Equil-10 - ChemConnections

Report
Chemical Equilibrium
Dr. Ron Rusay
© Copyright 2003-2010 R.J. Rusay
Chemical Equilibrium
The
reactions considered until now
have had reactants react completely to
form products. These reactions “went”
only in one direction.
Some reactions can react in either
direction. They are “reversible”. When
this occurs some amount of reactant(s)
will always remain in the final reaction
mixture.
Chemical Equilibrium
(Definitions)
A
chemical system where the
concentrations of reactants and
products remain constant over time.
On the molecular level, the system is
dynamic: The rate of change is the
same in either the forward or reverse
directions.
Dynamic Equilibrium
“The Pennies”
• Organize into groups of 4.
• Dr. R will provide your group with a number and an
accounting form.
• In your group, select one person as:
1) Money Keeper
2) Recorder
3) Transfer Agent
4) Auditor
•Have the Recorder put everyone’s name on the accounting
form.
• After recording all of the names send the Money Keeper
to see Dr. R. for your capital stake.
• Await instructions for phase I.
Dynamic Equilibrium
“The Pennies”
There will be 8 phases. Find your Equilibrium partners eg.
IA with IB, IIA with IIB, etc.
Phase I:
Phase II:
G roup
Rate
initial
change
final
initial
change
final
1X
-30%
40
-12
28
-30%
28
1Y
-10%
0
+12
12
-10%
12
2X
-30%
20
-6+10
24
-25%
24
2Y
-50%
20
-10+6
16
-50%
16
Dynamic Equilibrium
“The Pennies”
There will be 8 phases. Find your Equilibrium partners eg.
IA with IB, IIA with IIB, etc.
Phase I:
Phase II:
G roup
Rate
initial
change
final
initial
change
final
1X
-30%
40
-12
28
-30%
28
1Y
-10%
0
+12
12
-10%
12
2X
-30%
20
-6+10
24
-25%
24
2Y
-50%
20
-10+6
16
-50%
16
Dynamic Equilibrium
“The Pennies”
There will be 8 phases. Find your Equilibrium partners eg.
IA with IB, IIA with IIB, etc.
Phase I:
Phase II:
G roup
Rate
initial
change
final
initial
change
final
1X
-30%
40
-12
28
-30%
28
1Y
-10%
0
+12
12
-10%
12
2X
-30%
20
-6+10
24
-25%
24
2Y
-50%
20
-10+6
16
-50%
16
Dynamic Equilibrium
“The Pennies”
There will be 8 phases. Here are examples of 2 phases with
two Equilibrium partners X and Y and two separate
groups: 1 and 2. Find your Equilibrium partners eg. IA
with IB, IIA with IIB, etc.
Phase I:
Phase II:
G roup
Rate
initial
change
final
initial
change
final
1X
-30%
40
-12
28
-30%
28
1Y
-10%
0
+12
12
-10%
12
2X
-30%
20
-6+10
24
-25%
24
2Y
-50%
20
-10+6
16
-50%
16
Calculate the change and final amounts for your Phase I, which is the
initial amount for Phase II.. Once you are ready, you can begin and go
through Phases 1-4 at your own pace. Stop after Phase 4 and await
further instructions..
Pennies Results
G roup
Rate
initial
change
final
initial
change
final
IA
-50%
40
-10%
20
-50%
IIA
-25%
20
IIB
-50%
20
IIIA
-10%
20
IIIB
-50%
20
IVA
-50%
0
IVB
-25%
40
20
-10%
25
-25%
15
-50%
28
-10%
12
-50%
10
-50%
30
-25%
12
-50%
28
-10%
20
-25%
13
-50%
31
-10%
9
-50%
12
-50%
28
-25%
9
31
-10%
27
-25%
14
-50%
33
-10%
7
-50%
13
-50%
27
-25%
33
27
14
34
6
13
27
initial
change
final
-50%
initial
change
final
initial
change
final
initial
change
final
initial
change
final
initial
change
final
IB
7
0
-25%
-50%
-50%
-10%
-50%
-25%
-10%
-50%
22
-25%
18
-50%
14
-50%
26
-10%
19
-50%
21
-25%
25
-10%
15
-50%
25
-25%
15
-50%
10
-50%
30
-10%
14
-50%
26
-25%
30
-10%
10
-50%
27
-25%
13
-50%
8
-50%
32
-10%
14
-50%
26
-25%
32
-10%
-50%
27
13
33
14
26
33
7
7
7
Dynamic Equilibrium
“The Pennies”
Class Results
http://chemconnections.org/general/chem120/equil-graph.html
Simulator:
http://chemconnections.org/Java/equilibrium/
Dynamic Equilibrium
“The Pennies”
http://chemconnections.org/general/chem120/equil-graph.html
Chemical Equilibrium

Consider
A
B
[Refer to the Equilibrium Worksheet.]

