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International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL
VAASTUSHASTRA:
Innovations in Residential buildings of Malla period
SUDARSHAN RAJ TIWARI
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International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL
VAASTUSHASTRA RESEARCH:
OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Research Methods
Sources
Dates
Contents
Symbolism, Trees and
Gardens, Site Types,
Measurement Scale,
Location of Building
Blocks and Results,
Suitability of Timber,
Rule of Architecture,
Site Investigations,
Patterns for Design]
[
• Architectural
Vocabulary
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International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL
Folio 1 (Verso)
All knowledge of what is to be done in this world stems from the word
Bhartrihari ca. 7th Century
INTRODUCTION
• om/siddam sriganesayanamah
•Newar architecture, Street-side and courtyard Houses:
•Distinctive Architectural, Artistic and Crafts
Characteristics, Harmony and Agreement of Design
and Detail with Neighboring Houses on Streets
•Practice of Regulated Design and Planning
• Vaastushastra (Sc. of architecture) Brihatsamhita
(composed ca. 2nd cent BC, written ca. 7th cent AD)
• Reading, Transliteration, Translation and Analysis of
innovations in residential architecture from three
Newar documents
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International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL
INNOVATIONS IN VAASTUSHASTRA:
METHODOLOGY
RESEARCH METHODS
INTERPRETIVISM
STRATEGIC APPROACH
DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
ANALYTICAL APPROACH
COMPARATIVE
STEPS AND METHODS
1. COPYING AND PRINTING OF DOCUMENTS
2. READING AND TRANSLITERATION OF DOCUMENT A443/41
1.
Sukra Sagar Shrestha
3. READING AND TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT
1.
Kasi Nath Tamot
4. ANALYSIS OF CONTENT, COMPARING BETWEEN NEWAR DOCUMENTS, COMPARISION WITH
ANCIENT DOCUMENTS AND CONTEMPORARY COMMENTARIES FROM INDIA AND NEPAL,
CHANGES AND INNOVATIONS
5. REPORT WRITING
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THYASAPHU in Nat. Archives
INNOVATIONS IN VAASTUSHASTRA:
SOURCES
1. NGMPP Reel no. A 443/41
GRIHA NIRMANA VIDHI
2. NGMPP Reel no. B 407/5
GRIHA NIRMANA
VASTULEKHA
SAMGRAHA
[3. A recently copied Document in
Author’s Collection]
Griha Nirmana Vidhi: Thyasaphu (Leporello) with 101/81 (20+61) folios
Document Segment paginated 1-61 is the Griha Nirmana Vidhi proper.
Folio 1 and 2 lists divinities associated with different parts of a building (symbolism)
Folio 3 through 9 is documentation of a construction of temple named Sri Sri Sri Dhanadesvara
Folio 10 appears as a misplaced section of Griha Nirman Vidhi.
Folio 11-17 Section 1 dealing Trees and Gardens
Folio 17-26 Section 2 dealing with Vaastusastra
Folio 26- 52 Section 3 shows Building Patterns with consequences
Folio 53-61 is a record of some celebrations of the royal palace
Document Segment paginated 1-20 is a list of men and materials mobilized for the Dasain
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INNOVATIONS IN VAASTUSHASTRA:
DATES FROM SOURCE DOCUMENT
From
GRIHA NIRMANA VIDHI
FOLIO 26 (RECTO)
Sambat 812 Vaisakh Vadi 1 – Sri Bhupatindra Malla
Sambat 764 Vaisakh Sudi 13 – Sri Sri Sri Dhanadesvara
(Several dates as related to different stages of construction of the temple
is also given)
Sambat 811 Aswin Sudi 9 – Mahaniya labiya lyakha [Possibly managed by Sri
Bhupatindra Malla as Dhirendra after his sixteenth birthday]
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INNOVATIONS IN VAASTUSHASTRA:
CONTENTS STUDY & ANALYSIS
CONTENTS
GRIHA NIRMANA VIDHI
FOLIO 13 (Verso)
Sources distinguished by starting Salutations
Section defined by starting symbols Om and Siddham
Chapters defined by titles eg Visesha Lhaya
TREES & GARDENS
SITE TYPES
MEASUREMENT SCALE
BUILDING LAYOUT AND CONSEQUENCES
SUITABILITY OF TIMBER
RULES OF ARCHITECTURE
SITE INVESTIGATIONS
PATTERNS FOR DESIGN
ARCH VOCABULARY
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CONTENT ANALYSIS: VAASTUSHASTRA IN NEWAR LANGUAGE:
SYMBOLISM, PROPORTIONS & ORIENTATION
SYMBOLISM
Folio 1 (Verso), Folio 2 (Recto and Verso)
PROPORTIONS
Folio 2 (Verso), Folio 3 (Recto)
NGMPP Reel no. A 443/41: GRIHA NIRMANA VIDHI
FOLIO 2 (VERSO)
SYMBOLISM: POST VEDIC - SAIVA, VAISNAV & SHAKTA mix
Ground Floor: Dharanivaraha
Threshold:
Bhairava
Floor of Treasure room: Mahalaxmi
Base block of Ridge Posts: Brahma and Vishnu
Rafter:
Moon and Sun
Eaves:
Naga
Ridge:
Brahmajnana
Foundation Trench: Kurmasimha
Floor Joists:
Kalika
Ridge Beam:
Sadasiva
Roof Planks:
Group of Stars
Straw/thatch/Tile: Guru
Top center of Attic: Paramalaxmi
PROPORTIONS AND ORIENTATION: Very Little Emphasis as compared to ancient
traditions.
