Health and Disease in Calves and Heifers Overview Common Disease Problems Neonatal Calf Diarrhea (Scours) Bovine Respiratory Disease (Pneumonia) Other Common Diseases (Navel ill, Arthritis, … ) Dehorning Vaccination Programs Impacts of Disease on Future Performance Take Home Messages Common Calf Diseases Scours (Diarrhea) Pneumonia (BRD) Septicemia Joint ill (Arthritis) Navel ill (Omphalophlebitis) Meningitis Bloat Deficiencies www.canadianhay.com Malformations Studies on the Incidence of Calf Disease WaltnerToews Ontario 1986 Curtis New York 1988 Sivula Minnesota 1995 Virtala New York 1996 Windeyer Ontario 2010 Overall Averages Diarrhea 20.5 15.1 15.1 28.8 23 20 BRD 15.4 7.4 7.6 25.6 22 15 Other n/a 7.7 1.3 33.2 7.5 5 TOTAL 35 30.2 24 87.6 43 40 Scours (Neonatal Calf Diarrhea) Case Definition? Age groups usually affected? How to identify severity? Case Definition – Calf Diarrhea Neonatal Calf Diarrhea (scours) Manure of looser consistency than normal, that persists for 2 or more days Decreased appetite, dullness, fever and dehydration Assessing the Severity of Diarrhea Fecal Scoring System 0 1 2 3 Scale 0 – 3 0 = normal 1 = semi-formed, pasty 2 = loose 3 = watery • From Sheila McGuirk’s Calf Health Scoring Chart • http://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/dms/fapm/fapmtools/8calf/calf_ health_scoring_chart.pdf Assessing the Severity of Dehydration Assessing the Severity of Dehydration Normal Mild to Moderate Dehydration – Needs Oral Electrolytes Severe Dehydration – Needs IV Fluids Scours – Common Pathogens E. coli 0-3 days of age Rotavirus 2-3 weeks of age E. coli Rotavirus Coronavirus 2-3 weeks of age Salmonella Coronavirus 1–5 weeks of age Salmonella Cryptosporidium parvum 2-4 Weeks of age C. parvum Cryptosporidium parvum in calves Main cause of diarrhea in young calves (2-4 weeks) High morbidity (dehydration, decreased weight gain) Low mortality Self-limiting diarrhea Oocysts very resistant No effective, specific treatment Prevention can be achieved with a high plane of nutrition Halocur oral preparation can be used for prevention Scours - Treatment Electrolytes IV vs oral rehydration What about feeding milk? Stop feeding milk?? Separate feedings of electrolytes and milk?? Antibiotics – for E. coli diarrhea in very young calves Metacam for abdominal pain Scours – Prevention/Proactive Approach Vaccine for pregnant cows Provide adequate amount of good quality, clean colostrum Decrease contact between calves Cleaning and disinfection of calf housing Economic Impact of Calf Scours Treatment costs Some death loss: 12.8% ( < 1 week old) 5.1% ( > 1 week old) Decreased weight gain Increased risk of getting pneumonia/other illnesses Pneumonia – Respiratory Disease Definition: Age groups usually affected? How to identify sick calves? Symptoms Behaviour Case Definition Pneumonia Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) Increased respiratory rate, effort and sound Fever Dullness or depression Decreased appetite Rough hair coat Nasal and/or ocular discharge Coughing Assessing the Nasal Discharge Calf Health Scoring System Nasal Score Normal Small amount cloudy discharge, one nostril Both nostrils, cloudy or excessive clear discharge Both nostrils, cloudy, excessive, thick discharge 0 1 2 3 Pneumonia – Causes Pneumonia is a multifactorial disease Environment, immunity of calf, pathogens Common pathogens include: Mycoplasma Pasteurella Mannheimia IBR BVD BRSV PI3 Environmental Contributors Season Crowding Mixing Poor Ventilation Contact with older animals Pneumonia - Treatment Careful Observation and Early Treatment Systemic Antibiotic Treatment Several effective products Resflor, Excede, Ceftiofur, Baytril, Draxxin Appropriate housing and nursing care Consider metaphylactic group treatment Limited evidence for oral medication Potential Solutions for BRD Environment Management Calving Colostrum Hygiene Housing Nutrition Disease monitoring Genetics Vaccination Costs of Respiratory Disease Medication, labour, veterinary services Premature culling Decreased growth Delayed age at first calving Increased calving difficulties Lifetime profitability WELFARE CONCERNS Questions about Vaccination Programs Vaccination to pregnant cows – diarrhea ?? Vaccines for respiratory disease Inforce3, Bovishield, many other products …. When to vaccinate? How many times? Benefits ?? Window of Susceptibility Calf and Herd Vaccination Program . . 10-way MLV booster . 5-way MLV Inforce 3 (BRD) IN At 6 weeks Birth Weaning 2 W e e k s 4 W e e k s 10-way MLV Prebreeding 10-way MLV booster at 6 and 7 months Six Months 1 Year 15 Months Scour Prevention Vaccine and E.coli (J-5) At entry to dry pen . and booster 3 weeks before calving 7 Mo Gest First Calving 4 Preg Months Check Fresh Other Calf Diseases Scours (Diarrhea) Pneumonia (BRD) Septicemia Joint ill (Arthritis) Navel ill (Omphalophlebitis) Meningitis Bloat Deficiencies Malformations Questions on Dehorning Dairy Calves When/what age? Methods of dehorning – Caustic paste Burning horn buds Most effective method? Should pain relief be provided? Analgesic, anaesthetics, pain relief Pain at Dehorning Did this calf have a Lidocaine Block ???? Did this calf have a Lidocaine Block ???? Dehorning Methods and Results Caustic Paste Caustic Stick Portasol Recommendations for Dehorning Canadian code of practice for dairy cattle recommends local anesthetic for dehorning Dehorn calves as young as possible Use NSAID’s (Metacam) if dehorning older than 4 weeks Disease Control for Replacement Heifers: PARASITE CONTROL MASTITIS CONTROL LAMENESS PINK-EYE Take Home Message Calf Diarrhea is common and can be managed for minimal long-term impact It is critical to prevent calf respiratory disease to avoid profound long-term impacts Vaccination programs can be very effective Housing and management is important Questions !!!