If the reaction begins with just A, as the reaction progresses:
• [A] decreases to a constant concentration,
• [B] increases from zero to a constant concentration.
• When [A] and [B] are constant, equilibrium is reached.
Chemical Equilibrium
Graphical Treatment of Rates & Changes
• Rate of loss of A = -kf [A]; decreases to a
constant,
• Rate of formation of B = kr [B]; increases from
zero to a constant.
• When -kf [A] = kr [B] equilibrium is reached.
QUESTION
The changes in concentrations with time for the reaction H2O(g) + CO(g)  H2(g) + CO2(g) are
graphed below when equimolar quantities of H2O(g) and CO(g) are mixed.
Which of the comments given here accurately apply to the concentration versus time
graph for the H2O + CO reaction?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The point where the two curves cross shows the concentrations of reactants
and products at equilibrium.
The slopes of tangent lines to each curve at a specific time prior to reaching
equilibrium are equal, but opposite, because the stoichiometry between the
products and reactants is all 1:1.
Equilibrium is reached when the H2O and CO curves (green) gets to the same
level as the CO2 and H2 curves (red) begin.
The slopes of tangent lines to both curves at a particular time indicate that the
reaction is fast and reaches equilibrium.
Answer
B) is the only statement that accurately comments on this
graph. When the stoichiometry is not 1:1 the slopes of tangent
lines to both curves at a particular time reflect the
stoichiometry ratio of the reactants.
Chemical Equilibrium
N2(g) + 3H2(g)




2NH3(g)
Add nitrogen and hydrogen gases together in any
proportions. Nothing noticeable occurs.
Add heat, pressure and a catalyst, you smell
ammonia => a mixture with constant concentrations
of N2 , H2 and NH3 is produced.
Start with just ammonia and catalyst. N2 and H2 will
be produced until a state of equilibrium is reached.
As before, a mixture with constant concentrations of
nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia is produced.
Chemical Equilibrium
N2(g) + 3H2(g)
2NH3(g)
No matter what the starting composition
of reactants and products, the same ratio
of concentrations is realized when
equilibrium is reached at a certain
temperature and pressure.
Chemical Equilibrium
N2(g) + 3H2(g)
The Previous Examples Graphically:
2NH3(g)
QUESTION
This is a concentration profile for the reaction N2(g) + 3H2(g)  2NH3(g) when only
N2(g) and H2(g) are mixed initially.
The figure shown here represents the concentration versus time relationship for the
synthesis of ammonia (NH3). Which of the following correctly interprets an observation of
the system?
A.
B
C.
D.
At equilibrium, the concentration of NH3 remains constant even though some is
also forming N2 and H2, because some N2 and H2 continues to form NH3.
The NH3 curve (red) crosses the N2 curve (blue) before reaching equilibrium
because it is formed at a slower rate than N2 rate of use.
All slopes of tangent lines become equal at equilibrium because the reaction
began with no product (NH3).
If the initial N2 and H2 concentrations were doubled from what is shown here, the
final positions of those curves would be twice as high, but the NH3 curve would
be the same.
Answer
A) properly states the relationship between reactants and
products in a system that has reached a dynamic
equilibrium. At equilibrium, the rate of the forward
reaction continues at a pace that is equal to the continued
pace of the reverse reaction.
Law of Mass Action
(Equilibrium Expression)


For a reaction:
• jA + kB  lC + mD
The law of mass action is represented
by the Equilibrium Expression: where K
is the Equilibrium Constant. (Units for K
will vary.)
l
m
C D
K
A j Bk
QUESTION
One of the environmentally important reactions involved in acid
rain production has the following equilibrium expression. From
the expression, what would be the balanced chemical reaction?
Note: all components are in the gas phase.
K = [SO3]/([SO2][O2]1/2)
A.
B.
C.
D.
SO3(g)  SO2(g) + 2O2(g)
SO3(g)  SO2(g) + 1/2O2(g)
SO2(g) + 2O2(g)  SO3(g)
SO2(g) + 1/2O2(g)  SO3(g)
Answer
D) properly shows the product SO3 on the right and
incorporates the previous exponents from the equilibrium
expression as coefficients in the chemical equation.
Equilibrium Expression

