File - Ms. Myer`s AP World History

Report
The Two Worlds of Christendom
Chapter 16 (and Ch. 13 from the old
book)
I: The Quest for Political Order
• 500-1500 CE in Europe = Medieval period (or
Middle Ages) -> between Classical and modern
times
– Early (500-1000): lots of problems (disease, decreasing
pop., econ. contraction, pol. turmoil, social unrest, and
invasions)
– Late (1000-1500): better (united by religion, but not
politically)
I: The Quest for Political Order
• 2 halves:
– East: Byzantine Empire (continuation of Roman Emp.,
pol and econ powerhouse)
– West: Germanic states (attempts to unify,
decentralized, econ recovery)
• Both were Christian, but different types -> split
I: (13)The Early Byzantine Empire
• As western Roman Empire fell apart, east stayed
intact, but with challenges (Sasanids in Persia and
Germanic invaders)
• Statecraft: centralized rule (caesaropapism – aura
of divine rule), lavish capital, complex bureaucracy,
codified Roman laws
I: (13)The Early Byzantine Empire
•
•
•
•
•
Justinian and His Legacy: .
Most important, with wife Theodora
Rebuilt city after riots (Hagia Sophia)
Codified Roman law (influenced later European law)
Tried to reconquer the west – succeeded, but didn’t
last -> withdrew to protect the east
I: (13)The Early Byzantine Empire
• Islamic Conquests and Byzantine Revival:
• Lost land in SW Asia and N Africa to Islamic
empire, plus, sieges on Constantinople (resisted
with military tech. – Greekfire)
– -> more compact and manageable
I: (13)The Early Byzantine Empire
• The theme system:
• = provinces (themes) under control of a closely
supervised general who controlled military
defense and civil admin.
– Built armies of free peasants in exchange for land
• => Win-win: quick and effective protection and
stronger peasant class and -> agri. econ.
I: The Rise of the Franks
• After fall of Rome -> Germanic successor states
emerged (e.g., Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Lombards,
Franks, etc.)
– Heavily influenced by Rome (esp. law) and Christianity
• The Franks: by early 6th century, controlled most
of Gaul
– By converting -> support
from Roman populations and
the pope
I: The Rise of the Franks
• By 8th century: ruled by Carolingian Dynasty
• Founded by Charles Martel (732, Battle of Tours –
kept Muslims out of the rest of Europe)
• Charlemagne (grandson) ruled 768-814
– Temporarily established centralized imperial rule
(proclaimed emperor by Pope in 800)
– Diplomatic relations with Byzantine and Abbasid empires
– Military expansion, some tributary states
– Travelled to maintain control (no bureaucracy – relied on
aristocratic counts and missi dominici at local level)
I: The Rise of the Franks
• End of Charlemagne’s empire:
• Louis the Pious: Charlemagne’s only son, ruled
814-840
– Internal issue: Lost control and sons fought over
succession -> kingdom divided into 3 parts
– External issue: Invasions:
Muslims (from south), Magyars
(from east), and Vikings
(from north)
I: The Age of the Vikings
• Expansion of Nordic peoples from Scandinavia
– Populations growth and quest for wealth -> trading
and raiding
– Boats were key: shallow draft, oars (rivers) with sails
(sea)
• Some wanted to trade, others to resettle and
farm, others to raid and plunder (<- Vikings)
I: The Age of the Vikings
• Very successful at sacking settlements and
monasteries from Russia to Eastern Europe and
the Mediterranean
• Carolingians had no navy to offer protection and
no way to predict where they’d go next ->
protection fell to locals
• Later, political control also held by locals = feudal
Europe.
– Also, Vikings established small states in France and S.
