Beyond Video Modeling: The Next Generation

Beyond Video Modeling: The
Next Generation
Aleksandra Hollingshead M.Ed.
Jennifer Christman M.Ed.
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio
Based on a presentation from OCALI conference 2010 (Carnahan, C., Basham, J., Christman, J., &
Hollingshead, A.)
1. Briefly discuss the research supports of video
1. Provide strategies for extending the use of
video modeling through new technology
2. Offer practical strategies for using new
technologies in educational and employment
What is video modeling?
• Video modeling is a teaching strategy in which
a teacher shows a video of desired behaviors
or interactions to an individual student or
small group of students.
• The student imitates the behavior or
interaction when in the appropriate situation
(Bellini, Akullian, Hopf, 2007).
Individual Model
Advantages and Disadvantages
• Aligns to the needs of
students with ASD and
other significant
• Individualized instruction
• Saves times
• Control through editing
• Variety of settings
• Requires a certain level of
• “Attention and motivation
are essential to
observational learning. If
a child does not attend to
a model, she will not be
able to imitate the
model’s behavior” (Bellini
S., Akullian J. 2007)
• Research supports the use of video modeling in:
• Academic skills (e.g., math)
• Language development
• Life skills and social behavior
(Buggey, 2005)
• Video modeling and video self-modeling are both
effective means of providing a visual representation
of a desired behavior or skill (Sherer et al., 2001).
• Self
• Other
• Peer
• adult
Implementation Steps for Video Modeling
1. Identify
target behavior
2. Obtain necessary
3. Interview parents and
observe the child
4. Select and train models
5. Prepare equipment and
6. Record target behavior
7. Edit the video
8. Collect baseline data
9. Show the video clip of
desired behavior
10. Collect intervention data
and graph data
11. Promote maintenance
and generalization
(Banda, Matuszny, Turkan,
• Create a detailed task analysis individualized to
student's needs
• Keep it short!
• Initially use in one environment, later add a
variety to ensure generalization
• Show close-up of the desired action
– Make sure it’s a clear video
Not so clear…
Guidelines cont.
• Following video watching allow sufficient time to
demonstrate the behavior
• Show the video again if the student fails to
demonstrate the behavior
• Keep the data!
• Program for maintenance across settings, people,
and time
As it stands, what are the problems?
• Stationary
• Learners view appropriate social interactions in one room and then
were required to go to another room to play and demonstrate the skill
of the video (Nikopoulus, Kennan, 2004).
• With advances in technology, video modeling can become more
efficient and effective in addressing the needs of diverse students
(Nikopoulos, Kennan, 2007).
The need for portability…
New Technology
• Mobile technology
– iPod
– iPhone
– iPad
– Blackberry
– Flip Camera
– Laptop
Moving to mobile technology
• Ease of…
Editing digital video clips
Touch screen availability
Social acceptance of iPod and ear buds
Video at home, school, work, public transportation
• Transitioning to audio only
– Hearing prompts through ear bud
– Start and stop on ear bud
Available Apps and Web Resources
For more resources see the video
modeling apps and resources handout
Video Modeling to Support Independent Work
Video Model to Support Transitions
Video Model Paired with Prompts to Support
Life Skills
Banda, D., Matuszny, R., Turkan, S. (2007). Video Modeling Strategies to Enhance Appropriate Behaviors in
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39 (6), 47-52.
Bellini, S., Akullian, J. & Hopf, A. (2007). Increasing Social Engagement in Young Children with Autism Spectrum
Disorders Using Video Self-Modeling. School Psychology Review, 36(1), 80-90.
Buggey, T. (2005). Video Self-Modeling Applications With Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Small
Private School Setting. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(1), 52-63.
Nikopoulos, C. & Keenan, M. (2004). Effects of Video Modeling on Social Initiations by Children With Autism.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37(1), 93-96.
Nikopoulos, C.K. & Keenan, M. (2007). Using Video Modeling to Teach Complex Social Sequences to Children with
Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(1), 678-693.
Sherer, M., Pierce, K., Paredes, S., Kisacky, K., Ingersoll, B. & Schreibman, L. (2001). Enhancing Conversation Skills in
Children with Autism via Video Technology; Which is Better, “Self” or “Other” as a Model?. Behavior Modification,
25(1), 140-158.

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