4 NH3(g) + 7 O2(g)  4 NO2(g) + 6 H2O(g)

Write the Equilibrium Expression for the reaction. The
expression will have either concentration units of
mol/L (M), or units of pressure (atm) for the reactants
and products. What would be the overall unit for K
using Molarity and atm units respectively.
4
6
NO2 H 2O
K
4
7
NH3 O2
K’s units = M -1= L/mol or atm-1
QUESTION
Starting with the initial concentrations of:
[NH3] = 2.00 M; [N2] = 2.00 M; [H2] = 2.00 M,
what would you calculate as the equilibrium ratio once the
equilibrium position is reached for the ammonia synthesis
reaction?
N2 + 3H2  2NH3
A.
B.
C.
D.
1.00
0.250
4.00
This cannot be done from the information provided.
Answer
D) is the correct response. The concentrations given are for the
INITIAL position. In order to calculate the K ratio of products
to reactants the equilibrium position concentrations must be
observed.
Equilibrium Expressions
1)
If a reaction is re-written where the
reactants become products and
products-reactants, the new Equilibrium
Expression is the reciprocal of the old.
Knew = 1 / Koriginal
2) When the entire equation for a
reaction is multiplied by n,
Knew = (Koriginal)n
The Equilibrium Constant
N2O4(g)
2NO2(g)
NO2 

Kc 
 0.212
N2O4 
2
N2O4 
1

Kc 
 4.72
2 
NO2  0.212
The Equilibrium Constant
N2O4(g)
2NO2(g)
2NO2(g)
N2O4(g)
The Equilibrium Constant
N2O4(g)
2NO2(g)
NO2 