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CONTENT ANALYSIS: VAASTUSHASTRA IN NEWAR LANGUAGE
TREES AND GARDENS
TREES & GARDENS
Folio 11 (Recto) – Folio 13 (Recto)
Propagation, Caring & Manuring of
Fruit and Flower trees
Folio 13 (Verso) – Folio 18 (Recto)
FOLIO 11 (RECTO)
Merit of making 10 wells = that of 1 spring, 10 springs = 1 pond, 10 ponds = raising 1 son,
MERIT of
Planting 1 Tree is equal to merit of raising 10 sons
Laha-si, Kachanala-si, Slesmantakaku-si, Arjjun, Karanjanraja-si should not be planted in houses of
happy households
Garden should be laid to West, North and East of houses.
Gardens in South, South-East and South-West result in quarrels, wandering of mind and sorrow
Vanaspati, Druma, Lata and Gulma are. padapajati , who eat through their feet - born from branches,
seeds and bulbs.
Method of treating trees burnt by fire /hit by thunderbolt
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CONTENT ANALYSIS: VAASTUSHASTRA IN NEWAR LANGUAGE
VASTULAXYANA, SCALE & LAYOUT OF BLOCKS
1
Vastulaxyana
Folio 18 (Recto) – Folio 19 (Recto)
Scale
Folio 19 (Recto), 21 Verso, 22 Recto,
23 Recto and 23 Verso
Layout of Blocks
Folio 19 (Verso)
FOLIO 19 (Recto)
Vastulaxyana (site types) same as in classical documents – sixteen types. Chakra shape brings poverty!
7 goraja make 1 yuka, 7 yuka make 1 yaba, 8 yaba make Jesthanguli, 7 yaba make Madhyamanguli This is said to be the Standard of Measure (Scale)!
Manasara/Mayamata Scale 8 liksya make 1 yuka, 8 yuka make 1 yaba, 8 yaba make Jesthanguli
1 Malla JA is 362 goraja, while 1 Manasara JA is 512 goraja (512/362 = 1.414 = √2)
Diagonal of a square with side equal to 1 Malla JA equals to 1 Manasara JA
Manadeva measure and scale – prescribed for measurement of temples, bahals and land – details but
not understood clearly by this research
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CONTENT ANALYSIS: VAASTUSHASTRA IN NEWAR LANGUAGE
VASTULAXYANA, SCALE & LAYOUT OF BLOCKS
2
Vastulaxyana
Folio 18 (Recto) – Folio 19 (Recto)
Scale
Folio 19 (Recto)
Layout of Blocks
Folio 19 (Verso)
FOLIO 19 (VERSO)
Layout of Blocks/Position of Entrance Opening and Consequences on religious merit, health, wealth
and life of residents
1 No block in the North-west corner, residents of such houses beget riches and property
2. With North-west corner blocks, illness and diseases will befall on the residents
3. No West block will make one studious and will amass riches and property
4. East entrance > artistic qualities; North entrance > riches; West passage > loss of wealth and South
entrance > fear of death – YAMADVARA!
INNOVATIONS MADE WITH PATTERNS AND USE OF RECTANGULAR/SQUARE SITES.
URBAN CONTEXT REMARKABLY ADDRESSED BY INNOVATIONS
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Brihatsamhita Stanzas 150-155
RULE OF SIXTEEN HOUSES
*PARTIAL EXPLANATIONS
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KRAMRISCH (Brihatsamhita, LII. 43f.)
PADADEVATAS OF THE
VASTUPURUSAMANDALA
*PARTIAL EXPLANATIONS
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CONTENT ANALYSIS: VAASTUSHASTRA IN NEWAR LANGUAGE
SUITABILITY OF BUILDING TIMBER
SELECTING
Suitable Wood from different species
of trees for different woodworks
Folio 20 (Recto) – 21 (Recto)
FOLIO 20 (VERSO)
SOME PRESCRIPTIONS
1. Proper wood selection must be based on systematic consideration- the wood from Dhuna-si and
Nyakhadi-si can be used for any element. Also Sinhyadi-si, Gvachhe, Kudunikanta.
