Sustainable Feed Resources

Sustainable Feed Resources
Presented at Indonesia Aquaculture Outlook 2012:
Fishery Industrialization:
Opportunities and Challenges to the Aquaculture
Hotel Menara Peninsula, Jakarta, 18 Januari 2012
• Rapid growth in aquaculture in Indonesia and other Asian
countries (shrimp, pangasius, grouper) – require fish meal
• South East Asia still heavily depend on imported fishmeal
for their raw materials
• Local sources:
• Small pelagic: sardinella, scad, and mackerel
• Trash fish or low value fish from trawl fisheries
• Disposal from fish processing (pangasius, tuna, sardines,
What are the issues?
• No data on stock status
• Lack of management
• As a result overfishing is increasing and takes a
number of forms.
The situation in Asia
• For a large number of species and fisheries there is
little if any information available on what is going
• Under reporting and inadequate reporting (e.g. out
of date, species not identified) remains a
frustration for fishery scientists and managers and
creates uncertainty over future supplies for the
Fish meal for aquaculture
• Trawl bycatch (trash fish) is estimated to
be about 10 million tonnes per year. The
amount used for fish meal may be
declining as more valuable uses such as
surimi increase
• Trawl bycatch may take species which are
naturally small but there is a lot of fish
that are juveniles. All types of overfishing
are represented.
• Not all small pelagics are used for fish
meal but general overharvesting and
catches of juveniles are causing stock
declines in some areas
Better information leads to better management
• The situation is complex – many species and many
• Capacity and resources always an issue
• Existing information and data need to be publicly
• Collaboration between governments, the private
sector and NGOs can attract funder interest
Challenges of new standards
Transparency questions – there is a need
to make information about the species
used and from what fisheries (area and
gear type) they come from. This will make
the search for any existing information
Status questions – the standards require
not only information but some assurance
that the species used are being well
managed. Are the stocks in good shape,
for example?
Standards for fish meal
• Small number of standards can apply to the production of
fish meal used in aquaculture
• Operated by different bodies and work in different ways
• All are relatively new and yet to be fully tested
• They cover a variety of product attributes but the main
area of interest is the sustainability of the wild harvest
GAA Standard
One of four Best Aquaculture Practice (BAP) standards used for
evaluating and certifying aquaculture management and
Certificate held by factory but sources of fish to be separately
3.1: The applicant shall obtain declarations from suppliers on the
species and fishery origins of each batch of fishmeal and fish oil
3.2: The applicant shall indicate a feed fish inclusion factor on
product labels, packaging, shipping documents or invoices for all
feeds produced under the BAP program.
3.3: The applicant shall develop and implement a clear, written
plan of action defining policies for responsibly sourcing fishmeal
and fish oil.
GAA Standard
3.4: (Future critical standard.) After June 1, 2015, at least 50%
of the fishmeal and fish oil derived from reduction fisheries
shall come from approved certified sources.
3.5: (Future critical standard.) After June 1, 2015, at least 50%
of the fishmeal or fish oil derived from fishery by-products
such as trimmings and offal shall come from approved
certified sources.
International Fishmeal and Fishoil Organisation Responsible
Sourcing Scheme (IFFO RS)
• Certificate is issued to fish meal plant applicant. Sources of fish
not certified but have to be approved by IFFO committee
based on certifier advice
• Recognises fishery certificates issued under other programs
(e.g. MSC) as approved by the IFFO Standards Committee
• Based on FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries
• Fisheries are not certified and cannot make public claims
against the IFFO RS Standard
International Fishmeal and Fishoil Organisation Responsible
Sourcing Scheme (IFFO RS)
A fishery is evaluated against four main criteria that relate to:
a. Fishery management framework and procedures
b. Stock assessment procedures and management advice
c. The Precautionary principle, and
d. Management advice
For fisheries that are not deemed to meet the standard IFFO
and SFP are working on an Improvers Program
Aquaculture Stewardship Council (based on WWF
Aquaculture Dialogues)
Feed standards an integral part of product (species) based
An agreed standard is in place for tilapia but not yet for shrimp or
other carnivores
5.1.2 Allowance for the use of fishmeal and fish oil in tilapia feed
containing products from fisheries that are listed on the IUCN’s
Red List or the species list maintained by the Convention on the
International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and
Flora (NIL)
Aquaculture Stewardship Council (based on WWF
Aquaculture Dialogues)
5.1.3 Timeframe for producers to source feed containing fishmeal or
fish oil originating from fisheries deemed sustainable by an ISEAL
member’s accredited certification scheme
5 years following the date of ISRTA publication
5.1.4 Prior to achievement of 5.1.3, the average FishSource score
characterizing the fishery(ies) from which the fishmeal or fish oil is
derived. See Appendix V for explanation of FishSource scoring.
≥ 6.0 with no individual score < 6.0 or an N/A in the stock assessment
Sustainable Fisheries Partnership
ID Page
Some common themes but also some significant differences
Common themes include:
• Transparency
• Traceability
• Management of fishery resources – supplied directly or
indirectly via processing wastes
• Transition arrangements
Some of the differences include:
• Certified versus non certified resources
• Percentage certified
• Nature of transition arrangements
• Provisions for non-compliant fisheries
• The existing and potential growth in aquaculture production is
putting a lot of pressure on fisheries resources which are already
stressed by overfishing
• Bycatch from shrimp trawlers commonly has large numbers of
juvenile fish which are important for food fish fisheries. Use of
trawl bycatch for fish meal puts food fish fisheries and small scale
fisheries at risk.
• Good fisheries management is not only important for fishers
but also for businesses that need assurances about long term
• New aquaculture standards require increased transparency and
good fisheries management for the fish meal component
Initial Steps
• Sharing information to better understand the sources of
fishmeal and fish oil of feed mills, including the identity of the
species, the location of the fishery, and any public information
on their status.
• A roundtable discussion among industry groups and
government agencies about the sustainability issues of feed
fisheries to discuss global fish meal issue (from small pelagic
and trash fish) as well as buyer pressure and incentives and the
need to meet certification standards regarding shrimp feed.
The workshop is expected to bring together all key
stakeholders involved in the fishery to identify steps to be
taken to improve the fishery through better management.
Thank you..
More info, please contact:
Dessy Anggraeni
[email protected]

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