Medicine and Drugs - CarverChemistry

Medicine and Drugs
IB Chemistry III
Robinson High School
Andrea Carver
• Natural chemicals have been used for healing
properties for thousands of years.
• In the 20th century, molecules are synthesized
specifically to treat illnesses.
▫ Treatment for smallpox, malaria, tuberculosis, polio
• Problems such as abuse, excesses, and antibiotic
resistance have arisen.
• New diseases necessitate proactive drug
development and distribution.
▫ Avian flu, Ebola, AIDS pandemic
Pharmaceutical Products:
IB Objectives
• D.1.1 List the effects of medicines and drugs on
the functioning of the body.
• D.1.2 Outline the stages involved in research,
development, and testing of new pharmaceutical
• D.1.3 Describe the different methods of
administering drugs.
• D.1.4 Discuss the terms therapeutic window,
tolerance, and side-effects.
The Human Body’s Defense System
• The body responds to many types of defect and
breakdown naturally. It is self-healing.
• The body must also must address the constant
attacks of microorganisms (invaders).
• The immune system consists of complex systems
of defensive and healing processes (lines of
• Symptoms of illness are often immune system
responses to invading organisms.
▫ Examples: runny nose, fever
Defense Mechanisms
First Defense:
Barriers to Entry
Second Defense:
Innate Immune
Third Defense:
Adaptive Immune
•WBC’s engulf invaders
•WBC’s produce
antibodies to recognize
and destroy the invaders
•Mucous membranes
•Closures and secretions
of natural openings (lips,
eyelids, ear wax, etc.)
Non-specific mechanism
•Blood clotting prevents
blood loss and further
•Inflammatory response
•Memory cells enable
body to quickly respond
to repeat invasion by
same organism
Non-specific mechanism
Specific mechanism
The Immune System + Medicine
• Medicine should be used to supplement the
natural self-healing processes of the body.
• Goal should be to maximize the effectiveness of
the body’s natural defense mechanisms.
• When is medicine necessary?
• In what cases might medicine be more
detrimental than beneficial?
“Drug” versus “Medicine”
• Drug
▫ Chemical that affects how body works.
▫ May have positive or negative effects.
▫ Associated with illegal substances.
• Medicine
▫ Substance that improves health.
▫ May be natural or synthetic.
▫ Synthetic medicines may include active and
inactive ingredients.
Drug Affects on the Body
• Alteration of physiological state such as
consciousness, activity level, coordination.
• Alteration of incoming sensory sensations.
• Alteration of mood or emotions.
Basic Classification of Drugs
• Analgesics, stimulants, depressants, and
mind-altering drugs affect the nervous
system and brain.
• Antacids target metabolic processes.
• Antibacterials and antivirals help the body
fight infection by microorganisms.
The Placebo Effect
• The placebo effect occurs when patients gain
therapeutic benefits from their belief that they
are taking a useful drug, even though the drug
they have been given is inert.
• Mechanism is unclear.
• May be related to the brains release of natural
healing or pain relieving chemicals.
• Typically experienced by 1/3 of control group.
Routes of Drug Administration
Administration Method
Taken by mouth
Tablets, capsules, pills
Vapor inhaled; smoking
Asthma medications;
cocaine, nicotine
Skin Patches
Absorbed directly through
skin into blood
Some hormones (estrogen),
Inserted into rectum
Drugs for digestive
symptoms, hemorroids
Eye/ear drops
Liquids directly dropped in
Antibiotics for ear/eye
Parenteral- by injection
•Many vaccines
•Local anesthetics
•Dental injections
• Best method of delivery is determined considering chemical
nature of drug, patient condition, and target organ.
Methods of Administration
Physiological Effects of Drugs
• Drugs usually have more than one effect:
▫ Therapeutic Effect
 Intended physiological effect
 Beneficial
▫ Side Effects
 Unintended physiological effects
 May be beneficial or adverse
 Patients should be monitored and made aware of all
possible side effects of a prescribed drug
• Dosing regime- amount of drug per dose and
frequency of doses administered.
▫ Goal is to achieve and maintain a constant
therapeutic concentration of drug in the blood.
• Therapeutic window- the range in
concentration between the therapeutic level and
toxic level of drug in the blood.
▫ Must be above therapeutic level to see benefits.
▫ Must be below toxic level to avoid damaging
effects or death.
