Neonatal Calf Diarrhea

Report

Health and Disease in Calves and Heifers
Overview
 Common Disease Problems
 Neonatal Calf Diarrhea (Scours)
 Bovine Respiratory Disease (Pneumonia)
 Other Common Diseases (Navel ill, Arthritis, … )
 Dehorning
 Vaccination Programs
 Impacts of Disease on Future Performance
 Take Home Messages
Common Calf Diseases
 Scours (Diarrhea)
 Pneumonia (BRD)
 Septicemia
 Joint ill (Arthritis)
 Navel ill (Omphalophlebitis)
 Meningitis
 Bloat
 Deficiencies
www.canadianhay.com
 Malformations
Studies on the Incidence of Calf Disease
WaltnerToews
Ontario
1986
Curtis
New
York
1988
Sivula
Minnesota
1995
Virtala
New York
1996
Windeyer
Ontario
2010
Overall
Averages
Diarrhea
20.5
15.1
15.1
28.8
23
20
BRD
15.4
7.4
7.6
25.6
22
15
Other
n/a
7.7
1.3
33.2
7.5
5
TOTAL
35
30.2
24
87.6
43
40
Scours (Neonatal Calf Diarrhea)
 Case Definition?
 Age groups usually affected?
 How to identify severity?
Case Definition – Calf Diarrhea
 Neonatal Calf Diarrhea (scours)
 Manure of looser consistency than
normal, that persists for 2 or more days
 Decreased appetite,
dullness, fever
and dehydration
Assessing the Severity of Diarrhea
Fecal Scoring System
0
1
2
3
 Scale 0 – 3
 0 = normal
 1 = semi-formed, pasty
 2 = loose
 3 = watery
• From Sheila McGuirk’s Calf Health Scoring
Chart
• http://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/dms/fapm/fapmtools/8calf/calf_
health_scoring_chart.pdf
Assessing the Severity of Dehydration
Assessing the Severity of Dehydration
Normal
Mild to
Moderate
Dehydration
– Needs Oral
Electrolytes
Severe
Dehydration
– Needs IV
Fluids
Scours – Common Pathogens
 E. coli

0-3 days of age
 Rotavirus

2-3 weeks of age
E. coli
Rotavirus
 Coronavirus

2-3 weeks of age
 Salmonella

Coronavirus
1–5 weeks of age
Salmonella
 Cryptosporidium parvum

2-4 Weeks of age
C. parvum
Cryptosporidium parvum in calves
 Main cause of diarrhea in young calves (2-4 weeks)
 High morbidity (dehydration, decreased weight gain)
 Low mortality
 Self-limiting diarrhea
 Oocysts very resistant
 No effective, specific treatment
 Prevention can be achieved with a high plane of nutrition
 Halocur oral preparation can be used for prevention
Scours - Treatment
 Electrolytes
 IV vs oral rehydration
 What about feeding milk?
 Stop feeding milk??
 Separate feedings of electrolytes
and milk??
 Antibiotics – for E. coli diarrhea in
very young calves
 Metacam for abdominal pain
Scours – Prevention/Proactive Approach
 Vaccine for pregnant cows
 Provide adequate amount of
good quality, clean colostrum
 Decrease contact between
calves
 Cleaning and disinfection of calf
housing
Economic Impact of Calf Scours
 Treatment costs
 Some death loss:
 12.8% ( < 1 week old)
 5.1% ( > 1 week old)
 Decreased weight gain
 Increased risk of getting pneumonia/other
illnesses
Pneumonia – Respiratory Disease
 Definition:
 Age groups usually affected?
 How to identify sick calves?
 Symptoms
 Behaviour
Case Definition Pneumonia
 Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD)
 Increased respiratory rate, effort and sound
 Fever
 Dullness or depression
 Decreased appetite
 Rough hair coat
 Nasal and/or ocular discharge
 Coughing
Assessing the Nasal Discharge
Calf Health Scoring System
Nasal Score
Normal
Small amount cloudy
discharge, one nostril
Both nostrils, cloudy
or excessive clear
discharge
Both nostrils, cloudy,
excessive, thick
discharge
0
1
2
3
Pneumonia – Causes
 Pneumonia is a multifactorial disease
 Environment, immunity of calf, pathogens
 Common pathogens include:







Mycoplasma
Pasteurella
Mannheimia
IBR
BVD
BRSV
PI3
Environmental Contributors
 Season
 Crowding
 Mixing
 Poor Ventilation
 Contact with older
animals
Pneumonia - Treatment
 Careful Observation and Early Treatment
 Systemic Antibiotic Treatment
 Several effective products
 Resflor, Excede, Ceftiofur, Baytril, Draxxin
 Appropriate housing and nursing care
 Consider metaphylactic group treatment
 Limited evidence for oral medication
Potential Solutions for BRD
 Environment
 Management
 Calving
 Colostrum
 Hygiene
 Housing
 Nutrition
 Disease monitoring
 Genetics
 Vaccination
Costs of Respiratory Disease
Medication, labour, veterinary services
Premature culling
Decreased growth
Delayed age at first calving
Increased calving difficulties
Lifetime profitability
 WELFARE CONCERNS
Questions about Vaccination Programs
 Vaccination to pregnant cows – diarrhea ??
 Vaccines for respiratory disease
 Inforce3, Bovishield, many other products ….
 When to vaccinate?
 How many times?
 Benefits ??
Window of Susceptibility
Calf and Herd Vaccination Program
.
.
10-way MLV
booster
.
5-way MLV
Inforce 3
(BRD)
IN
At 6 weeks
Birth
Weaning
2
W
e
e
k
s
4
W
e
e
k
s
10-way
MLV
Prebreeding
10-way MLV
booster at 6
and 7 months
Six Months
1
Year
15
Months
Scour Prevention
Vaccine
and E.coli (J-5)
At entry to dry pen
.
and booster 3 weeks
before calving
7
Mo
Gest
First
Calving
4
Preg
Months Check
Fresh
Other Calf Diseases

Scours (Diarrhea)

Pneumonia (BRD)
 Septicemia
 Joint ill (Arthritis)
 Navel ill (Omphalophlebitis)
 Meningitis
 Bloat
 Deficiencies
 Malformations
Questions on Dehorning Dairy Calves
 When/what age?
 Methods of dehorning –
 Caustic paste
 Burning horn buds
 Most effective method?
 Should pain relief be provided?
 Analgesic, anaesthetics, pain relief
Pain at Dehorning
Did this calf have a
Lidocaine Block ????
Did this calf have a
Lidocaine Block ????
Dehorning Methods and Results
Caustic Paste
Caustic Stick
Portasol
Recommendations for Dehorning
 Canadian code of practice for dairy cattle
 recommends local anesthetic for dehorning
 Dehorn calves as young as possible
 Use NSAID’s (Metacam) if dehorning older than 4 weeks
Disease Control for Replacement Heifers:
 PARASITE CONTROL
 MASTITIS CONTROL
 LAMENESS
 PINK-EYE
Take Home Message
 Calf Diarrhea is common and can be managed
for minimal long-term impact
 It is critical to prevent calf respiratory disease
to avoid profound long-term impacts
 Vaccination programs can be very effective
 Housing and management is important
Questions !!!

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