Notes Chapter 1, Section 1 American Values Values – Ideas that people hold dear and try to live by. AMERICAN Values – - Equality - Liberty - Justice Foundation of many of our Rights and Responsibilities. Equality All people are equal under the law. •The rights of each person are equal to those of every other person. •Example: Rosa Parks, Civil Rights Liberty •Our individual rights that are protected. •Many take their rights for granted, however, we are extremely lucky to have the freedom that we have. •Religion, Home, Trial, Speech, Education. Justice •Laws are enforced to protect our rights. •Our rights and freedoms cannot be taken away as long as you follow the laws. •Power has been given to some in order to prevent others from violating our basic rights. Responsibility of a Good Citizen •Voting – Represent our views, let our voice be heard, govern through our votes as a collective. •Participate in the democracy! WE MUST MAKE IT WORK! Being an Effective Citizen • • • • • • • • • • Responsible family member Respect and obey the law. Respect the rights and property of others. Loyal to and proud of their country. Involved in community. Active part in government. Use natural resources wisely. Informed and willing to take a stand. Believe in equal opportunity for all people. Respect individual differences and ways of life. Notes Chapter 1, Section 2 Immigrants Immigrants – people who come here from different countries. “The United States is a country founded on immigration.” Melting Pot or Salad Bowl? Melting Pot People from other cultures enter the nation and adopt American customs and blend into American society. Salad Bowl Immigrants practice cultural traditions, cultures are mixed together, yet still remain separate and diverse. Immigration TimeLine 1620 – Pilgrims travel from England settle Mass. 1654 – African slaves begin to be brought in. 1850 – 1st wave of modern immigration to U.S. – Britain, Ireland, and Germany. 1860 – Chinese workers brought in to build U.S. railroads. 1900 – Southern and Eastern Europeans enter in large numbers. 1948 – Citizens of war torn European nations enter in huge numbers. Immigration Policy Chinese Exclusion Act – 1880’s Limited Chinese immigrants and prevented them from owning land or becoming citizens. Quota – set number of immigrants per country can enter per year. Immigration Act of 1990 – Annual quota to 675,000 for families, skilled workers, and aliens Citizens Native-Born – 90% Americans are Native Born. If you are born here, regardless of your parents, you are a citizen. Naturalization – Same rights, cannot become president or vice; children automatically citizens. Non-Citizens Legal Aliens – Citizen of another country allowed to stay in US, must carry Green Card. Illegal Immigrants – Citizens of other countries lack immigration papers, constantly face getting caught and deported. Refugees – Separate from other immigrants, come to seek shelter from conflict, war, and crisis situations in home country. Path to Citizenship Apply for a permanent residency visa – family or job in the country. Apply for citizenship – Form, photo, fingerprints and documents Be interviewed and pass a test on U.S. History, Civics, and English. Take Oath of Allegiance to the United States. Entire process above takes 7-11 years. Have to have not left us for last 2.5 yrs. Notes Ch. 1 We The People Sec 3 – The American People Today Census A census allows the government to count the population and predict its growth in the future. A census is done every 10 years, next in 2010. Demographics also gives us helpful statistics to plan with. Population Growth In 2010 population is projected to be 310 million people in U.S. Growth occurs in three ways Natural increase – population grows when birthrate is higher than death rate. Adding Territory – In its early years the U.S. added many new territories and therefore added the inhabitants as citizens. Immigration Population Changes Demographics of the American home have changed over the years. Changing households – Divorce increase, singleparents, fewer children, unmarried couples. An Older Population – People live longer, and not enough young people to care for the large number of elderly. Diversity – Mixed heritage has grown, mixed ethnicity now included in census. A Population on the Move In its origin, most people lived in rural areas. Industry brought the people to cities in large numbers. Invention of the automobile made allowed people to move further from the cities, where we get suburbs. In the 1950s a migration south occurred, moving many big businesses to the warmer areas, away from the older, larger cities.