Drilling Process Safety

Drilling Process Safety
Michael Davis, B.S. Petroleum Engineering
• 25 years working mainly as a Drilling Engineer
• Main experience:
– HTHP drilling
– Deepwater drilling
• Subsequently trained in:
Team Building
Team Work
Team Psychology
Cognitive Function and Dysfunction
Drilling Process Safety
• Scholarship includes:
– SEMS and API 754
– 30 CFR 250
– O&G related API RPs
– Macondo studies
– Dr. Bea’s reports
– Professor Hopkin’s reports
– New Orleans trial reports
– CSB reports
Drilling Process Safety
• We’re still in the “Discovery” phase
• Diligence will pay dividends
• Diligence requires:
– A little patience
– A lot of work
– Focus
– Funding
Drilling Process Safety
• My Main Focus is my area of experience:
– Operational procedural compliance
• Formalizing Approvals
– Cover susceptibilities in Cognitive Function with AI
• Equipment
• Communications
– Checklists
– Algorithms
– Situational Awareness and the Broadcast Risk of
Operating, Assessed Dynamically (BROAD)
Drilling Process Safety
Should progress how?
• Must:
– Involve Drilling engineers
– Instill “ownership”
• Feelings are key to “ownership”
• Levelheaded Formalities/actions create feelings
• Formalities and enforced actions cannot be
capricious or “ownership” will be lost or fleeting
Drilling Process Safety
Development Discipline Required
Focus on formalities and actions
Formalities and actions centered on causes
Causes clearly understood
Agreement on causes shared
Focus on and reward cause mitigations
Drilling Process Safety
CSB recommendations
• The regulator should develop the following
indicators for drilling operations and mandate their
Number of kicks
Response time to kicks
Number of cementing failures
Number of gas alarms
Drilling Process Safety
CSB Recommendations Continued…
• Leading Indicators?
– Sure; yet a leading indicator is reaction based
– Prevention based actions…
• Broadcast Risk of Operating, Assessed Dynamically
(BROAD) This is a prevention based focus and so
leading indicators must be registering in a BROAD and
– Includes dynamic BROAD level mitigations
Drilling Process Safety
Its more than just
Its more than
watching each
other’s backs.
Its more than attention
to details.
Drilling Process Safety
• Differs from Personal Safety
– With Personal Safety we can make
assessments of risk on our own or by
watching someone's back and paying
attention to details and yet in dynamic
environments, events are not determined
by anyone yet by everyone.
Drilling Process Safety
• BROADcast and The Adaptive Loop
– Instead of a linear planning, we make decisions using
a feedback loop.
• The loop starts with determining what our situation is.
• As we take actions, we have to determine the effect of those
actions before making our next move.
• The goal of each cycle is to improve our position, but we do
not know the direction in which we will move until we see
what the situation offers.
– In simple operations we can make this assessment on our own
and yet in dynamic environments, events are not determined by
anyone but by everyone.
» Hence the need for BROADcast
Drilling Process Safety
• BROADcast
– Combines the perspectives of everyone into a insight
– assesses that insight into an assessment
– BROADcasts that assessment of collective insight back
to everyone
– is the center of situational awareness in a dynamic
environment and unique to drilling process safety as
opposed to personal safety.
– We call this loop the Progress Cycle or, more simply,
listen-aim-move-claim. After mastering strategy, it
becomes an automatic way of thinking about
Drilling Process Safety
• BROADcasting supports better risk based
decision making and mitigates past two major
reforms’ shortcomings!
– Mandatory Well Control Training!
– Unintended Consequence?
• Replacement Company Men
– Mandatory Negative Pressure Testing!
– Unintended Consequence?
• Inducing kicks that cannot be killed
Drilling Process Safety
CSB Recommendations Continued…
• Measure numbers of Kicks? Yes! Yet:
– More important is kick severity
– Current standards do not account for hole size,
flowrates, mud density, in terms of size of kick
designed for nor in time of detection
– More important is the dynamic assessment of kick
tolerance and register
– Current Regulations are arbitrary to these factors
Drilling Process Safety
CSB Recommendations Continued…
• Measure response time to Kicks?
– Sure yet why not measure formalities and actions
that may reduce these times as well
– And why not address the human factors that may
reduce these times and prevent kicks
– And why not focus on devices that may reduce
these times and prevent kicks
Drilling Process Safety
CSB Recommendations Continued…
• Measure # of cement failures? Not as important as:
– Designing Safe tests
• Negative Pressure Tests (NPTs) now mandated
– NPT Best Practices not prescribed nor universally understood
– Testing Safely & registering increased risk/hazard in BROAD
– Operations’ Procedural Compliance
» Formalized approvals & checklists
» Formalized monitoring & checklists
Drilling Process Safety
CSB Recommendations Continued…
• Numbers of Gas Alarms?
– This recommendation came from this report from Macondo:
“We had gotten them so frequently that I had actually become
somewhat immune to them. I’d get to the point where I didn’t
even hear them anymore because we were getting gas back
continuously. It was a constant fight. When the level reached
200, that’s the cut-off for all chipping, welding and grinding and
other outside hot work. That’s when I start concerning myself
with gas levels…”
– More important than numbers of gas alarms is big picture trend
– Trending in deepwater from oil drilling to gas drilling.
Drilling Process Safety
Deepwater Drilling is Trending
• Traditional Deepwater work
– Teamwork (people/soft) skills
– Mainly drilling oil zones
• Oil is much less dangerous than gas in drilling
• Gas drilling requires a different skillset than oil drilling
Drilling Process Safety
Deepwater Drilling is Trending, continued…
• Misnomer that DWD has been HTHP
• Deepwater Drilling Engineers need retooling
– HTHP engineers refined for teamwork skillsets
– Deepwater engineers refined for HTHP skillsets
– Both must be refocused on dynamic risk level and
communication and behavioral discipline
Drilling Process Safety
Deepwater Drilling is Trending, continued…
• Deeper Water Depths & Total Depth of well
• BOPE pressures
• TDs
=> bubble pts & “Flashing” gas
thus more dry gas zones & GORs
• “Flashing” gas => Top of BOPE =
gas in risers
Drilling Process Safety
Deepwater Drilling is Trending, continued…
In HRO terms this means there is a trend of
increasing complexity & tighter coupling
Future HSE rigor should not be based on
previous standards yet a new standard
based on Trending dangers.
Drilling Process Safety
• Q&A
• Thank you!
Drilling Process Safety 101
Drilling Process Safety Vision
Key Issues in Deepwater
Shell Process Safety Presentation to BSEE
Drilling Process Safety - Communication
Drilling Process Safety Vision of Progress
Drilling Process Safety Risk Escalators
PTTEP AA's "Line of Sight" System is Similar to BROAD

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