Chapter 9 - wilsonworldhistory1213

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Chapter 9
Section 1- Byzantine Empire
Constantinople
• Who: Romans & Byzantines, Constantine
• What: capital city of the Byzantine Empire
• Where: in between Black & Mediterranean Seas
& Asia / Europe; Byzantine Empire
• When: 330-1453
• Why: the city had an excellent harbor, was
guarded on 3 sides by water; Emperors built an
elaborate system of walls to protect the city; was
the center of key trade routes that linked Asia &
Europe; was the connecting point of 2 main seas
& 2 continents = everyone wanted it = war
Constantinople
• Who: Romans, Byzantines, Constantine
• What: capital of the Byzantine Empire
• Where: In b/n Black & Med seas; in b/n Asia &
Europe; Byzantine Empire, ME
• When: 330-1453
• Why: Constantine named the capital of the
Byzantine Empire after himself; vital center of the
Byzantine Empire; heavily fortified city; key
trading & business center- linked trade routes
from Asia to Europe; reminder of Roman heritage
Justinian (6th)
• Who: Byzantine Emperor
• What: leader that wanted to revive ancient Rome
by recovering lands that had been lost
• Where: Byzantine Empire
• When: 527-565
• Why: was unsuccessful in recovering land; after
the riots he rebuilt the Empire & his great
triumph was the Hagia Sophia; reformed the law
(Justinian’s Code); ruled as an autocrat w.
complete control
Justinian
• Who: Emperor of Byzantine Empire
• What: was determined to revive Ancient Rome by
recovering land that was taken by Germanic invaders
when Rome fell
• Where: Constantinople, Byzantine Empire
• When: 527-565
• Why: The Byzantine reached its peak in power under
his reign; he lost the land he attempted to gain back;
his great triumph was rebuilding Hagia Sophia;
reformed the law (Justinian’s code); ruled as an
autocrat; ruled the church- Christ’s co-ruler on earth;
his wife Theodora helped him rule
• 313- Constantine made Christianity the legal religion &
rebuilt Constantinople
• 527- Justinian becomes ruler of the Byzantine Empire
• 532- riots & fires swept Constantinople making Justinian
want to rebuild
• 600s-700s Arab armies gained control of the Western World
• 700s- Byzantine emperor outlawed the
veneration/worshipping of icons
• 1054*- controversies led to the Great Schism/split of the
Christian church into 2: Greek Orthodox & Catholic
• 1090- Byzantine Emperor called for help from the West to
fight off the Seljuk Turks who were invading
• 1100s- Justinian’s Code had reached Europe; the Byzantine
Empire flourished
• 1453*- the Ottoman Turks invaded Constantinople, took over,
& est. the Ottoman Empire; the Byz. Emp was no more
• 313- Constantine makes Christianity the official religion of Byz
Emp
• 527- 565 : the peak of the Byzantine Empire under the rule of
Justinian
• 600-700: Arab armies gradually gained control of the
Mediterranean
• 700s- Byzantine emperor outlawed the
veneration/worshipping of icons
• 1054*- controversies led to the Great Schism/split of the
Christian church into 2: Greek Orthodox & Catholic
• 1090- Byzantine Emperor called for help from the West to fight
off the Seljuk Turks who were invading
• 1100s- Justinian’s Code had reached Europe; the Byzantine
Empire flourished
• 1453*- the Ottoman Turks invaded Constantinople, took over,
& est. the Ottoman Empire; the Byz. Emp was no more
Justinian’s Code (6th)
• Who: Byzantines, Justinian
• What: a collection of laws, Corpus Juris Civilis
“Body of Civil Law”, that included laws passed by
Roman assemblies or Emperors, and legal
writings of Roman judges; law code of Byzantine
Empire
• Where: Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire
• When: 500s-1100s
• Why:
Justinian’s code
• Who: Romans, Byzantines, Justinian
• What: a massive collection that included laws by
Roman assemblies & legal writings of Roman
judges; Body of Civil Law for the Byzantine Empire
• Where: Byzantine Empire; Eastern Roman Empire
• When: 500s- 1100s
• Why: this law code impacted WE in that they
modeled their laws on this & it helped to
strengthen & centralize their power; led to legal
thinkers creating international law; Justinian used
this to unify his power under one central power
Autocrat
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Who: Justinian
What: a sole ruler with complete authority
WherE: Byzantine Empire
When: 500s- 1100s
Why: Justinian used the law to unify the