Italy
II: Economy and Society in Early
Medieval Europe
• At the time, Byzantine Empire = economic
powerhouse (large agricultural surplus -> large
urban pops. -> increased manufacturing and LD
trade)
• Western Europe saw decreasing agricultural
production and weakening of cities (10th century –
more political stability -> economic
recovery)
II: (13) Byzantine Peasantry
• Large class of land-owning peasants -> strong
economy and society (theme system)
• But, the wealthy started building up large estates,
and after the 11th century, peasants become
dependent class
– Also means less taxes collected and less soldiers for
military
– Landowners built private armies
II: (13) Byzantine Industry and Trade
• Lots of manufacturing/craftsmen: glassware, linen
and woolen textiles, gems, jewelry, gold, and
silver, and silk (late 6th century –under
government regulation)
• Trade: excellent location (end of silk roads) –
control of trade and customs duties -> wealth
• Finance: banks (loans for business ventures) and
business partnerships (to pool resources and limit
risk) became more extensive
II: Western Europe’s Economy
• Political turmoil and invasions disrupted
agriculture and large-scale manufacturing
• But, adopted innovations -> increased agricultural
production
• Heavy plow: 8th century, worked better in
northern European soils
– But, expensive and required draft animals
– Other developments: new fields,
fish ponds, water mills, horse collar,
new crops (legumes)
II: Trade in Western Europe
• Small-scale: markets, fairs, itinerate peddlers, plus
maritime trade in the Med.
• Norse merchant-mariners: North and Baltic Seas,
Russia, Ireland trading fish, furs, honey, wheat,
wine, beer, swords
– Traded with Byzantine and Abbasids
II: (13) Byzantine Society
• Constantinople: huge imperial palace with gardens,
fountains, peacocks
– Aristocrats had palaces (women were separated)
– Artisans lived in rooms above shops or in apartment
buildings
– Workers and poor lived in communal tenements
• City life: baths, taverns,
restaurants, theaters,
Hippodrome (races with fans –
greens and blues)
II: Western European Society
• Some towns, but very rural: surplus supported
political elites, but not urban populations of
artisans, merchants, etc.
II: Western European Society
• Feudalism: political and social order of Medieval
Europe
• Hierarchy of lords and vassals with exchange of
land for loyalty and military service
• Maybe oversimplified
II: Western European Society
• Peasants (a.k.a., serfs) gave surplus to lords, as
well as labor and rent payments
– Men: worked 3 days for lord, farmed
– Women: sewed for lord made butter, cheese, beer,
thread, cloth
• Couldn’t move because lord owned land and tools
• After 8th century: population
began to recover (new crops
from Muslims, better health,
bigger surplus)
III: Evolution of Christian Societies in
Byzantium and Western Europe
• Both areas were Christian, but different forms
– Similarities: sources of religious, moral, and cultural
authority, ecclesiastical hierarchies (more so than
other religions), monasteries, missionaries
– But, disagreed over doctrine, ritual, and church
authority
III: The Papacy and the Patriarch
• Pope (Bishop of Rome) and Patriarch of
Constantinople cooperated at first
• By late 6th century, competed for power
• Pope’s position strengthened by Pope Gregory I
(defended Rome from Lombards) and reinforced
papal primacy
• Patriarch: appointed by Byz. Emperor => close
relationship between political rulers and religious
ones
III: (13) Iconoclasm
• Byzantine: implemented by Leo III
• Believed veneration of icons was sinful (= idolatry)
• 726: destroyed and banned images of Jesus, Mary,
etc. -> protests and riots.
• Rome was ok with icons
III: Monks and Monasticism
• In both areas: monasteries played important role in
peoples’ religious lives
• St. Basil of Caesara (Byz) and St. Benedict of Nursia (Italy)
set rules for monasteries – mild asceticism, meditation, and
work
– Celibacy, under direction of abbot
• St. Scholastica applied Benedictine
rules for women (nuns) in convents
• Also, counseled people, supplied
food and medical attention, acted
as orphanages and inns, provided
basic education services
III: Missionaries
• Popes sent missionaries all over western Europe
to convert people to Christianity
– Franks helped in north
• Byz: sent St. Cyril and Methodius to convert Slavs
to Christianity -> created Cyrillic alphabet to
translate bible to illiterate Slavs
– Also, converted Russian Prince
Vladimir (-> strong Byzantine influence
over Russia)
III: Two Churches
• Political and religious tension between Byz. and
Rome: iconoclasm, ritual, doctrine (even facial
hair)
• 1054: patriarch and pope excommunicated each
other = The Great Schism (a.k.a.
The East-West Schism)
• => Eastern Orthodox Church
and Roman Catholic Church

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