### pptx 1445kB - jimakers.com

```1
Launch #1
Using what you are given, baseline
the process for shooting the
statapult.
Remember:
Customer desires a rapid-fire,
precise, and accurate launcher that
can launch projectiles over
mountain ranges.
2
VI-2
Objective: To fire the statapult and record the distance for
each of the launches. The measured distance will be from
the back of the launcher to the point where the ball first
lands. Record the distances in the order in which they
were obtained.

Launch
Distance
Sequence
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25





Every shot will be launched
from a pull back angle of
177/65 degrees.
Each person on the team will
perform an equitable number
of launches (or as close as
possible).
"Launching” means pulling
back and releasing.
Time between each shot
cannot exceed 15 seconds.
Record the distances on the
table to the left.
Record the longest distance
(Max) and the shortest
distance (Min) and compute
Range = Max - Min.
Range = ______________
3
VI-2
Distance
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Launch Sequence
See graphing.pdf
4
VI-2

Short term data is considered
free of assignable causes
◦ One shift, one operator

Long term data is considered
to contain both assignable and
common caused variation
◦ Multiple shifts, multiple operators

Processes
tend to
exhibit more
variation in
the long term than the short
5
VI-2
Maps can be created for many different levels of the
process. Just like highway maps…
You can use a map of the USA…
or if you need more detail, a map of the state...
or if you need more detail, a map of the city.
High Level
Detail
Mapping works much the same way. Depending on the
detail you need, create the map at that level. If you need
more detail, then create a more detailed map of the subprocess.
6
VI-4

Process Flow Diagram
◦ Used to identify the steps in a
process
◦ Good for process documentation
and knowledge gathering
◦ May be used in definition, detail
design, analysis and control portions
of a project
Visually sets the
Skin/Core Assembly
Spar Assembly
Upper Skin Assembly
Misc Details
65V
Lay-up
process steps in
order
6A3
Cure
Press L, M, or N
6A3
Clean Tool
65V
Test Heater
Balnket
6PB
Clean Part
Lay-up and Cure
65Q
Tap and Ziess
Clean and Inspect
6P4
Band Saw
Henri Line
6PA
Mech Assy
65Q
Inspect
6PA
Bond Details
6P4
Devlieg
65Q
Inspect
6PA
Bond Closures
Bond Details
6PA Gather
Components
6PA
Fill A/STRP
Electrical Assy
6PB
Leak Test
6P8
Paint
6PG
Static Balance
6PA
Electrical Assy
Mech Assy
6PG
Touch-up Paint
65Q
Final Inspect
Post Bond
Closures
Misc Details
Fairings
7
VI-4

To provide a graphical
representation of the process with
regards to
◦
◦
◦
◦

the people involved,
their responsibilities,
functional interfaces and dependencies,
as well as process steps over time where
necessary.
Critical tool for transactional
processes and when mapping
information flow for industrial
processes

Segregates steps by who does them
or where they are done

Makes handoffs visible
A Swim Lane is a process flow diagram
with resource responsibilities
8
VI-4
Unit
Define
needs
Prepare
paperwork
& use
Process
Steps
Configure
& install
Review &
approve
standard
I.T.
Finance
Issue
payment
Review
&
approve
Top Mgt/
Corporate
Sourcing
Review
&
approve
Review
&
approve
Resources
Responsible for
Process Steps
Acquire
equipment
Supplier
Graphical summary or roles & responsibilities
for a process
Supplier
9
VI-4
Objective:
Develop a process flow diagram that explains how to
launch a ball.
10
VI-4
Supplier
Customer
Process
Input
S
uppliers
(Providers of
the required
resources)
I
nputs
(Resources
required by
the
process)
Output
P
rocess
(Process
requirements
for the
Inputs)
(Top level
description
of activity)
O
utputs
C
(Deliverables (Custome
from the
rRequireprocess)
ments of
the
Outputs)
ustomers
(Anyone
who
deliverable
from the
process)
SIPOC is a process scoping tool that provides a high
level definition of a process –
SIPOC should be used on all Six Sigma projects
11
VI-10
S
uppliers
I
P
nputs
(Providers
of the
required
resources)
(Resources
required by
the
process)
Suppliers
Inputs
rocess
Process
Requireme
nts for the
Inputs
( Top level
description
of activity)
Process
Requirements Boundary
O
(Deliverabl
es from the
process)
Outputs
Shaft dia, life, brg
Assess brg choices and brg selection or new
capacity, TRL's, cost,
select 2
bearing design
6
wt, reliability
3
When does the
What
What
are
Process
start?