Empire under his control; ruler of both
political & religious spheres
Autocrat (6th)
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Who: Justinian
What: Sole ruler w. complete authority
Where: Byzantine Empire
When: 500s-1100s
Why: combined both political power &
spiritual authority; had control of the church
as well as the gov’t
Theodora
• Who: Justinian’s wife
• What: she was an advisor & co-ruler to the
emperor Justinian
• Where: Constantinople, Byzantine Empire
• When: 497-548
• Why: she constantly challenged the Emperor’s
authority to pursue her own authority- she
convinced him to stay in Constantinople when
it was under siege; very good politician
Theodora (6th)
• Who: Justinian’s wife
• What: advised her husband & pursued her
own policies; was a shrewd politician
• Where: Byzantine Empire
• When: 497-548
• Why: she helped her husband become a
better ruler; she forced Justinian to stay in
Constantinople during the riots of 532- he
then rebuilt into a great empire after
Patriarch
• Who: Emperor & Church official
• What: pious church official in the Byzantine
Empire; leader of the Eastern Orthodox church
• Where: Constantinople, Byzantine Empire
• When: 330-1453
• Why: Different from WE’s Catholic churchcould marry & didn’t have complete control
like the Pope; he controlled church affairs &
was the highest church official
Patriarch (6th)
• Who: Byzantine Emperor & ruler of the Eastern
Orthodox church
• WhaT: highest church official of the Eastern Orthodox
church in Constantinople
• Where: Byzantine Empire
• When: 330-1613
• Why: the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire would
appoint a leader right under him that would help the
Emperor make decisions about the church; this leader
was similar to the Catholic Pope in the West except he
could marry & didn’t have complete control
Icons
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Who: Byzantine Christians & Emperor
What: holy images
Where: Eastern Europe & Byzantine Empire
When: 330-1613
Why: many Byzantine Christians used these images of
Jesus, Mary & the saints in their worship; in the 700s a
Byzantine Emperor outlawed the use of these icons b.c.
it violated God’s commandment agnst worshipping;
this was one of the main reasons for the Great Schism
b.n Catholic & Orthodox Christianity- Catholics were
ok, Orthodox said no
Icons (6th)
• Who: Christians
• What: a dispute over holy images contributed to
the Great Schism / split
• Where: Byzantine Empire
• When: 700-1000s
• Why: many Byzantine Christians worshipped holy
images of Jesus, Mary, and the saints; the
Byzantine Emperor outlawed the
veneration/worshipping of icons b.c. it violated
God’s command against worshipping = one of the
main disputes of the Great Schism
Icons (7th)
• Who: Byzantine Christians
• What: holy images portraying Jesus, Mary, &
saints
• Where: Byzantine Empire
• When: 700s- 1000s
• Why: Christians used these in church to show
their religious devotion; Byzantine Emperor
outlawed the veneration/worshipping of icons
b.c. it violated God’s command against
worshipping = one of the main disputes of the
Great Schism
Great Schism
• Who: Eastern & Western Roman Christians
• What: a split b.n the Eastern & Western churches
into 2 different Christian churches
• WherE: Byzantine Empire & Western Europe
• When: 1054*
• Why: controversies b.n the 2 empires led to a
split in the churches & the way they worshippedRoman Catholic (West) & Greek Orthodox (East) ;
they became rival Christian churches instead of
branches
th)
Great
Schism
(6
Who: Christians
•
• What: a controversy over certain characteristics
in the church led to the split/schism of the
Christian( Catholic) church into 2 parts
• Where: Western Europe (West) & Byzantine
Empire (East)
• When: 1054*
• Why: this split led to 2 diff Christian churchesRoman Catholic (West) & Greek Orthodox (East);
controversy over things like use of icons, priests
marrying, & what language to use
Great Schism (7th)
• Who: Byzantine Christians & Western Christians
• What: a religious split where the Byz Emp (East) &
West. Europe (West) split into 2 types of
Christianity
• Where: Byzantine Empire & Western Europe
• When: 1054*
• Why: this split was over controversies in the
church such as the use of icons, marriage of
priests, & what language to use; it led to 2 diff
churches: Byzantine (East)- Greek Orthodox &
West Europe- Roman Catholic
Quiz
• 1. Identify Justinian’s code.
