The Crossfire Attack

Report
The Crossfire
Attack
MIN SUK KANG, SOO BUM LEE, VIRGIL D. GLIGOR
E C E D E PA R T M E N T A N D C Y L A B
CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY
2013 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy
Outline
INTRODUCTION
THE CROSSFIRE ATTACK
ATTACK PERSISTENCE AND COST
EXPERIMENT SETUP AND RESULTS
RELATED WORK
CONCLUSION
2
Outline
INTRODUCTION
THE CROSSFIRE ATTACK
ATTACK PERSISTENCE AND COST
EXPERIMENT SETUP AND RESULTS
RELATED WORK
CONCLUSION
3
INTRODUCTION – Old DDoS
Typical attack:
floods server with HTTP, UDP, SYN, ICMP…… packets
Persistence:
Maximum: 2.5 days
Average: 1.5days
Adversary’s Challenge:
DDoS Attacks are either Persistent or Scalable to N Servers
N traffic to 1 server => high-intensity traffic triggers network detection
Detection not triggered => low-intensity traffic is insufficient for N srevers
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INTRODUCTION – Crossfire Attack
Link flooding by botnets cannot be easily countered
Spoofed IP addresses.
Can flood links without using unwanted traffic.
Launch an attack with low-intensity traffic flows that cross a
targeted link at roughly the same time and flood it.
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INTRODUCTION – Crossfire Attack
A link-flooding attack that degrades/cuts off network
connections of scalable N-server area persistently.
Scalable N-Server areas
N = small(e.g., 1-1000 servers), medium(e.g., all servers in a US state),
large(e.g., the West Coast of the US)
Persistent:
Attack traffic is indistinguishable from legitimate
Low-rate, changing sets of flows
Attack is “ moving target ” for same N-server area
Changing target links before triggering alarms
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INTRODUCTION – Definitions
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INTRODUCTION – 1 link crossfire
Attack flows => Indistinguishable from legitimate
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INTRODUCTION – 1 link crossfire
Attack flows => Alarms not triggered
link-failure detection
latency,
Interior Gateway
Protocol(IGP) routers (OSPF)
Default waiting time: 40sec, Failure detection: 217 sec
Exterior Gateway Protocol(EGP) routers(BGP)
Default waiting time: 180sec, Failure detection : 1,076 sec
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Outline
INTRODUCTION
THE CROSSFIRE ATTACK
ATTACK PERSISTENCE AND COST
EXPERIMENT SETUP AND RESULTS
RELATED WORK
CONCLUSION
10
THE CROSSFIRE ATTACK
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THE CROSSFIRE ATTACK
Public servers :
To construct an attack topology centered at target area
Decoy servers:
To create attack flow
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ATTACK - Step 1 : Link Map Construction
( 72% )
(1) Traceroute ( B->S )
(2) Link-Persistence
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ATTACK - Step 2 : Attack setup
DR: Degradation Ratio
(1) Flow-Density Computation
(2) Target-Link Selection
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ATTACK - Step 3 : Bot Coordination
(1) Attack-Flow Assignment
(2) Target-Link Flooding
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Outline
INTRODUCTION
THE CROSSFIRE ATTACK
ATTACK PERSISTENCE AND COST
EXPERIMENT SETUP AND RESULTS
RELATED WORK
CONCLUSION
16
ATTACK PERSISTENCE AND COST
Data-Plane-Only Attack : Indefinite Duration
Link failure detection
Traffic engineering
Proactive Attack Techniques : Rolling Attack
Maintaining the same target links
Changes bot and decoy servers
Maintaining the same target area
Changes target links
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ATTACK PERSISTENCE AND COST
Attack bots available from Pay-per Install (PPI) markets [2011]
In experiments : 49% in US or UK, 37% in Europe, 14% rest of the world
10 target links : can be as low as 107,200 bots.
Cost approximately $9K
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Outline
INTRODUCTION
THE CROSSFIRE ATTACK
ATTACK PERSISTENCE AND COST
EXPERIMENT SETUP AND RESULTS
RELATED WORK
CONCLUSION
19
EXPERIMENT SETUP AND RESULTS
Bots:
1,072 traceroute nodes 620 PlanetLab nodes, 452 LG(Looking Glass) servers
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EXPERIMENT SETUP AND RESULTS
Decoy servers:
552 institutions (i.e., universities and colleges ) on both the East Coast
(10 states) and West Coast (7 states) of the US
2737 public web servers within Univ1 in Pennsylvania
7411 public web servers within Univ2 in Massachusetts
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EXPERIMENT SETUP AND RESULTS
Target Areas:
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EXPERIMENT SETUP AND RESULTS
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EXPERIMENT SETUP AND RESULTS
 Link map
 Run a traceroute six times to diagnose link persistence
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EXPERIMENT SETUP AND RESULTS
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EXPERIMENT SETUP AND RESULTS
 Average rate when flooding 10 Target Links against Pennsylvania
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Outline
INTRODUCTION
THE CROSSFIRE ATTACK
ATTACK PERSISTENCE AND COST
EXPERIMENT SETUP AND RESULTS
RELATED WORK
CONCLUSION
27
The Coremelt Attack
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“Spamhaus” Attack
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RELATED WORK
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Outline
INTRODUCTION
THE CROSSFIRE ATTACK
ATTACK PERSISTENCE AND COST
EXPERIMENT SETUP AND RESULTS
CONCLUSION
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CONCLUSION
Attack Characteristics
Undetectability at the Target Area.
Indistinguishability of Flows in Routers
Persistence
Flexibility
New DDoS Attack: The Crossfire Attack
Scalable & Persistent
Internet-scale experiment
Feasibility of the attack
High impact with low cost
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Q&A
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