Spanning Tree and Multicast

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Spanning Tree and Multicast
The Story So Far
• Switched ethernet is good
– Besides switching needed to join even multiple
classical ethernet networks
• Routing is expensive, learning switches seem
cheaper
• Flooding in a network with a cycle of switches
is bad (why?)
Flooding With Cycles
A wants to send a packet to D
- A sends packet to 1
- 1 Floods to 2 and 4
- 2 Floods to B and 3
- 4 Floods to D and 3 <- D receives packet
- 3 Floods packet from 2 to C and 4
- 3 Floods packet from 4 to C and 2
- 4 Floods packet from 3 to D and 1
- 2 Floods packet from 3 to B and 1
B
- 1 Floods packet from 2 to A and 4
- 1 Floods packet from 4 to B and 2
- ….
- When does this craziness stop?
A
1
2
4
3
C
D
Fixing with Cycles
• DEC (which is long dead) faced the same problem
in the mid-1980s (connecting Catenets)
• Choices offered
– Rely on network administrators to build loop-free
topologies
• Turns out to be hard
– Build a protocol
• Given a loopy graph, want no loops
– Trees are nice, they don’t have loops
– Need a tree that connects all the nodes somehow
– Spanning Trees <- Trees spanning over all nodes
The High Level Protocol
• Pick a root
– For the purposes of
this class, root node is
the one with the
lowest MAC address.
• In reality also adds a
user specified “priority”
into the mix
A
1
B
2
4
3
C
D
The High Level Protocol
• For each node,
determine shortest
path to root
– Break ties by choosing
the lower of two MAC
addresses
– In the example 3 picks
the path through 2
rather than 4
A
1
B
2
4
3
C
D
The High Level Protocol
• Disable all links not
used by the previously
picked paths.
A
1
B
2
4
3
C
D
The High Level Protocol
• Recomputation for
resilience:
– If root goes down,
select a new root,
rerun algorithm
– If another node goes
down adjust links to
recreate the tree.
A
1
B
2
4
3
C
D
The Protocol in Real Life
• Uses messages of the form
– (proposed root, distance to root, node sending message)
– From example (1, 0, 1) <- “Node 1 proposes that 1
be the root, also it is distance 0 away from 1”
• Messages allow for election of root and
determining distances
• Messages (when sent described next) are
always flooded out all ports of a switch
– This is not a problem even in the presence of
loops. Why?
The Protocol in Real Life
• Initially all switches send a message proposing themselves
as the root
– Messages like (1, 0, 1), (2, 0, 2) etc
• Switches update their view of the root
– On receiving a message (Y, d, Z) from Z, if id(Y) < id(root), root =
Y
• Compute distance from the root
• If root or shortest distance has changed, flood an update
message notifying neighbors of new root and distance
• Periodically everyone reannounces their distance and
perceived root
– Includes the root which sends (root, 0, root)
– Used to detect failures and recompute tree when needed.
Multicast
• Promise of the 90s
– All TV and live events broadcast over the internet
• More viewers, more revenue, all over the world.
– Too expensive to run one stream per user.
The Problem
Your favorite media conglomerate (The Producer)
…
The Network
You
A
B
Everyone else in the world
ZZZZ
• The individual connections from the “producer” to the network all carry the exact same data.
• Similarly each individual stream uses network bandwidth, so there might be 15 copies of the
same data needlessly using up bandwidth.
• IDEA: Why not just have the network deal with this, give it one copy of the data and have it
determine where the packets go.
• Does this violate End-to-End?
• Multicast!!!!
Multicast
• Fundamentally things to do
– Join a multicast group (set of end hosts listening to
packets)
– Send to group
• Different implementation at different layers
– Link layer
• Easiest to implement, used in LANs
– IP
• Harder to implement, but allows for greater efficiency (as
implemented)
– Application level
• We ignore this.
Link Layer Multicast
• Each multicast groups is denoted by an
address G
• Join a group by telling NIC about G
– NIC then listens for packets sent to address G
• Send by broadcasting packet with a
destination address of G.
• Very efficient in terms of state (end-host
stores everything)
• Inefficient in terms of bandwidth
IP Multicast
• We focus on intra-domain
• Portion of IP address
space is reserved for
Multicast
• Receivers join group using
IGMP (anyone can join)
• Anyone can send (don’t
need to be a part of the
group)
Receiver
Receiver
Sender
IP Multicast
• Take graph on right.
• Want Sender to be able
to multicast to receivers
• Minimize number of
packets sent to get one
packet from sender to
all receivers.
• A few ways to do this
Receiver
Receiver
Sender
IP Multicast
• Must build a tree from
source to all destinations
• We know how to flood
along a tree
• Can build a tree based on
a specific source
Receiver
– Distance Vector Multicast
Routing Protocol
• Build one tree for all
possible sources
– Core Based Trees
Receiver
Sender
DVMRP
• An extension to distance
vector routing.
• Consider distances to
source (use source as root
of spanning tree).
• Three steps, each getting
us closer to the ideal.
– Reverse Path Flooding
– Reverse Path Broadcasting
– Truncated Reverse Path
Broadcasting
Receiver
Receiver
Sender
DVMRP
• RPF
Receiver
– If incoming link is shortest
path to source
• Send on all links except
incoming
L2
– Otherwise drop
• Packets sent along the
black links in the direction
marked will be flooded.
• Sometimes two of the
same packet are sent.
– For instance Node X
receives the same packet
along both L0 and L1,
forwards both of them
along L2.
X
L1
L0
Receiver
Sender
DVMRP
• RPB
Receiver
– Pick a single parent for each
link.
– Send packets from parent
along a link.
• In example to the right Y is
picked as the parent for L2.
• Packet from Z is not
forwarded by X, while
packet from Y is, therefore
only one packet goes
through L2.
• Still suboptimal, X does not
really need to receive the
packet.
L2
X
L1
Z
L0
Y
Receiver
Sender
DVMRP
• Pruning
Receiver
– Do not send packet to
destinations not in the
multicast group.
• Start by sending to everyone
as in RPB
• Nodes send an explicit nonmembership request if no one
below them on the tree wants
the data.
• In this example X might send a
NMR.
• Do not send data to a pruned
node.
• NMR eventually expires, at
which point data is again
transmitted.
L2
X
L1
Z
L0
Y
Receiver
Sender
Core Based Trees
• Build a common tree
• For each group pick a
“rendezvous point” (the
Core)
• Build a spanning tree
rooted at the
rendezvous point
• Flood using spanning
tree algorithm
Receiver
Receiver
Sender

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