Coming Together: Political Nationalism Group 1

Louisiana Purchase: Background
• Napoleon I had no use for Louisiana after the
revolution in revolution in Haiti. After failing
to recapture it, he decided, just in case he lost
his war in Europe, to sell Louisiana to
America and use the money for his
campaigns. This was a great opportunity and
Jefferson wasn’t about to let it go by! So he
jumped the gun and bought the Louisiana
Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la
• The Louisiana Purchase was one of the largest
land deals in History.
• 828,000 sq miles.
• The United States paid approximately $15
million dollars. 11.25 million for the territory
and the rest was to pay off the dept to the France.
• Nearly doubled the United States.
• They also made a treaty called Louisiana
Purchase Treaty in Paris April 30, 1803. The
treaty was signed by Robert Livingston and James
Louisiana Purchase:
Independence and nationalism
• More room (elbow-space)
• Contributed to Jefferson’s view of what
the country should be like– an agrarian
• They no longer had to worry about
Napoleon controlling the Louisiana
Territory (war).
The Embargo Act
The Embargo Act
• Passed by Congress in 1807: Forbade the export of ALL goods from
the US
• Jefferson reasoned that if America voluntarily cut off its
exports, offending powers would be forced to agree to respect its
rights-- "peaceful coercion"
– If it worked it would vindicate rights of neutral nations and direct
new way to deal with foreign affairs
– if failed, Jefferson feared that the republic would perish, subjugated
to the European powers or sucked into their war
Effects of the Embargo
• American economy staggered under its Effect:
– hurt commerce of New England (which they were actually
trying to protect) ----New England seethed with talk of
• Jefferson was causing war on fellow citizens rather than on
offending powers
• In 1808 enormous illicit trade along Canadian border, bands of
armed Americans on loaded rafts overawed or federal agents
• Embargo had the effect of reviving the moribund Federalist Party
(unity disappearing)
– New converts hurled their Nullification of the Embargo into
"Virginia Lordings" in Washington
– 1804 discredited Federalist had only polled 14 electoral votes
out of 176;1809 rose to 47 out of 175
The Embargo Act
Embargo act was repealed in March 1, 1809 3 days before
Jefferson retired
• Reasons Embargo Collapsed:
– Jefferson underestimated determination of the British and the
belligerents on Americas trade
– At the time the US stopped trade British Isle were blessed with
grain crops
– Latin American republics opened ports for compensating
– The French continued to seize American ships (supplies)
– New England plucked new prosperity
– Yankees reopened old factories and erected new ones
Effects of the Embargo Act
• New England plucked new prosperity
– Yankees reopened old factories and erected new
ones– independence from British goods
• This also allowed to take a step towards selfmanufacturing.
• After the Embargo: Non Intercourse Act
opened all trade with nations except
Britain and France
Why did it start?
• The War of 1812 started for many reasons! One of them are:
– British’s seizure of American ships
– Impressments of American sailors into British army
– restriction of trade between the United States and
– Tension from the Napoleon Wars (1792-1815)
– French Revolution Wars
– Jays Treaty (Hated it)
How did it start?
• James Madison asked congress to declare war on June 1812.
How did it ended?
• By the Treaty of Ghent in 1814
– The treaty took weeks to make.
– That’s why it was a little late because the Battle of New
Orleans was fought after the treaty.
– It also contributed to the end of the Federalist Party.
(Hartforth Convention)
– Was a draw (no one actually won)
• Although it was a good war toward America because
when American went in to war they didn’t go in as a
nation, but they came out with great unity. This
contributed to the nationhood.
Marshall’s supreMe Court
The Supreme Court and
• Supreme Court greatly expanded its powers, prestige, and
independence under the John Marshall.
• Marshall increased the power of the Supreme Court as a
branch of the federal government, emphasized the role of
the judiciary in the states, and reinforced the national
supremacy of the federal government.
• Assertion of judicial nationalism
Marshall’s supreMe Court
McCulloch v. Maryland
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
• Maryland imposed a tax on all banks
not chartered by the state, including
the National Bank. When they
refused to pay, Maryland filed suit.
• Established the constitutionality of
the National Bank
• Established supremacy of federal
government over state government.
• State legislators had tried to alter the
Dartmouth College charter's terms
regarding the continuance of the
board of trustees.
• The decision was important in its
application to business charters,
protecting businesses and
corporations from excessive
government regulation.
• Argued by Daniel Webster- graduate
of Dartmouth
“the power to tax involves the power to destroy”
Marshall’s supreMe Court
Gibbons v. Ogden
Marbury v. Madison
• (1824) New York authorized a monopoly
on steamboat operation in its waters, an
action upheld by a state chancery court,
but the Supreme Court ruled that
competing steamboat operators were
protected by the terms of a federal
license to engage in trade along a coast.
• Established that states could not
interfere with the power of Congress to
regulate interstate commerce.commerce clause of the U.S. Constitution
• William Marbury, a midnight appointee of
President Adams to a justice of the peace
position in DC, brought suit against
Secretary of State, James Madison, seeking
delivery of his commission.
• The Supreme Court has limited jurisdiction,
the limits of which are set by the
Constitution, and which congress may not
change--making the Judiciary Act of 1801
• Established the Supreme Court as the final
authority in Constitutional matters
(including the power to declare acts of
Congress unconstitutional- Judicial Review)
Marshall’s supreMe Court
• “As a result of these decisions, it would become increasingly
difficult in the future to argue that the union was a creation
of the states, that states could exert an independent check on
federal government authority, or that Congress's powers were
limited to those specifically conferred by the Constitution.”
• In a sense, led to a greater sense of unity in the
Adams-Onis Treaty
What was the Adams-Onis Treaty?
A Treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819.
What did the Treaty do?
It gave Florida to the U.S. and set a definite boundary
between the U.S. and New Spain (Mexico). The
boundary line was set on the Sabine river in presentday Texas. In turn, the U.S. let go of several claims it
had in Present Day Texas and areas that were wrongly
promised to U.S. in the Louisiana Purchase.
Adams-Onis Treaty
What is the Significance of the Treaty?
• It settled border disputes and rising tensions
between the U.S. and New Spain. Because of this, it
is considered a triumph of American Diplomacy.
• It had the additional effect of establishing U.S.
claims through the rocky mountains and out to the
pacific Ocean.
• In all, this helped us gain more independence.
• Additional Facts
• It was also known as the “Transcontinental
Treaty” or “The Florida Purchase”
The US President, James Monroe, stated the doctrine.
Foreign policy (NOT LAW) of the United States introduced on December 2, 1823—invoked later by
many U.S. statesmen and several U.S. presidents, including Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin
Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, John F. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan and others.
– It stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in
the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention The doctrine was
introduced by President Monroe when he was enraged at the actions being executed around him--Americas were not to be further colonized by European countries, and that the US would neither
interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries.
The doctrine put forward that the New World and the Old World were to remain distinctly separate
spheres of influence, for they were composed of entirely separate and independent nations.
It would have been nearly impossible for Monroe to envision that its intent and impact would persist
with only minor variations for almost two centuries. Its primary objective was to free the newly
independent colonies of Latin America from European intervention and control (thus ensuring US
national security).
Also this openly told Europeans to STAY AWAY! !
• This was the thing that gave America the most Independence out of
every other one.
• Had nationalism and great spirit of patriotism.
• This would keep America a neutral country and not be thought as
an ally every time British went in to war. And this also made sure
that the Britain wouldn’t come in or intervene when we had
trouble going on too.
• Also this led up to Manifest Destiny.

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