Civil rights movement Warm-Up

• Schedule
• Warm Up:
• Discrimination against African-Americans—Voting,
Court Challenges, Jim Crow, Segregation, Black
Codes & NAACP
• Cooperative Work
• Closure: How did discrimination impact AfricanAmericans?
Assignment: Packet page 1 due
• Schedule:
• Warm-Up
• PowerPoint: Brown v. Board of Education Topeka Kansas
• Brown v. Board arguments
• Segregation in 21st century America
• Key Question: How did the Brown v. Board case
impact American society??
• Assignment: Packet page 1 due
• Blacks had been fighting for equality since
Civil War
• Wanted political rights, better jobs, & end to
• Supreme Court decisions & grassroots
movement (locally organized by ordinary
citizens) helped expand civil rights
• NAACP benefited from these changes
• They established fund to pay for legal
challenges to segregation
• Still, “separate but equal” law in effect in
• 1950s, African Americans sued to end
segregation – integrate – in public
• Before then, white school boards gave
white schools newer books, equipment,
& school buildings than black schools
• Schools were separate, but they were
NOT equal
• Thurgood Marshall, NAACP lawyer, led the
fight against segregation in courts
• Court overturned Plessy v.
• Court said that because
facilities are separate,
they can never be equal
• America’s schools should
be integrated
• Brown decision limited to
public schools
• Schedule
• Warm Up:
• Rosa Parks Reading
• Rosa Park perceptions of agency
• Rosa Parks & the Montgomery Bus Boycott Notes
• Closure: How did the Montgomery Bus Boycott
enhance African-American civil rights?
HW: Assignment packet page 1 due Wednesday
Black people could not sit just anywhere they
wanted in the bus. They had to sit in the back of
the bus. If white people were already sitting in the
front of the bus, the black person had to pay the
fare, get off the bus, and reenter at the back door.
Sometimes the bus driver just drove off and left
them before they could get back on at the back
door. If the bus filled up with people, the driver
would ask a black person to move so he could
reposition the movable sign which divided the black
and white sections.
• December 1, 1955, in Montgomery,
Alabama, Rosa Parks got on bus to ride
• Group of white people got on board
along way
• Bus driver told Parks & other blacks to
move to back of bus
• Everyone obeyed except Parks
• Parks was arrested
• But this event started movement
to end segregation in US
• 1955, Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to give up her
seat on bus
• News of her arrest spread quickly
• NAACP & churches asked blacks to boycott riding
buses – Montgomery Bus Boycott
• Boycott is type of political activism –
direct action taken to support or oppose
a social or political goal
• That night, NAACP held meeting
• Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. – Baptist minister
from Georgia – told them “we’re tired of being
segregated & humiliated”
• Boycott went on for 13 months
• King & other leaders faced death threats,
bombings, jailings
• Supreme Court eventually
declared bus segregation illegal
• Now blacks could sit wherever
they wanted on buses
• Results of boycott:
• Ended segregation on
Montgomery buses
• Led to founding of
Southern Christian
Leadership Conference
• Coordinated nonviolent
civil rights protests all
over South
• Boycott made Martin
Luther King national
figure in civil rights
• Schedule
• Warm Up:
• Little Rock Nine photo analysis
• Little Rock Nine Notes
• Warriors Don’t Cry Excerpts
• Closure: How did the Montgomery Bus Boycott
enhance African-American civil rights?
HW: Assignment packet page
• Civil rights victories angered Southern whites
• Ku Klux Klan used beatings, arson, murder to threaten
• Many whites organized groups called White Citizens
Councils to prevent desegregation
• Opposition of whites to desegregation – “massive
• Massive resistance
threatened school
desegregation in Little Rock,
• After Brown case, Little
Rock school board
planned to integrate
• 9 black kids go to
Central High School –
“the Little Rock Nine”
• Segregationists tried to stop them
• Governor Orval Faubus ordered National Guard to prevent
students from entering school
• Went on for 3 weeks
• September 24, President Eisenhower ordered 101st Airborne
Division into Little Rock
• The paratroopers protected the students as they went to
• Victories like one in
Little Rock encouraged
others to fight for rights
•1960, 4 black college
students started sit-in
at lunch counter in
Greensboro, NC
• Sit-in – protest
where people sit &
refuse to move until
demands met
• Students ordered coffee – waitress
said no b/c they were black
• Students came back each day
w/ more protestors (over 100)
• Following weeks, 1000s of
protestors held sit-ins in
• Segregationists began abusing
• Threw acid & ammonia,
yelled & beat them, burned
w/ cigarettes
• Protests eventually forced
stores w/ lunch counters to
serve African Americans
• Out of this movement, Student Nonviolent
Coordinating Committee formed
• Student-led group which used nonviolence
tactics to pressure for change
• Schedule
• Warm Up:
• When finished with quiz, complete Assignment Packet
page + text reading
• Closure: How was discrimination utilized to
weaken civil rights of African Americans? How
was the civil rights movement strengthened?
