Synchronous Static Random Access Memory (SSRAM)

Static Random Access Memory
Internal Structure of a SSRAM
AREG: Address Register
CREG: Control Register
INREG: Input Register
OUTREG: Output Register
ADS_L: Address Select
(Low Voltage Assert)
GW_L: Global Write
(Low Voltage Assert)
Burst mode for consecutive access.
(No ADDR needs to be sampled after Y)
AREG serves as a counter
Valid for 2 cycles
INREG is sampled one clock tick
after the AREG is loaded. Thus, ADS_L has
to be inhibited (H in the next rising edge)
Flow-through output
Data Output available with
1 cycle delay … But the output is
valid for a whole cycle. Thus it may
allow operation at higher clock freq.
SRAM Address Block
Linear vs. Interleaved Burst Modes
Mode Pin is Low
Mode Pin is High
Big Endian Little Endian
• Conventional SSRAMs share the same pins for
both input data and output data.
• Based on the patterns of data-bus and SRAMarray use, there is a turn-around penalty – a
clock period must be idle when a read is
followed by a write
• The penalty is eliminated in Zero-bus-turnaround (ZBT) SSRAMs
• An operation (R/W) set up before
the rising edge of the clock is
performed during the subsequent
clock period (since the use of
registers as buffers)
• However, in higher frequency of
clock rate, it takes less number of
cycles to access memory.
When the clock rate reaches to 50 MHz or higher, async mode
needs 2 cycles each for second thru fourth access.
When the clock rate reaches to 75 MHz or higher, pipeline burst mode
needs only 1 cycle for second thru fourth access.
• Data transferred on both the rising and falling
edges of the clock signal.
• Also known as double pumped, dual-pumped,
and double transition.
DDR Write Cycle
DDR Read Cycle
How to fully utilize the data bus?
• 2-word-burst mode occupies a single cycle of
data bus
• 4-word-burst mode occupies two cycles of
data bus
• What, then, will be the frequency of providing
Address in each mode?
• Like all SDRAM implementations, DDR2 stores data in
memory cells that are activated with the use of a clock
signal to synchronize their operation with an external data
• DDR2 I/O buffer transfers data both on the rising and falling
edges of the clock signal
• The key difference is that for DDR2 the memory cells are
clocked at 1 quarter (rather than half) the rate of the bus.
• This requires a 4-bit-deep prefetch queue, but, without
changing the memory cells themselves,
• DDR2 can effectively operate at twice the bus speed of
• In 4-bit prefetch architecture, DDR2 SDRAM can
read/write 4 times the amount of data as an
external bus from/to the memory cell array for
every clock, and can be operated 4 times faster
than the internal bus operation frequency.
• External clock frequency = 2 times of internal
bus operation frequency
• Double data rate output = 2 times of external
clock frequency
Comparison between DDR2 SDRAM,

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