strength,
buckling
Inputs
Shaft
mat'lare
the
outputs
required to
stability, fatigue life, dyn
characteristics,
Assess shaft mat'l
from the
enable this cost, tuning, cost, wt,
Shaft suppliers
Shaft
material selection
process?
special
handling
choices and select
process
to and
repairability,
thermal
occur?
machining
reqm'ts
compatibility with T/B
"
cost, wt, tuning,
Shaft length availability,
Select one vs two piece
Shaft suppliers
handling, shaft length
cost
shaft 1
availability
What is the
7
process?
Acceptability of long
Who is the
VOC,
Product
Support
shaft
handling,
"
supplier of
stocking, cost
each
input?
Static strength,
8
torsional buckling,
What does
Shaft mat'l
stiffness
theand wt for dyn Size shaft
Shaft suppliers
Shaft sizing
characteristics, cost tuning,
overall wt, cost,
process
expect
impact
on sizing of
from each
2
bearing and end fittings
Brg suppliers,
D/S Structures
Brg data, shaft dia
input?
Sizing as previously
tested, fatigue strength,
Shaft size, plus existing
stiffness, clearances for
data on damper sizing
shaft motion, compact
design
Structural allowables
When does the
Sizing as previously process end?
tested, fatigue strength,
stiffness, clearances for Layout damper
shaft motion, compact Boundary
design
Strength, ease of
C
utputs
damper design
ustomers
Customer’s
Requireme
nts of the
Outputs
(Anyone
who
deliverable
from the
Customers
process)
Requirements
brg spec
Brg supplier
Special handling
reqm'ts
Manufacturing
4
Cost, repairability
handling, shipping
Who is the
Product
support
customer
of each
Product
support
output?
5
What does
Shafteach
sizing
customer
expect
from each
output?
drawing, build-to-print
PO
D/S Design
Lord Corp
12
VI-10
INPUTS
PROCESS
OUTPUTS
13
VI-10

Create a relationship matrix for
the previous SIPOC
*Input/Output relationships can be rated as:
Strong: 9
Moderate: 3
Weak: 1
Nonexistent: Blank or 0
14
VI-11
C = Control Factor (controllable)
N = Noise factor (out of our control)
X = Experimental variable
Inputs (X’s)
Output (Y)
Main Category
Measurements Materials People
C
C
Level 1 Cause
N
N
Level 2 Cause
Project
Y
N
C
X
C
X
Environment Methods
Machines
By identifying the correct inputs, you can achieve optimal
results in the shortest time.
15
VI-12
C = those variables which must be held
constant and require standard operating
procedures to insure consistency. Consider the
following examples: the method used to enter
information on a billing form, the method used to
load material in a milling or drilling process, the
autoclave temperature setting.
N = those variables which are noise or
uncontrolled variables and cannot be cheaply or
easily held constant. Examples are room
temperature or humidity.
X = those variables considered to be key process (or
experimental) variables to be tested in order to
determine what effect each has on the outputs and
what their optimal settings should be to achieve
customer-desired performance.
16
VI-12
Objective:
Develop a C&E diagram that explains the variability
of the launching process. Label as C/N/X.
MANPOWER
MEASUREMENT
METHOD
MACHINE
MOTHER
NATURE
MATERIAL
17
VI-12



Product
or
Process
In groups
Conduct a process FMEA for “shooting the
statapult”
Generate Risk Priority Numbers and develop
controls that will minimize risk
Failure Mode
Failure Effects
S
E
V
Causes
O
C
C
Controls
D
E
T
R
P
N
Actions
Plans
P
S
P
O
P
D
p
r
p
n
18
VI-14
Objective:
Develop a SOP that accurately defines each
controlled step of the launching process.
19
VI-14
Objective: To fire the statapult and record the distance for
each of the launches. The measured distance will be from
the back of the launcher to the point where the ball first
lands. Record the distances in the order in which they
were obtained.

Launch
Distance
Sequence
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25





Every shot will be launched
from a pull back angle of
177/65 degrees.
