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Mendel's
Experiments and
Heredity
Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
Characteristics and Traits
Laws of Inheritance
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
• Introduction
• Mendel’s Model System
• Mendelian Crosses
• Garden Pea Characteristics Revealed the Basics of Heredity
• Probability Basics
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
Introduction
• Mendel studied seven characteristics of the garden pea plants: flower color, seed
texture, seed color, stem length, pod color, pod texture, and flower position to
develop his Laws of Inheritance.
• Genetics is the study of genes passed from parents to offspring.
• Genes are the basic fundamental units of heredity.
Appearance and genetic makeup of garden pea
plant flowers
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
Mendel’s Model System
• Mendel used true-breeding plants in his experiments.These plants, when selffertilized, always produce offspring with the same phenotype.
• Pea plants are easily manipulated, grow in one season, and can be grown in large
quantities; these qualities allowed Mendel to conduct methodical, quantitative
analyses using large sample sizes.
• Based on his experiments with the garden peas, Mendel found that one
phenotype was always dominant over another recessive phenotype for the same
trait.
Mendel's Experiments With Peas
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
Mendelian Crosses
• Mendel carefully controlled his experiments by removing the anthers from the pea
plants before they matured.
• First generation pea plants were called parental generation, P0, while the following
generations were called filial, Fn, where n is the number of generations from P0.
• The ratio of characteristics in the P0−F1−F2 generations became the basis for
Mendel's postulates.
Mendelian Crosses
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
Garden Pea Characteristics Revealed the Basics of Heredity
• Dominant traits are inherited unchanged from one generation to the next.
• Recessive traits disappear in the first filial generation, but reappear in the second
filial generation at a ratio of 3:1, dominant:recessive.
• In the F1 generation, Mendel found that one of the two options for each trait had
disappeared (all offspring were identical phenotypes), while in the F2 generation,
the trait reappeared in 1/4 of the offspring (a 3:1 ratio).
Appearance and genetic makeup of garden pea
plant flowers
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
Probability Basics
• The Product Rule is used to determine the outcome of an event with two
independent events; the probability of the event is the product of the probabilities
of each individual event.
• The Sum Rule is used to determine the outcome of an event with two mutually
exclusive events from multiple pathways; the probability of the event is the sum of
the probabilities of each individual event.
• The Product Rule of probability is used to determine the probability of having both
dominant traits in the F2 progeny; it is the product of the probabilities of having the
dominant trait for each characteristic.
• The Sum Rule of probability is used to determine the probability of having one
Role of probability in segregation of alleles and
fertilization
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dominant trait in the F2 generation of a dihybrid cross; it is the sum of the
probabilities of each individual with that trait.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Characteristics and Traits
Characteristics and Traits
• Phenotypes and Genotypes
• The Punnett Square Approach for a Monohybrid Cross
• Alternatives to Dominance and Recessiveness
• X-Linked Traits
• Human Sex-Linked Disorders
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Characteristics and Traits
Phenotypes and Genotypes
• Mendel used pea plants with seven distinct traits or phenotypes to determine the
pattern of inheritance and the underlying genotypes.
• Mendel found that crossing two purebred pea plants which expressed different
traits resulted in an F1 generation where all the pea plants expressed the same
trait or phenotype.
• When Mendel allowed the F1 plants to self-fertilize, the F2 generation showed two
different phenotypes, indicating that the F1 plants had different genotypes.
Mendelian crosses
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Characteristics and Traits
The Punnett Square Approach for a Monohybrid Cross
• Fertilization between two true-breeding parents that differ in only one
characteristic is called a monohybrid cross.
• For a monohybrid cross of two true-breeding parents, each parent contributes one
type of allele resulting in all of the offspring with the same genotype.
• A test cross is a way to determine whether an organism that expressed a
dominant trait was a heterozygote or a homozygote.
Punnett square analysis of a monohytbrid cross
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Characteristics and Traits
Alternatives to Dominance and Recessiveness
• Incomplete dominance is the expression of two contrasting alleles such that the
individual displays an intermediate phenotype.
• Codominance is a variation on incomplete dominance in which both alleles for the
same characteristic are simultaneously expressed in the heterozygote.
• Diploid organisms can only have two alleles for a given gene; however, multiple
alleles may exist at the population level such that many combinations of two
alleles are observed.
• The complete dominance of a wild-type phenotype over all other mutants often
occurs as an effect of "dosage" of a specific gene product: the wild-type allele
Example of incomplete dominance
supplies the correct amount of gene product whereas the mutant alleles cannot.
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• One mutant allele can also be dominant over all other phenotypes, including the
wild type.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Characteristics and Traits
X-Linked Traits
• Females have a homologous pair of X chromosomes, whereas males have an XY
chromosome pair.