Assignment: Packet page 2 due
• Schedule:
• Warm-Up
• Civil Rights Movement Notes
• Birmingham Protest Video & Questions
• Equal Rights Notes
• Closure: How did ‘2nd class’ Americans fight for
• Assignment: Packet page 2 due
• Early 1960s, Congress did not act on civil
rights issues
• However, ordinary people all over America
were joining civil rights movement
• As this grassroots movement grew, politicians
forced to get involved
• 1960, America elected new president
• Southern Democrats supported segregation
• Kennedy did not want to anger them (could prevent
him getting reelected)
• But civil rights activists kept pressuring the govt.
• May 1961, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
staged freedom rides
• Despite attacks, freedom riders kept going
• Kennedy sent federal marshals to protect them
• 4 months later, federal govt. integrated all interstate
bus facilities
• 1960s, civil rights
movement gained strength
• Blacks in Birmingham, AL
wanted to integrate public
places, get better jobs, & better
• Protestors knew Public Safety
Commissioner would use
violence to stop protests
• Also knew sight of
segregationists beating up
nonviolent protestors would
increase America’s pressure for
• Demonstration began April 1963 – cops arrested
& held Dr. King
• SCLC used children in protests
• Police used dogs & firehouses on them
• People watched on television – they were horrified
• Soon Birmingham’s leaders desegregated lunch
counters, removed segregation signs, & hired
more black workers
• Protests against segregation
on interstate buses in South
• During rides, whites
would sit in back, blacks
sit in front
• Along the way, blacks
would try to use “whites
only” facilities
• Many were attacked
for doing so
• Mexican Americans united to fight for
• 1950s, Cesar Chavez worked w/
Dolores Huerta to create labor union
• Chavez inspired by Dr. King &
Ghandi (nonviolent)
• 1962, Chavez formed United Farm
Workers Organizing Committee
• 1965, California grape growers
refused to recognize union
• Chavez organized boycott of grapes
– it worked
• Farm workers inspired Mexican Americans in
cities to organize
•Students walked out of class to get better
facilities, more Mexican American teachers
• This action led to many reforms
•1970, Mexican Americans formed La Raza
Unida to elect Mexican Americans to public
• Lead to better jobs, pay, housing,
• As America grew, Indians lost their land & millions
of their people
• Surviving Indians forced onto reservations
• Many children forced into “Indian schools”
• Indian language & culture forbidden here
• Indian children taught to assimilate – blend
into white culture
• 1950s, Bureau of Indian Affairs started
“termination policy”
• State governments would control
• Indians also lost another 1.6 million
• Indians united against termination
• National Congress of American
Indians (NCAI) – founded to protect
Indians – led protests
• Govt. changed policy 1958
• By 1960s, Indians were least wealthy & least healthy of all
groups in U.S.
• Indian unemployment – 10 times country’s average
• Life expectancy – 20 years shorter than country’s
• 1961, Indians issued Declaration of Indian Purpose –
wanted to control own lives
• Demanded rights for people on reservations & acceptance
of Indian laws
• 1970s, Indians won control of social programs, law
enforcement, & education
• Native Americans also won back some land
• Also went to court over hunting & fishing rights on old
• Women’s rights movement began mid-1800s
• Victory achieved 1920 – women gained right
to vote
• But women still had few rights & job
• WWII, 7 million women filled jobs for men
• When soldiers came home, many women lost
• 1960s, women still discriminated against at work & few
legal rights
• Married women could not sign contracts, sell property, or
get credit
• Women could lose job if got pregnant (encouraged to quit)
• In The Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan described problem for
• Women wanted more than husband, children, & home
• 1966 Friedan started National Organization for Women
• Tried to help women get good jobs & equal pay
• 1966, 4% of lawyers & 1% of judges were women
• Women earned only 60% of what men earned
• 2012, women still only earned 78% of what men did
• Problem – “Glass Ceiling” – invisible barrier keeping women
from advancing
• 2012, women lead 18 of 500 biggest companies in US
• 1972 Congress passed Equal Rights
Amendment (ERA)
• Equality shall not be denied or abridged
(shortened) by government because of
• Tried to protect women against
discrimination & help them achieve
equality in jobs, pay, education
• 38 states had to accept the law
• By deadline, only 35 did
• Opponents argued ERA would destroy
families & that women’s problems were
not govt’s business
• Other reforms helped reduce
• Higher Education Act of
1972 (“Title IX”) –
outlawed discrimination
against women in school
• Example: many schools
spent more money on
men’s sports than
women’s sports
• Title IX made that
• Schedule:
• Warm-Up
• MLK Jr. & Malcolm X Readings
• Closure: Which civil rights leader’s philosophy
do you agree? Why?