• 2. Give an effect of Justinian.
• 3. Who was Theodora?
• 4. Identify the Great Schism.
• 5. What 2 religions came about
from #4?
Russia
Section 2
Steppe
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Who: Nomadic peoples, peoples from Russia
What: an open, treeless grassland
Where: Russia
When: 500s-600s
Why: it offered splendid pasture for the herds
& horses of nomadic peoples; nomads
traveled on this land & it provided easy land to
migrate from one place to another; they were
able to travel from Russia to Byzantine to WE
Steppe
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Who: Asians, Europeans, & nomadic peoples
What: open grassland b/n Asia & Europe
Where: Asia to Europe
When: 330-1613
Why: offered splendid pasture for the herds &
horses of the nomadic ppls; nomads traveled
on this land & it provided easy land to migrate
from one place to another; they were able to
travel from Russia to Byzantine to WE
Kiev (3rd)
• Who: Slavic peoples, Vikings, & Russians
• What: the capital of present-day Ukraine, center
of the first Russian state
• Where: Ukraine, Eastern Europe
• When: 500s- today
• Why: this city’s culture & growth were a result of
the mixing of the Vikings & Slavs; Vladimir made
Orthodox Christianity the official religion= Russia
adopted aspects of Byz culture; Kiev gained
strength under Vladimir- the Russian ruler
controlled the church too
Kiev
• Who: Russians, Slavic peoples
• What: capital of present-day Ukraine, was the
center of the 1st Russian state
• Where: Russia
• When: 500s-600s
• Why: Slavic peoples lived here in 700s/800s;
Vikings were here & mixed w. Slavic peoples;
they conducted trade w. Constantinople
Kiev (7th)
• Who: Russians
• What: capital of the present day Ukraine, the
center of the 1st Russian state
• Where: Russia
• When: 500s-1613
• Why: its culture & growth were the result of a
mixing of the Vikings & the Slavs; Vladimir made
Orthodox Christianity the official religion= Russia
adopted aspects of Byz culture; Kiev gained
strength under Vladimir- the Russian ruler
controlled the church too
Cyrillic (3rd)
• Who: 2 Greek brothers, Russians, Ukranians,
Bulgarians
• What: an alphabet that became written script still
used in Russia & E. Europe today
• Where: Russia, E. Europe
• When: 863
• Why: the Byzantine Empire sent missionaries to
convert Slavs in Russia in the 800s, 2 Greek
brothers adapted the Greek alphabet into this so
they could translate the bible into Slavic tongues
in order to convert the ppls of Russia & EE
Cyrillic (7th)
• Who: 2 Greek brothers, Russians, Ukrainians,
Bulgarians
• What: an alphabet that was adapted from the
Greek alphabet
• Where: From the Byz Emp; to Russia, EE
• When: 863
• Why: this allowed the Byzantine Greeks to
translate their bible into Slavic language so they
could convert the ppls of Russia & EE to Orthodox
Christianity= Russia became Russian Orthodox
Christian
Golden Horde (3rd)
• Who: Batu, Grandson of Genghis Khan
• What: Mongol armies that looted & burned Kiev &
other Russian towns, fierce conquerors that
control Russia for 150 years
• Where: Russia
• When: 1236-1241
• Why: because they burnt Russian towns many ppl
were killed, Golden Horde ruled Russia for more
than 150 years; areas suffered destructive raids
from the Mongols; Russian princes had to
acknowledge Mongols as the rulers & pay tribute;
they tolerated the Russian Orthodox Church; their
rule served as an ex. To later Russian rulers
Ivan the Great (6th)
• Who: Russian War hero, Russian prince, Ivan III
• What: brought most of Northern Russia under
his rule & reconquered land from the Mongols
• Where: Northern Russia
• When: 1462-1505
• Why: he built the framework for absolute rule;
he tried to limit the power of the
