Ocean Dumping Act

Report
Period 3
Kiana Brayton
Lyle Swallows
Ocean Dumping Act
 The Ocean Dumping Act is the Title 1 of the Marine
Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, that
regulates international ocean disposal of materials,
and authorizes related research.
 The Ocean Dumping Act regulates permit and
enforcement provisions for ocean dumping.
History
 The United States enacted the Marine Protection,
Research, and Sanctuaries Act in 1972 to regulate
disposal of wastes in marine waters that are within the
United States jurisdiction.
 Prior to 1972, U.S. waters were used as an alternative to
land based sites for disposal of sewage sludge,
industrial wastes, and pipeline discharges and runoff.
 Ocean Dumping Act was proposed in 1977 to stop all
dumping in 1981, it was then postponed to 1988,
dumping ceased in 1991 as later estimated.
Why
 Following the bad press from beach closures for high
levels of pathogens and floating debris along New York
and New Jersey beaches, there was a strong public
opinion to banning ocean dumping.
Specific Regulations
 Regulates international ocean disposal of materials,
and to authorize related research.
 Bans dumping of radiological, chemical, or biological
warfare agents and any high level radio active waste,
and medical wastes.
Amendments to ODA
 Amendment enacted in 1992, made an exception to
dredge material approved by the EPA to be dumped at
specific sites. Dredge material is sediments removed
from the bottom of the ocean to maintain navigation
channels. The sediments must be evaluated before
dumping to ensure they will not cause environmental
harm.
Authorities under ODA
 Environmental Protection Agency: Regulates ocean
disposal of substances excluding dredged spoils.
 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: Regulates ocean
disposal of dredged spoils.
 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration:
Regulates long range research on the effects of humaninduced changes to marine environment.
 Coast Guard: Regulates surveillance of ocean dumping.
Effected Boundaries
 The Ocean Dumping Act covers all ocean water in U.S.
jurisdiction, U.S. vessels, and any vessel sailing from a
U.S. port.
 The Ocean Dumping Act covers both municipal, and
federal vessels of all sizes.
 Over the past 25 years, countries have been meeting to
make a series of treaties pertaining to the marine
pollution. Now there are international conventions
that provide uniform standards to control world-wide
marine pollution.
Permits and Penalties
 Permits can be issued by the EPA, after opportunities
for public hearings.
 Civil penalties can be no more than $50,000 for each
violation.
 Criminal penalties from $125,000 to $250,000 for each
violation, and up to 5 years in prison.
Bibliography
 http://www.eoearth.org
 http://ncseonline.org
 http://www.epa.gov
 http://waterencyclopedia.com

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