Kc 
 0.212
N2O4 
2
2NO2(g)
N2O4(g)
N2O4 
1

Kc 
 4.72
2 
NO2  0.212
QUESTION
One of the primary components in the aroma of rotten eggs is
H2S. At a certain temperature, it will decompose via the
following reaction.
2H2S(g)  2H2(g) + S2(g)
If an equilibrium mixture of the gases contained the following
pressures of the components, what would be the value of Kp?
PH2S = 1.19 atm; PH2 = 0.25 atm; PS2 = 0.25 atm
A.
B.
C.
D.
0.011
91
0.052
0.013
ANSWER
A) provides the correct Kp value. Whether the equilibrium
constant is based on pressure or molarity, the ratio is
always set to show products divided by reactants. In
addition, the pressure must be raised to the power that
corresponds to the coefficients in the balanced equation.
Heterogeneous Equilibrium
Heterogeneous Equilibria
When
all reactants and products are in
one phase, the equilibrium is
homogeneous.
If one or more reactants or products are
in a different phase, the equilibrium is
heterogeneous.
• CaCO3(s)  CaO(s) + CO2(g)
K
= [CO2]
Heterogeneous Equilibria
CaCO3(s)  CaO(s) + CO2(g)
K = [CO2]
•Experimentally, the amount of CO2
does not meaningfully depend on the
amounts of CaO and CaCO3.
•The position of a heterogeneous
equilibrium does not depend on the
amounts of pure solids or liquids
present.
QUESTION
The liquid metal mercury can be obtained from its ore cinnabar
via the following reaction:
HgS(s) + O2(g)  Hg(l) + SO2(g)
Which of the following shows the proper expression for Kc?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Kc = [Hg][SO2]/[HgS][O2]
Kc = [SO2]/[O2]
Kc = [Hg][SO2]/[O2]
Kc = [O2]/[SO2]
Answer
B) correctly presents the product to reactant ratio. Recall that
pure liquids and solids are not shown in the equilibrium
constant expression.
QUESTION
At a certain temperature, FeO can react with CO to form Fe
and CO2. If the Kp value at that temperature was 0.242, what
would you calculate as the pressure of CO2 at equilibrium if a
sample of FeO was initially in a container with CO at a
pressure of 0.95 atm?
FeO(s) + CO(g)  Fe(s) + CO2(g)
A.
B.
C.
D.
0.24 atm
0.48 atm
0.19 atm
0.95 atm
ANSWER
C) provides the correct pressure in this equilibrium system.
Solids do not appear in the equilibrium expression, so Kp =
PCO2/PCO. Also the reaction indicates a 1:1 ratio between the
change in CO and CO2. Therefore Kp = X/(0.95 – X)
The Equilibrium Constant K
Calculating Equilibrium Constants
• Tabulate 1) initial and 2) equilibrium concentrations
(or partial pressures).
• Having both an initial and an equilibrium
concentration for any species, calculate its change
in concentration.
• Apply stoichiometry to the change in concentration
to calculate the changes in concentration of all
species.
• Deduce the equilibrium concentrations of all
species.
CH3COOC2H5(aq) + H2O(aq)
CH3COOH(aq) + C2H5OH (aq)
Kc: 5.00 ml of ethyl alcohol, 5.00 ml of acetic acid and 5.00 ml of 3M
hydrochloric acid were mixed in a vial and allowed to come to
equilibrium. The equilibrium mixture was titrated and found to
contain 0.04980 mol of acetic acid at equilibrium. What is the value
of Kc ?
1) Calculate the initial molar concentrations (moles are OK in this case).
2) Use the equilibrium concentration of acetic acid to determine the changes and
the equilibrium concentrations of the others.
3) Place the equilibrium values into the equilibrium expression to find it’s value.
CH3COOC2H5(aq) + H2O(aq)
Initial (mol)
0
Change
+0.0375
Equilibrium 0.0375
Kc = 0.214
CH3COOH(aq) + C2H5OH (aq)
0.261
0.0873
0.0856
+0.0375
-0.0375
-0.0375
0.2985
0.0498
0.0481
0.0873 - 0.0498 = 0.0375
Calculating Equilibrium Constants
•1) Write the Equilibrium Expression for the
hydrolysis of ethyl acetate and calculate Kc from
the following equilibrium concentrations.
•2) Write the Equilibrium Expression for the
formation of ethyl acetate from acetic acid and
calculate Kc from the following equilibrium
concentrations.
Ethyl acetate = 0.01217 M; Ethanol = 0.01623 M
Acetic acid = 0.01750 M ; Water = 0.09267 M
Calculating Kc from Concentration Data
2 HI(g)
H2 (g) + I2 (g)
4.00 mol HI was placed in a 5.00 L vessel at 458°C, the equilibrium
mixture was found to contain 0.442 mol I2. What is the value of Kc ?
Calculate the molar concentrations, and put them into
the equilibrium expression to find it’s value.
Starting conc. of HI = 4.00 mol = 0.800 M
5.00 L
0.442 mol
Equilibrium conc. of I2 =
= 0.0884 M
5.00 L
Conc. (M)
Starting
Change
Equilibrium
2HI(g)
0.800
- 2x
0.800 - 2x
H2 (g)
0
x
x
I2 (g)
0
x
x = 0.0884
Calculating Kc from Concentration Data
(continued)
2 HI(g)
H2 (g) + I2 (g)
[HI] = M = (0.800 - 2 x 0.0884) M = 0.623 M
[H2] = x = 0.0884 M = [I2]
Kc =
[H2] [I2]
[HI]2
=
( 0.0884)(0.0884)
(0.623)2
= 0.0201
What does the value 0.0201 mean? Does the decomposition proceed
very far under these temperature conditions?
Note: The initial concentrations, and one at equilibrium were provided. The
others that were needed to calculate the equilibrium constant were deduced
algebraically.
Calculation of Equilibrium
Concentrations




