Anatomical Position, Planes of
Body and Anatomical Terms
Anatomical Position
In this position, the body is regarded as
Standing Erect
Eyes Looking Forward to the horizon
Upper Limbs hanging by the sides, with palms directed forward,
Feet are Together, with toes pointing forwards.
Planes of the Body
• Median/Mid-sagittal Plane: Vertical plane that divides the body along
the midline into symmetrical sections.
• Coronal Plane: Vertical side-to-side plane at right angle to the median
• Transverse Plane: Horizontal Plane that divides body into upper and
lower sections.
• Sagittal plane: Any plane parallel to the mid-sagittal plane
Terminologies Discussed
• Anterior/Posterior
• Medial/Lateral
• Superior/Inferior
• Superficial/Deep
• Proximal/Distal
• Palmar/Dorsal
• Plantar/Dorsal
Movements: take place at Joints
• Flexion: A bending movement in which angle between two bones in
• Extension: A Straightening Movement in which angle between two
bones is increased.
Flexion at elbow Joint
• Abduction: Moving Limb away from median plane
• Adduction: Moving limb towards the median plane
What is the movement shown in the picture
Mechanics of Flexion at elbow joint
Mechanics of Flexion/Extension at Shoulder
Movements of Foot
Movements of Hand
Medial and Lateral Rotation
• Medial and lateral rotation describe movement of the limbs around
their long axis:
• Medial rotation is a rotating movement towards the midline.
• Lateral rotation is a rotating movement away from the midline.
Medial and Lateral Rotation on Ankle and Shoulder
Lateral and Medial Rotation on Hip Joint
Pre-Axial/ Post-Axial
The preaxial part is derived from the anterior segments, the postaxial
from the posterior segments of the limb-bud. [Embryology]
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