Therapeutic Window
Effects of Extended Drug Use/Abuse
• Tolerance- reduced response to a drug following
prolonged use.
▫ Higher dose required for same response which
increases chance of adverse side effects.
▫ May be due metabolic or receptor changes.
• Dependence/Addiction- occurs when individual
needs drug to feel normal.
• Withdrawal symptoms will be experienced if a
dependant individual no longer consumes the drug.
▫ May be mild to severe depending on the drug
Research, Development, Testing of
• Steps:
▫ Discovery Research
 Identification of Lead Compounds
 Synthesis of Analogues
 Biological Testing
▫ Development Research
 Phase I- 50-100 healthy volunteers
 Phase II- 200-400 patients
 Phase III- 3000+ patients: double blind study
▫ Regulatory Review
▫ Post-Marketing Monitoring
• Prescribed for
morning sickness in
early pregnancy
during the 50’s and
• Resulted in severe
birth defects.
• Several years before
drug was linked with
• All drugs are poisons!
Medicine and Drugs Assignment
• Groups of four will prepare presentations on
each of the following topics:
• Powerpoint presentation must be uploaded to
Project Requirements
• Powerpoint presentations must include:
List IB objectives for topic
Summary of key information on topic
Images which help to clarify main points
Practice questions from textbook.
• Provide class with a concise study sheet in which
each objective is addressed.
• Prepare and review questions and answers to
sample test questions on your topic from IB
question bank.
Antacids: IB Objectives
• D.2.1 State and explain how excess acidity in the
stomach can be reduced by the use of different
Analgesics: IB Objectives
• D.3.1 Describe and explain the different ways that
analgesics prevent pain.
• D.3.2 Describe the use of derivatives of salicylic acid as
mild analgesics and compare the advantages and
disadvantages of using aspirin and paracetamol
• D.3.3 Compare the structures of morphine, codeine, and
diamorphine (heroin, a semi-synthetic opiate).
• D.3.4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of
using morphine and its derivatives as strong analgesics.
• D.3.5 Identify other commonly used depressants and
describe their structures.
Depressants: IB Objectives
• D.4.1 Describe the effects of depressants.
• D.4.2 Discuss the social and physiological
effects of the use and abuse of ethanol.
• D.4.3 Describe and explain the techniques used
for the detection of ethanol in the breath, the
blood, and urine.
• D.4.4 Describe the synergistic effects of ethanol
with other drugs.
• D.4.5 Identify other commonly used
depressants and describe their structures.
Stimulants: IB Objectives
• D.5.1 List the physiological effects of stimulants.
• D.5.2 Compare amphetamines and epinephrine
• D.5.3 Discuss the short- and long-term effects of
nicotine consumption.
• D.5.4 Describe the effects of caffeine and
compare its structure with that of nicotine.
Antibacterials: IB Objectives
• D.6.1 Outline the historical development of
• D.6.2 Explain how penicillins work and discuss
the effects of modifying the side-chain.
• D.6.3 Discuss and explain the importance of
patient compliance and the effect of penicillin
Antivirals: IB Objectives
• D.7.1 State how viruses differ from bacteria.
• D.7.2 Describe the different ways in which
antiviral drugs work.
• D.7.3 Discuss the difficulties associated with
solving the AIDS problem.
Drug Action: IB Objectives
• D.8.1 Describe the importance of geometrical
isomerism in drug action.
• D.8.2 Discuss the importance of chirality in
drug action.
• D.8.3 Explain the importance of the beta-lactam
ring action of penicillin.
• D.8.4 Explain the increased potency of
diamorphine (heroin) compared to morphine.
Drug Design: IB Objectives
• D.9.1 Discuss the use of a compound library in drug
• D.9.2 Explain the use of combinatorial and parallel
chemistry to synthesize new drugs.
• D.9.3 Describe how computers are used in drug
• D.9.4 Discuss how the polarity of a molecule can be
modified to increase its aqueous solubility and how
this facilitates its distribution around the body.
• D.9.5 Describe the use of chiral auxillaries to form
the desired enantiomer.
Mind-Altering Drug: IB Objectives
• D.10.1 Describe the effects of lysergic acid
diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin, and
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
• D.10.2 Discuss the structural similarities and
differences between LSD, mescaline, and
• D.10.3 Discuss the arguments for and against
the legalization of cannabis.

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