The same steps used to calculate equilibrium
constants are used.
Generally, we do not have a number for the change
in concentrations line.
Therefore, we need to assume that x mol/L of a
species is produced (or used).
The equilibrium concentrations are given as
algebraic expressions.Solution of a quadratic
equation may be necessary.
If you are
interested
in this
interactive
Flash tool,
send Dr. R.
an e-mail
and he will
send it you
as an
attachment.
http://chemconnections.org/general/chem120/UsinganEquilibriumTableII.swf
QUESTION
The weak acid HC2H3O2, acetic acid, is a key component in
vinegar. As an acid the aqueous dissociation equilibrium could
be represented as
HC2H3O2(aq)  H+(aq) + C2H3O2 –(aq).
At room temperature the Kc value, at approximately 1.8  10–5,
is not large. What would be the equilibrium concentration of H+
starting from 1.0 M acetic acid solution?
A.
B.
C.
D.
1.8  10–5 M
4.2  10–3 M
9.0  10–5 M
More information is needed to complete this calculation.
ANSWER
B) is correct assuming that 1.0 – X can be approximated to 1.0.
The relatively small value for K indicates that, compared to
1.0, X would not be large enough to include in the calculation.
The equilibrium expression could be simplified to K = X2/1.0.
A quick test of this hypothesis could be made by using the 4.2
 10–3 value as X and checking the right side of the expression
to see if it was the same as 1.8  10–5.
Equilibrium Concentration Calculations
from Initial Concentrations and Kc
The reaction to form HF from hydrogen and fluorine has an equilibrium
constant of 115 at temperature T. If 3.000 mol of each component
is added to a 1.500 L flask, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of
each species.
H2 (g) + F2 (g)
Solution:
2
[HF]
Kc =
= 115
[H2] [F2]
2 HF(g)
[H2] =3.000 mol = 2.000 M
1.500 L
[F2] = 3.000 mol = 2.000 M
1.500 L
3.000 mol
[HF] =
= 2.000 M
1.500 L
Equilibrium Concentration Calculations
H2 (g) + F2 (g)  2 HF(g ) (Continued)
Concentration (M)
H2
F2
HF
__________________________________________
Initial
2.000
2.000
2.000
Change
-x
-x
+2x
Final
2.000-x 2.000-x 2.000+2x
2
2
2
[HF]
(2.000
+
2x)
(2.000
+
2x)
Kc =
= 115 =
=
[H2][F2]
(2.000 - x) (2.000 - x)
(2.000 - x)2
Taking the square root of each side:
+ 2x) =10.7238
(115)1/2 =(2.000
(2.000 - x)
[H2] = 2.000 - 1.528 = 0.472 M
[F2] = 2.000 - 1.528 = 0.472 M
[HF] = 2.000 + 2(1.528) = 5.056 M
x = 1.528
2
2
[HF]
(5.056
M)
Kc =
=
[H2][F2] (0.472 M)(0.472 M)
check:
Kc = 115
Using the Quadratic Equation to solve for an unknown
The gas phase reaction of 2 moles of CO and 1 mole of H2O in a 1L vessel:
Concentration (M)
Initial
Change
Equilibrium
[CO2][H2]
CO(g)
2.00
-x
2.00-x
+
H2O(g)
CO2(g)
1.00
-x
1.00-x
0
+x
x
+
H2(g)
0
+x
x
2
(x)
(x)
x
Kc =
=
=
= 1.56
2
[CO][H2O]
(2.00-x)(1.00-x)
x - 3.00x + 2.00
We rearrange the equation:
0.56 x2 - 4.68 x + 3.12 = 0
ax2 + bx + c = 0
quadratic equation:
2 - 4ac
b
+
b
x=
[CO] = 1.27 M
2a
[H2O] = 0.27 M
2
[CO2] = 0.73 M
x = 4.68 + (-4.68) - 4(0.56)(3.12) = 7.6 M
2(0.56)
[H2] = 0.73 M
and 0.73 M
Reaction Quotient (Q) vs. K
K vs. Q: Equilibrium Constants
Has equilibrium been reached?

Has equilibrium been reached? Q is the “reaction
quotient” for any general reaction, for example:
 aA + bB
mM + pP
 M  P 
Q
a
b
 A   B
m
p
[A], [B], [P], and [M] are Molarities at any time.
Q = K only at equilibrium
Q vs. K: Predicting the Direction of Reaction