2. Devadaru-si, Cha-si, these two, can be exposed to water or to damp
3. Sva-si for column shoe block
4. For shaft of chariots use wood from Na-si and Pase-si. No young tree or Sura-si shall be used
5. Good wood should be used for Ridge as in Siva deval, Vishnu deval, Mandap, for all these four.
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CONTENT ANALYSIS: VAASTUSHASTRA IN NEWAR LANGUAGE
RULES OF ARCHITECTURE
MANADEVALAXYANA
Folio 21 (Verso) – 23 (Verso)
FOLIO 22 (Recto)
PROPORTIONING AND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
AUSPICIOUS WORKS AND MEASUREMENT OF LAND – MANDEVALAXYANA
Ordinarily 1 KU is equal to 24 angula (JA or MA or KA)
1 KU plus 3½ angula makes “NASOANGULA” BO
1 KU plus 5 angula makes “NGAANGULA” BO (+7 angula or + 9 angula also)
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM using 92 Manadeva angula and 2 yaba, 77 Manadeva angula and 2 yaba, 44
Manadeva angula and 2 yaba - NOT FOR RESIDENCES ?
ARCHITECTURAL PROPORTIONING OF TEMPLES – DOOR, GOD IMAGE, GAJUR
ARCHITECTURAL PROPORTIONING OF RESIDENCES – DOOR, DETAILS OF PROPORTIONING DOOR
PROPORTION OF PLINTH, CHOWK and BUILDING BODY
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CONTENT ANALYSIS: VAASTUSHASTRA IN NEWAR LANGUAGE
SITE INVESTIGATIONS
Site Investigations
Folio 24 (Recto) – 25 (Verso)
FOLIO 25 (Recto)
SITE AND SOIL INVESTIGATIONS
SOME SENSIBLE OTHERS APPEARING ESOTERIC TO MODERN MIND
1. SITE with soil of white color and smell of milk is best, red color soil is second best, brown soil with
alkaline taste is third ranking and green soil with bitter taste like that of ginger is fourth – seems like
a grading based on vegetation, moisture and salt content
2. Dig a hole 1KU cube and fill back - falls short, site is poor, level medium and if in excess best.
3. Dig a hole 2KU cube, make a mandala in the middle of the floor, white flower to the east, red
flower to the west, yellow to north and black in south , etc.
4. Mandala of ‘saledo’ with different colours is also stated
5. Sites with different grasses also yield sites of differing quality
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37 CONDITIONING FACTORS
VAASTUSHASTRA:
HOUSE PATTERNS
1. East: Surya/Srigriha
2. South: Yama/Sleeping
room
3. West: Varuna/Dining
4. North: Soma/Treasure
room
5. Gaps are not entrances!
38 CONDITIONING FACTORS
Folio 36 (Recto): House Patterns
37 If there are blocks in all the four corners and
(sides and) all the four axes blocks are vacant, it
will lead to gain in riches, happiness, will be
capable of taking on the foes.
38 If there is a courtyard house with only the
central block in the west blank, it will bring
great pains.
1 COURTYARD with one opening
on west
2 West is Varuna/Water
3 West entrance: Loss of wealth
4 So how does great pain come
into the picture?
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International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL
Explanation
VAASTUSHASTRA:
Innovations in Residential buildings of Malla period From the main text, only a few
parameters are made clear, the
patterns give very many choices,
this may have just been to bring
variety to the urbanscape and also
address diversity of expectations and
problems in human life
?
Explanation
Folio 52 (Recto): House Patterns
98 If there is a block each on east and on south, this
will bring loss of riches, ill health and sorrow.
99 If all the corners and the main blocks are built as
one and all the left blocks are also tightly built,
this will lead to gain of riches and family.
Courtyard forms with inward look
are most recommended in the
manuscript - this may have actually
made the high density low rise
residential development possible
?
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NEWAR VAASTUSHASTRA:
ARCHITECTURAL VOCABULARY
Folio 22 Verso
NEW WORDS ?
ETAHATA
GUTINI
PALIVARA
DEPHALI
KERA
DUNGALA
ATAPA: Brick
BYA, BYAYAMA: Width
CULI: Finial
MALAVASI: Ridge Post
KVACILA: Niche
KHADU: Door Sill
DUSALA: Foundation
BA: Orientation
THASAMA: Ridge Beam
PHADA: Plinth
LIPHU: Bay
KHASI: Door Post
KVAKHALU: Bottom Sill
DU: Length
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