Byzantines, Islam & Crusades (posted 11/8/10)

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Byzantines, Islam & Crusades
I.
Byzantines
A. Justinian (527-565)
II. Islam
A. Arab World
B. Muhammad (570?-632)
C. Religion of Islam
D. Expansion
III. Two Popes
IV. Crusades
A. Why?
B. What?
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Key Terms
Code of Justinian
Koran
Five Pillars of Islam
Jerusalem
Pope Gregory VII
Pope Urban II
Indulgences
Justinian
1. He reunified most of the old Roman empire
2. Christianity was the official religion; nonChristian worship was outlawed
3. Established Code of Justinian
Code Of Justinian
Justinian
(r. 527-565)
1. Established a single code of laws
for all
2. Its influence today:
a) Laws should be written
b) Punishments for a crime
should be the same for all
Byzantine Empire & Justinian
Code Of Justinian
Justinian
(r. 527-565)
1. Established a single code of laws
for all
2. Its influence today:
a) Laws should be written
b) Punishments for a crime
should be the same for all
Code of Justinian =
JUSTICE
US Supreme Court Building
(Stone Sculpture of 18 “Lawgivers)
Muhammad
Justinian
Arabian/Islamic Impact…
• Irrigation - increased agricultural production
• Mathematics:
– Numbering System: Arabic Numerals replaced
cumbersome Roman Numerals
– “Algebra” comes from Arabic word “Al-jabar”
included in a math book from 820 AD
Arab World
•
Arabs flourished in the desert.
• Many were nomads & herded sheep and camels;
other specialized in trade.
• Outsiders tried to conquer Arabs, but were unable.
• Mecca was an important city.
Muhammad
(570?-632)
1. Born about 570 AD and grew up in Mecca.
2. After marriage, he became a social activist.
3. Received revelations from the angel Gabriel
eventually included in the Koran.
4. In 622 he moved from Mecca to Medina and
became VERY influential, spreading the word of
Islam.
Five Pillars Of Islam
1. Creed/Faith: The belief there is only one God
(Allah); Muhammad is the prophet of Allah.
2. Prayer: Five times per day believers must wash and
purify themselves, face Mecca, and pray.
3. Almsgiving: All should contribute money to the
poor/needy.
4. Fast: between daylight until nightfall during the
month of Ramadan.
5. Pilgrimage: to Mecca during one’s lifetime.
Islam, Judaism, Christianity
1. All worship the same God (the God of Abraham)
2. Much of the Old Testament, including prophets
Abraham & Moses, are accepted (Muslims & Jews
don’t accept Jesus as the Savior)
3. The belief in charity to the poor/weak
4. Jerusalem is an important city:
a) Jews: land of Abraham; promised by God
b) Christians: land of Jesus’ ministry
c) Muslims: where Muhammad ascended to
heaven
Dome Of The Rock & Western Wall
(Jerusalem)
Solomon’s Temple, Jerusalem
Following Muhammad’s Death
• Islamic world grew and covered more territory than
the old Roman Empire at its height.
Muslim Conquest Up to 750
Crusades
• A series of wars fought between Christians and
Muslims.
• Access to and control of Jerusalem was one key
cause.
Two Popes
• The Christian Church (Roman Catholic) became a
powerful unifying institution by 800-900 AD
• It was headed by the Pope
• Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085):
– What was Papal Primacy?
• Pope Urban’s call (1095):
– If they decide to fight, what will they receive?
Crusades
(1100-1200)
• 1st Crusade: 1097-1099
– Christians regain control of Jerusalem.
• 2nd Crusade: 1147-1149
– Muslims recapture Jerusalem.
• 3rd Crusade: 1189-1192
– Draw: Muslims retain control of Jerusalem but
allow access to the city.
Indulgences
• Money paid to the Church to help the war effort.
• Why pay?
– If a person gave the Church money, sins were
forgiven and a place in heaven was secured.
Byzantines, Islam & Crusades
I.
Byzantines
A. Justinian (527-565)
II. Islam
A. Arab World
B. Muhammad (570?-632)
C. Religion of Islam
D. Expansion
III. Two Popes
IV. Crusades
A. Why?
B. What?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Key Terms
Code of Justinian
Koran
Five Pillars of Islam
Jerusalem
Pope Gregory VII
Pope Urban II
Indulgences

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