ultimately paid by
the consumer in higher prices.
The colonists reacted with rage and wellorganized resistance; protesting “no taxation
without representation”; colonists began
making their own goods; formed committees
of correspondence.
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The East India Company (official monopoly on tea
imports) was hit hard economically by colonial
boycotts. This tax granted the company the right to sell
tea to the colonies free of the taxes that colonial tea
sellers had to pay.
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The colonial merchants opposed this law due to it
would cut colonial merchants out of the tea trade
because the East India Company could sell its tea directly
to the consumers for less.
The colonial merchants continued to protest
violently; a large group of rebels disguised themselves as
Native Americans and dumped approximately 18,000
pounds of tea into the Boston harbor (the Boston Tea
Party).
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This act authorized British commanders to house
soldiers in vacant homes/rooms or other buildings
of the colonists.
The Quartering act completely disregarded the
colonists privacy. This definitely upset the
colonists….Eventually will become protected by
amendment #3 of the Bill of Rights.
The colonists organized the 1st Continental
Congress (protests and boycotted goods)
Declaration of Colonial Rights which stated that
parliament lacked the power to impose taxes on
the colonies because the colonists were not
represented in parliament.
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King George III issued a series of laws (these acts were
passed due to the incident of the Boston Tea Party): (1)
shut down the Boston Harbor, (2) issued the Quartering
Act, (3) General Thomas Gage became new Royal
governor of Massachusetts, (4) Boston placed under
martial law.
The colonists would lose their revenue from
trading and England tighten control over the
colonies which prevented any type of smuggling,
etc.
The Committees of Correspondence assembled the
First Continental Congress; in September 1774, 56
delegates met in Philadelphia and drew up a Declaration
of Colonial Rights which was to defend their colonial
rights to handle their own affairs, supported protest in
Massachusetts, and stated if the British used force
against the colonies, the colonies should fight back .
 Compare
and contrast the
reactions of the colonists to
the Stamp Act and the
Intolerable Acts.
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The Stamp Act colonists harassed British stamp
agents/distributors with the help of the Sons of
Liberty, boycotted British goods, and drew up the
Declaration of Rights and Grievances (stated that
parliament lacked the power to impose taxes on
the colonies because the colonists were not
represented in parliament.)
The Townshend Act colonists verbally protested
and organized new boycotts; began making
American goods similar to British goods. The
colonists reacted with rage and well organized
resistance
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Colonial government had a Governor appointed
by and served the king but paid by the colonial
legislature.
Colonial government had Colonial Legislatures
with Upper House or Council (appointed by the
Governor and usually a prominent colonists but
without inherited titles) and Lower House (elected
by men who help property with about 2/3 of
colonial men qualified to vote).
Formal documents provided the basis for colonial
government.
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British government had a King which was an
inherited executive power.
British government had a Parliament with
House of Lords (Aristocrats with inherited
titles also inherited legislative power) and
House of Commons (elected by men who held
significant amounts of property with less than
¼ of British men qualified to vote).
British government consisted of a collection
of accumulated laws.
The Stamp Act, —a direct tax required colonists to
purchase special stamped paper for legal
documents (wills), licenses, newspapers,
pamphlets, almanacs, playing cards, and dice. This
act also caused the colonists to lose respect for the
King’s office holders. The colonists realized that
British ideas were not the same as the colonists.
British tax on printed material in the colonies that outraged
colonists, resulted in boycotts against British goods, and
eventually helped lead to colonial calls for
independence. The colonists organized a
secret resistance group called the Sons
of Liberty. The colonist disobeyed the
law, organized protests, boycotted
goods, and many times harassed
the British Stamp Agents.
They were angry.
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The Stamp Act Congress issued a
Declaration of Rights and Grievances which
demonstrated a sense of unity among the
colonies by repealing the act.
The Declaration of Rights and Grievances
stated that parliament lacked the power to
impose taxes on the colonies because the
colonists were not represented in
parliament.
Benjamin Franklin helped write a
Declaration of Rights and Grievances to
repeal the Stamp Act.
The Stamp Act Congress issued a Declaration of Rights and
Grievances, which stated that Parliament lacked the power
to impose taxes on the colonies because the colonists were
not represented in parliament. The Stamp Act Congress
demonstrated a sense of unity among the colonies.
*NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION*
"The Revolution was effected before
the war commenced.
The Revolution was in the minds
and hearts of the people…
This radical change in the principles,
opinions, sentiments, and affections
of the people was the real American
Revolution."
John Adams -- 1818
 Shortly
afterwards, the
Declaratory Act was put in place
which asserted Parliament’s full
right “to bind the colonies and
people of America”.
This act stated that Parliament had the supreme authority
to impose laws on the colonies. It was in effect and
asserted parliament’s full right to make laws (to bind the
colonies and people of America).
One of the leaders of the Stamp Act Congress
that protested the tax proclaiming,
“No taxation
without representation!"
To refuse to buy items from a country thereby
withholding money from its treasury.
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Patrick Henry was a young Virginia
representative apart of the individual colonial
assembly.
He helped the Virginia Lower house adopt
several resolutions.
As a lawyer he put together a strong
collective protest stating Virginians could be
taxed only by the Virginia assembly and only
by their own representatives.
These resolutions were known as the Virginia
Resolves.
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Samuel Adams was an influential political activist
who helped to found the Sons of Liberty.
The Sons of Liberty was a secret resistance group
formed by Boston Shopkeepers, artisans, and
laborers who protested the Stamp Act.that led in
the boycott of British goods.
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A successful colonial group of women formed
in 1766 who showed their loyalty by
participating in boycotts against British goods
after the passing of the Townshend Acts.
These women used their natural abilities of
weaving cloth and making clothes while
boycotting British products. These home
made products were called “homespun”.
 Colonial
consumer boycotts of
British exports as a response to
taxes passed by Parliament. It
threatened British merchants and
manufacturers with economic
ruins.
Charles Townshend, the leading government
minister who decided a new measure (other than
the stamp act) to create revenue from the
colonies. This was a new way
to make revenue from the
American colonists. In 1767,
parliament passed the
Townshend acts.
Taxes were placed on colonial
imports of glass, lead, paint,
paper, and tea.
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A ship belonging to a merchant (John Hancock) was
suspected of smuggling goods by the British
soldiers. The inspector claimed Hancock neglected
to pay custom taxes. This seizure triggered riots
against custom agents. In response the British
stationed 2,000 Redcoats (British soldiers).
If Yes, England’s policy of taxing goods that the
colonists traded with other countries was unjust.
If No, custom agents were simply doing their duty
by searching ships they believed to be involved in
smuggling.
Off duty British soldiers and colonists
had been competing for shipyard work
in Boston. A mob gathered outside a
custom house and taunted British
soldiers. This disagreement and
tension led to the Boston Massacre.
 *Snowballs started the fight.
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Crispus Attucks, a sailor of African
American and Native American
ancestry, was an early hero of
America’s struggle for freedom. He
was the first to die in the Boston
Massacre.
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was established to help
the colonies communicate
with other colonies about
threats to American
liberties and to stay
informed on the British
troops movements.
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The British East India Company was almost
bankrupt. They could not sell their tea. So
the parliament passed a law allowing them to
sell the tea without a tax to the colonists.
This angered many colonial merchants
because it was cutting them out. Several
rebels (Sons of Liberty) disguised as Native
Americans dumped 18,000 pounds of tea
into Boston Harbor which began the Boston
Tea Party. In reaction, parliament passed the
Intolerable Acts.

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