• Schedule:
•PPT  New Civil Rights: President
Kennedy/Johnson & New Society
• Closure: How was the civil rights movement
a success? How was the civil rights
• Birmingham protests helped inspire others
• A march on Washington & voter registration
drive helped convince Congress to make
more changes
• Birmingham convinced
Americans to support laws to
protect civil rights
• August 28, 1963, 250,000 joined
March on Washington
• During march, Dr. King delivered his
“I Have a Dream” speech
• He hoped his children would be judged by
“their character” rather than “the color of their
• The march united many civil rights
• Also convinced Kennedy to
promise his support
• President Kennedy did not live long enough to
keep promise
• November 22, 1963, Kennedy & V.P. Lyndon
Johnson went to Texas to campaign
• As motorcade rode through Dallas, shots
rang out
• Kennedy was hit – died within an hour
• Johnson was sworn in as president –
promised to continue Kennedy’s policies
• Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law in July
• Banned segregation in public places
• Created Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission – to prevent job
• Segregation officially became illegal
• Fall 1963, Kennedy losing popularity – he supported civil rights
• But most still supported Kennedy
• November 22, 1963, Kennedy landed in Dallas, TX
• Came to make friends w/ state’s Democratic Party
• Streets of downtown Dallas full of applause
• Jackie & President Kennedy sat in open-air limousine
• Governor John Connally (& wife) sat in front
• As limo approached Texas School Book Depository, rifle shots rang out
• President Kennedy was shot in head
• Taken to nearby hospital – President Kennedy was dead
• Lyndon Johnson took over as President
• Dallas police charged Lee Harvey Oswald w/ murder
• Palm print found on rifle used to kill Kennedy
• Oswald was 24, ex-marine, had lived in Soviet Union, supported Castro
• November 24, while Oswald being transferred to another prison, Jack
Ruby shot & killed Oswald on TV
• Some people wondered if Oswald involved in conspiracy
• 1963, Warren Commission investigated Kennedy’s murder
• Concluded Oswald shot Kennedy on his own
• Another investigation in 1979 found Oswald had taken
part in conspiracy
• Investigators believed 2 people fired on President
• Various theories have come about:
• Anti-Castro Cubans
• Communist-sponsored attack
• Conspiracy by CIA
• American mafia
• V.P. Lyndon Johnson
• South had used literacy tests, poll
taxes, & violence to stop blacks from
• Civil Rights Act said states cannot
use different voting standards for
blacks & whites
• Same year, states ratified 24th
• Outlawed poll taxes
• Still, many blacks had hard time
• 1964, SNCC organized voter
registration drive for Southern
blacks – Freedom Summer
• Volunteers were harassed & some even
• But they registered many African American
• President Johnson told Alabama
Governor George Wallace he
wanted no more violence
• President sent troops to protect
• August 6, 1965, Johnson signed
Voting Rights Act
• Banned literacy tests & other laws
preventing people from voting
• Johnson’s presidency called Great Society
• Helped poor, elderly, women, & the disenfranchised (people not
allowed to vote)
• Also passed laws to promote education, end discrimination,
protect environment
• Many of these programs still exist today – Medicare (health
insurance for elderly) & Medicaid (medical care for poor)
• Congress also passed Elementary & Secondary School Act –
federal funds for education
• Congress also strengthened Clean Air Act & Clean Water Act
• Passed laws to protect endangered species & preserve forest
• Late 1960s, civil rights leader disagreed
about movement
• SCLC wanted more nonviolent protest
• But other groups wanted to be more
• 1966, SNCC kicked out white members
• They began to call for “black power”
• Wanted blacks to make own
organizations to fight racism
• Nation of Islam – branch of Islam
begun in U.S. – also told blacks to
separate from whites
• NOI led by Elijah Muhammad
• But most popular member was
Malcolm X
• By mid-1960s, however, Malcolm X rejected NOI
(but he remained Muslim)
• In Mecca, Saudi Arabia, Malcolm X saw all
Muslims living in peace
• He learned that what Nation of Islam taught was
not real Islam
• He came back to U.S. & wanted all races to be
• 1965, members of Nation of Islam killed
Malcolm X
• In North, no laws took away blacks’ civil rights
• But they were still discriminated against
• African Americans in cities grew frustrated  riots
• April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King was assassinated in
Memphis, TN
• African American communities erupted in violence
(40 died)
• Schedule:
•Civil Rights Review Packet & Questions
• Closure: How did the civil rights movement
progress throughout the 20th century?
• Schedule:
•User/password  guest
•Social Studies  US History II –Peshler
•1st Tab  Civil Rights (JFK Assassination)
•Open up link
• Closure: Who killed President JFK?
• Schedule:
•Civil Rights Test
• Closure: How did the civil rights movement
progress throughout the 20th century?

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