Boyars(nobles); he adopted Byzantine customs
to show their influence on Russia; he created
the title Tsar
Ivan the Great
• Who: Ivan III, Russian prince
• What: he brought much of Northern Russia
under his rule
• Where: Russia
• When: 1462-1505
• Why: recovered Russian territory that had
fallen into the hands of others
Tsar (3rd)
• Who: Ivan III, Ivan the Great
• What: the Russian name for Caesar, title of
Russia’s leader
• Where: Russia
• When: 1504-1917
• Why: the Tsar was like the highest God, leader
of all of Russia; Ivan the Great created this
title which remained until the end of absolute
rule in Russia
Tsar (6th)
• Who: Russian ruler
• What: Russian word for Caesar, absolute ruler
of Russia
• Where: Russia
• When: 1500s
• Why: Ivan the Great created this title to
symbolize his absolute power, this title
remained the name of Russia’s leader until
1917
Tsar (7th)
• Who: Ivan III (the Great)
• What: Russian word for Caesar, title of Russia’s
leader
• Where: Russia
• When: 1504- 1917
• Why: Ivan III (the Great) created this title; title
of Russia’s absolute leader; Ivan IV was the
first official Tsar
Ivan the Terrible (6th)
• Who: the first Russian ruler officially crowned tsar,
Ivan the Great’s grandson, Ivan IV
• What: ruler of Russia that centralized royal power
by limiting Boyars, granted land in exchange for
military service
• Where: Russia
• When: 1530-1584
• Why: introduced new laws that tied serfs to the
land; unstable ruler that trusted no one & very
violent= slaughtered many ppl (including his son) =
he was called Ivan the Terrible; introduced Russia
to extreme absolutism
Ivan the Terrible (7th)
• Who: Ivan IV, Tsar of Russia
• What: introduced Russia to extreme absolute
power; abused his power as Tsar = called Ivan
the Terrible
• Where: Russia
• When: 1530-1584
• Why: introduced new laws that tied serfs to
the land; unstable ruler that trusted no one &
very violent= slaughtered many ppl (including
his son) = he was called Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible (3rd)
• Who: Ivan IV, Ivan the Great’s grandson
• What: he abused his powers as the Tsar of Russia =
Ivan the Terrible
• Where: Russia
• When: 1541-1584
• Why: introduced new laws that tied serfs to the
land; unstable ruler that trusted no one & very
violent= slaughtered many ppl (including his son) =
he was called Ivan the Terrible; introduced Russia
to extreme absolutism; after his rule Russia was
left seeping w. rebellion
• 500/600- the Slavic ppls spread east into Russia &
south to BE
• 700s-900s- Vikings arrive
• 862- Russians claim their country started here
when a prince called “the Rus” started
controlling Novgorod, Russia
• 863- 2 Greek brothers created Cyrillic so they
could translate bible into slvaic tongue to convert
Russians to Christianity
Timeline (workbook)
• 500s/600s- Slavic ppls spread east into Russia & South
into Byzantine Empire
• 862- Russia dated it’s origins of their country when
Prince “the Rus” began his rule in Novgorod, Russia
• 800s- Constantine sent Christian missionaries to convert
the Slavs
• 863- 2 Greek brothers invented Cyrillic to convert the
Slavs of Russia
• 957- Pricess Olga (ruler in Russia) converted to
Christianity
• 1200s- young leader (Genghis Khan) united nomadic
warriors in Central Asia to start conquering land
• 1236-1241- Batu (Mongol) led army into Russia, took
over, & started Golden Horde (Mongol rule of Russia)
Timeline (contd)
• 1500- Ivan III (the Great) recovers Russian
lands from the Golden horde (the Mongols)
• 1547- Ivan IV becomes first Russian ruler
officially crowned Tsar
• 1560- Ivan IV became increasingly unstable
• 1584- Ivan the IV (Terrible) dies leaving his
lands seething w. rebellion

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