If Q < K then the forward reaction must occur to
reach equilibrium. (i.e., reactants are consumed,
products are formed, the numerator in the
equilibrium constant expression increases and Q
increases until it equals K).
If Q > K then the reverse reaction must occur to
reach equilibrium (i.e., products are consumed,
reactants are formed, the numerator in the
equilibrium constant expression decreases and Q
decreases until it equals K).
Calculating Reaction Direction and
Equilibrium Concentrations
Two components of natural gas can react according to the
following chemical equation:
CH4(g) + 2 H2S(g)
CS2(g) + H2(g)
1.00 mol CH4, 1.00 mol CS2, 2.00 mol H2S, and 2.00 mol H2 are mixed
in a 250 mL vessel at 960°C. At this temperature, Kc = 0.036.
(a) In which direction will the reaction go?
(b) If [CH4] = 5.56 M at equilibrium, what are the concentrations of
the other substances?
Calculate Qc and compare it with Kc. Based upon (a), we determine the
sign of each component for the reaction table and then use the given
[CH4] at equilibrium to determine the others.
Solution:
[CH4] = 1.00 mol = 4.00 M
0.250 L
[H2S] = 8.00 M, [CS2] = 4.00 M
and [H2 ] = 8.00 M
Calculating Reaction Direction and
Equilibrium Concentrations
[CS2] [H2]4
Qc =
=
2
[CH4] [H2S]
4.00 x (8.00)4 = 64.0
4.00 x (8.00)2
Compare Qc and Kc: Qc > Kc (64.0 > 0.036, so the reaction goes to the
left. Therefore, reactants increase and products decrease their
concentrations.
(b) Set up the reaction table, with x = [CS2] that reacts, which equals
the [CH4] that forms.
Concentration (M)
CH4 (g) + 2 H2S(g)
CS2(g) + 4 H2(g)
Initial
Change
Equilibrium
4.00
+x
4.00 + x
8.00
+2x
8.00 + 2x
4.00
-x
4.00 - x
8.00
-4x
8.00 - 4x
Solving for x at equilibrium: [CH4] = 5.56 M = 4.00 M + x
x = 1.56 M
Calculating Reaction Direction and
Equilibrium Concentrations
x = 1.56 M = [CH4]
Therefore:
[H2S] = 8.00 M + 2x = 8.00 M + 2(1.56 M) = 11.12 M
[CS2] = 4.00 M - x = 4.00 M - 1.56 M = 2.44 M
[H2] = 8.00 M - 4x = 8.00 M - 4(1.56 M) = 1.76 M
[CH4] = 1.56 M
Le Châtelier’s Principle

. . . if a change is imposed on a system at
equilibrium, the position of the equilibrium will shift
in a direction that tends to reduce that change.
Le Châtelier’s Principle
NO2 - N2O4
Temperature Dependence of K
Changes on the System
1. Concentration: The system will shift
concentrations away from the added
component. K remains the same.
2. Temperature: K changes depending upon
the reaction.



If endothermic, heat is treated as a “reactant”, if
exothermic, heat is a “product”. Endo- > K
increases; Exo- > K decreases.
if H > 0, adding heat favors the forward
reaction,
if H < 0, adding heat favors the reverse
reaction.
Chemical Equilibrium
Which is favored by raising the temperature in the
following equilibrium reaction? A+B or C
QUESTION
The following table shows the relation between the value of K
and temperature of the system:
At 25°C; K = 45; at 50°C; K = 145; at 110°C; K = 467
(a) Would this data indicate that the reaction was endothermic
or exothermic? (b) Would heating the system at equilibrium
cause more or less product to form?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Exothermic; less product
Exothermic; more product
Endothermic; less product
Endothermic; more product
ANSWER
D) makes correct assumptions using Le Châtelier’s principle.
The increase in K with temperature indicates that the reaction
uses energy to produce a higher ratio of product to reactant at
equilibrium. The stress of heat for an endothermic reaction
causes more product to form.
Changes on the System (continued)

3. Pressure:
a. Addition of inert gas does not affect the
equilibrium position.
b. Decreasing the volume shifts the equilibrium
toward the side with fewer moles.
 Kp = Kc (RT)n
n = ngas (products) - ngas (reactants)
• As the volume is decreased pressure increases.
• Le Châtelier’s Principle: if pressure is
increased the system shifts to minimize the
increase.
QUESTION
The balanced equation shown here has a Kp value of 0.011.
What would be the value for Kc ?(at approximately 1,100°C)
2H2S(g)  2H2(g) + S2(g)
A.
B.
C.
D.
0.000098
0.011
0.99
1.2
Answer
A) is obtained from Kp = Kc(RT)n when T is expressed in K
and the expression is solved for Kc
Changes on the System (continued)
4. The Effect of Catalysts



A catalyst lowers the activation energy
barrier for any reaction….in both
forward and reverse directions!
A catalyst will decrease the time it takes
to reach equilibrium.
A catalyst does not effect the
composition of the equilibrium mixture.
Energy vs. Reaction Pathway
Putting it all Together
N2(g) + 3H2(g)
2NH3(g)
Putting it all Together
N2(g) + 3H2(g)
2NH3(g)
Putting it all Together
N2(g) + 3H2(g)
2NH3(g)
Putting it all Together
N2(g) + 3H2(g)
2NH3(g)

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