Morphology of flowering plants

Report
Study of external structure
Primary root develops from radicle
Produce secondary, tertiary roots etc
Tap root system- primary roots and its branches
Fibrous root system- wheat
Adventitious root systemother functions- banyan tree
Prop roots- banyan tree
Stilt root- sugar cane
Pneumatophores- mangroves
Nodes and internodes
Absorption of water
and minerals,
conduction anchorage,
storage, protection,
spreading out leaves,
flowers etc
Underground stem modification for food
storage- potato, ginger etc
Axillary buds to thorns as in Citrus
Photosynthesis- cactus
Spreading- grass, chrysanthemum
Vegetative propagation- pistia
From node for photosynthesis
Leaf base, petiole and lamina
In monocotyledons-sheath
Pulvinus – in leguminous plants
Veins are the channels for conduction
Arrangement of veins and veinlets
parallel
Simple- china rose
Palmately
compound leaf
-cotton
Pinnately compund leaf
-neem
Pattern of arrangement of leaves
Alternate- china rose
Whorled- alstonia
Opposite- guava
Tendrils- peas
Spines- cactus
Acacia- stem modified for
photosynthesis
Food storage- onion
insectivorous
Flower- modified shoot
Arrangement of flowers- inflorescence
Cymose- jasmine
Recemose- ceasalpinia
Reproductive unit
Four whorls on thalamuscalyx, corolla, androecium
and gynoecium
Reproductive- androecium,
gynoecium
perianth
Acessory- calyx and corolla
symetry
Actinomorphic- chilly, datura
Zygomorphic- pea, cassia
Asymmetric- canna
Bracteate, ebracteate
Trimerous, tetramerous
or pentamerous
epigunous- sunflower
Perigynous- rose
Corolla- coloured,peltals,
gamo/polypetalous
Calyx- sepals, green, protection,
gamosepalous/polysepalous
aestivation
Valvate- calotropis
Twisted- cotton
Imbricate-cassia
Vexillary/papilonaceouspea
Arrangement of sepals or
petals in floral bud
Composed of stamens
Filament and anther
Staminode- sterile stamen
Epipetalous- attached to petals
Epiphyllous- attached to tepals
Polyandrous- remain free
United into one bunchmonoadelphous- china
rose
Polyadelphous- citrus
Two bundles- pea
Varying length- salvinia
Made up of carpels
Carpel- style, stigma and ovary
Ovary bears placenta- ovules
Apocarpous- carpels free
syncarpous- carpels united
Placentation- arrangement of ovules
Marginal- pea
Parietal-mustard
Free central- primrose
Basal- sunflower
Parthenocarpic fruit- formed
without fertilization- banana
Mature ripened ovary
Pericarp- walls of fruit,
fleshy or dry
Dry pericarp- epicarp, mesocarp,
endocarp- coconut, mango
Ovules develop into seeds
Seed coat and embryo
Embryo- monocotyledon or
dicotyledon
Seed coat –
testa and
tegmen
Embryoembryonal
axis and two
cotyledons
endosperm
Dicotyledonous seed
Hilum- scar
where seed
attached to fruit
Micropyle- small
pore
Embryonal axisradicle and plumule
monocotyledonous seed
Seed coat –
fused with fruit
wall
Endosperm
bulky
Plumule is covered by
coleoptile
Aleuron layerseparates
endosperm and
embryo
One cotyledonscutellum
Radicle is covered by
coleorhiza
Floral formulaBr- bracteate
K- calyx
C- corolla
P- perianth
A- androecium
G- gynoecium
bisexual
G – superior ovary
G- inferior ovary
G
- half inferior
male
female
actinomorphic
zygomorphic
K(5) C(5)A5 G(2)
K5 C5A(10) G5
Earlier called Papilionoideae, sub family of Leguminosae
Distributed world over
Trees, shrubs,herbs, root with root nodules
Erect stem or climber
Leaves: alternate, pinnaltely compund or simple, leaf base
pulvinate, stipulate, reticulate
Floral characters
Recemose inflorescence
Flower- bisexual, zygomorphic
Calyx- sepals five, gamosepalous, imbricate aestivation
Corolla- petals 5, polypetalous, papilionaceous, vexillary
aestivation
Androecium- ten, diadelphous, anther dithecous
Gynoecium- superior, monocarpellary, unilocular, with
may ovules
Fruit:
Legume, many seeded
Floral Formula
Economic importance: pulses- gram, moong, soyabean:
Edible oil- soyabean, ground nut
Dye- Indigofera
Fibres- sunhemp
Fodder- sesbania
Ornamentals- sweet pea
Medicine- muliathi
Called potato family
Distributed everywhere
Herbs, shrubs, rarely trees
Herbaceous stem, hairy or glabrous
Leaves: alternate, simple, exstipulate, reticulate
Food- tomato, brinjal, potato
Spice- chilli
Medicine- belladona
Fumigatory- tobacco
Ornamentals- petunia
Called lily family- monocotyledons
Distributed everywhere
Perennial herbs with underground bulbs c
Herbaceous stem, hairy or glabrous
Leaves: alternate, simple, exstipulate, reticulate

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