Each person on the team will
perform an equitable number
of launches (or as close as
possible).
"Launching” means pulling
back and releasing.
Time between each shot
cannot exceed 15 seconds.
Record the distances on the
table to the left.
Record the longest distance
(Max) and the shortest
distance (Min) and compute
Range = Max - Min.
Range = ______________
20
VI-14
Distance
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Launch Sequence
See graphing.pdf
21
VI-14
http://www.qualitytrainingportal.com/resources/problem_solving/
problem-solving_tools-concentration_diagrams.htm
22
VI-22
23
VI-25

Data is collected using samples
because the entire population
may not be known or it may be
too costly to measure.
◦ Population is every possible item
◦ Sample is a subset of the population
µ
Population
Population
Sample
X
Sample
24
VI-25





Step #1 Add the data points and divide by
the number of data point to determine the
mean (average)
Step #2 Subtract the mean from each
individual data point and square the result
(data point – Mean)2
Step #3 Add together all the squared data
points
Step #4 Divide the total of the squared
data points by n-1 if a sample, or n if a
population
(n= number of data points)
Step #5 Calculate the square root of the
sum of step #4.
The result is the standard deviation for the
process.
25
VI-27
26
VI-27
27
VI-27
Each unit of measure is a numerical value
on a continuous scale
Variation common and special
causes
Pieces vary from
each other
Size
Size
Size
Size
But they form a pattern that, if stable, is called a normal distribution
Normal Distribution
Histogram
or
Frequency Distribution
28
VI-27
There are three terms used to describe
distributions
1. Shape
Bell
Standard
Deviation
3. Location
Mean
29
VI-27
Distance
Distance
Angle
Angle
30
VI-35
W h a t s p e c u la tio n s c a n y o u m a k e a b o u t th e fo llo w in g p ro c e s s e s
b a s e d o n th e h is to g ra m s ?
LS L
USL
10
9
X
8
X
7
X
6
X
5
X
4
X
X
3
X
X
X
2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
.502
.503
.504
.5 0 5
. 5 06
1
.4 9 3
.494
.495
.496
.497
.498
.4 9 9

. 5 00 .5 0 1
.5 0 7
1.
LS L
USL
10
9
X
8
X
7
X
X
X
X
6
X
X
X
X
5
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
4
X
3
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
.502
.503
.504
.5 0 5
. 5 06
.5 0 7
.4 9 3
.494
.495
X
X
.496
.497
.498
.4 9 9

. 5 00 .5 0 1
2.
31
VI-39
LSL
USL
X
X
X
X
X
.4 9 3
.4 9 4
.4 9 5
.4 9 6
.4 9 7
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
.5 0 2
.5 0 3
.4 9 8
.4 9 9
 
.5 0 0 .5 0 1
.5 0 4
.5 0 5
.5 0 6
.5 0 7
3.
LSL
USL
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
.4 9 3
.4 9 4
.4 9 5
.4 9 6
.4 9 7
.4 9 8
.4 9 9
 
.5 0 0 .5 0 1
.5 0 2
.5 0 3
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
.5 0 4
.5 0 5
.5 0 6
.5 0 7
4.
32
VI-39

Instructions
◦ Refer to Launch #1 and #2 and convert the run charts
shown on these pages to histograms, using 4-inch
intervals as the class width.
◦ The student may then choose the 12-inch range (3
consecutive 4-inch intervals) centered around the
average to be the specification range.
◦ Draw those spec limits on the histogram and
complete the following table:
Launch
#1
Launch
#2
33
VI-39
Heights
T h e H e ig h t
E x a m p le
Dev. from
Avgerage.
Let’s practice
Find:
H e y b u d d y. . . w h a t ch a
g o t in t h e ca se ?
In c h e s ?
In c h e s ?
Mean
Median
Mode
Range
Sigma
-population
-sample
S te p 1
C o lle c t
D a ta
5’ = 60”
6’ = 72”
Total
Xbar
(average)
 Sigma!!
34
VI-25
Xbar =
Step 2
Create a
Histogram
Step 3
Limits
Step 4
Analyze
Scale- (Use 2"
increments)
Sigma
+/- 1 Sigma
+/- 2 Sigma
+/- 3 Sigma
+/- 6 Sigma
Area %
Height Span Realistic? (Y/N)
35
VI-25
```