• The Y chromosome contains a small region of similarity to the X chromosome so
that they can pair during meiosis, but the Y is much shorter and contains many
fewer genes.
• Males are said to be hemizygous because they have only one allele for any Xlinked characteristic which makes the descriptions of dominance and
recessiveness irrelevant for XY males.
Eye color in Drosophila is an example of a Xlinked trait
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Characteristics and Traits
Human Sex-Linked Disorders
• An inheritance pattern in which an allele is only lethal in the homozygous form
and in which the heterozygote may be normal or have some altered non-lethal
phenotype is referred to as recessive lethal.
• The dominant lethal inheritance pattern is one in which an allele is lethal both in
the homozygote and the heterozygote; this allele can only be transmitted if the
lethality phenotype occurs after reproductive age.
• Dominant lethal alleles are very rare because the allele only lasts one generation
and is, therefore, not usually transmitted.
• In the case where dominant lethal alleles might not be expressed until adulthood,
the allele may be unknowingly passed on, resulting in a delayed death in both
Affects of Huntington's disease on neurons
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generations.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Laws of Inheritance
Laws of Inheritance
• Pairs of Unit Factors, or Genes
• Alleles Can Be Dominant or Recessive
• Equal Segregation of Alleles
• Independent Assortment
• Linked Genes Violate the Law of Independent Assortment
• Epistasis
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Laws of Inheritance
Pairs of Unit Factors, or Genes
• A gene is a stretch of DNA that helps to control the development and function of
all organs and working systems in the body.
• Genes are passed from parent to offspring; the combination of these genes
affects all aspects of the human body, from eye and hair color to how well the liver
can process toxins.
• A human will inherit 23 chromosomes from its mother and 23 from its father;
together, these form 23 pairs of chromosomes that direct the inherited
characteristics of the individual.
• If the two copies of a gene inherited from each parent are the same, that
individual is said to be homozygous for the gene; if the two copies inherited from
Gene pairs enable genetic combinations
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each parent are different, that individual is said to be heterozygous for the gene.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Laws of Inheritance
Alleles Can Be Dominant or Recessive
• Dominant alleles are expressed exclusively in a heterozygote, while recessive
traits are expressed only if the organism is homozygous for the recessive allele.
• A single allele may be dominant over one allele, but recessive to another.
• Not all traits are controlled by simple dominance as a form of inheritance; more
complex forms of inheritance have been found to exist.
Recessive traits are only visible if an individual
inherits two copies of the recessive allele
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Laws of Inheritance
Equal Segregation of Alleles
• Each gamete acquires one of the two alleles as chromosomes separate into
different gametes during meiosis.
• Heterozygotes, which posess one dominant and one recessive allele, can receive
each allele from either parent and will look identical to homozygous dominant
individuals; the Law of Segregation supports Mendel's observed 3:1 phenotypic
ratio.
• Mendel proposed the Law of Segregation after observing that pea plants with two
different traits produced offspring that all expressed the dominant trait, but the
following generation expressed the dominant and recessive traits in a 3:1 ratio.
The Law of Segregation states that alleles
segregate randomly into gametes
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Laws of Inheritance
Independent Assortment
• Mendel's law of independent assortment states that genes do not influence each
other with regard to the sorting of alleles into gametes; every possible
combination of alleles for every gene is equally likely to occur.
• The calculation of any particular genotypic combination of more than one gene is,
therefore, the probability of the desired genotype at the first locus multiplied by the
probability of the desired genotype at the other loci.
• The forked line method can be used to calculate the chances of all possible
genotypic combinations from a cross, while the probability method can be used to
calculate the chance of any one particular genotype that might result from that
cross.
Independent assortment of 2 genes
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Laws of Inheritance
Linked Genes Violate the Law of Independent Assortment
• Two genes close together on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together
and are said to be linked.
• Linked genes can be separated by recombination in which homologous
chromosomes exchange genetic information during meiosis; this results in
parental, or nonrecombinant genotypes, as well as a smaller proportion of
recombinant genotypes.
• Geneticists can use the amount of recombination between genes to estimate the
distance between them on a chromosome.
Unlinked genes assort independently
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Laws of Inheritance
Epistasis
• In many cases, several genes may contribute to a particular phenotype; when the
actions of one gene masks the effects of another, this gene is said to be epistatic
to the second.
• Epistasis can occur when a recessive genotype masks the actions of another
gene, or when a dominant allele masks the effects of another gene.
• Epistasis can be reciprocal: either gene, when present in the dominant (or
recessive) form, expresses the same phenotype.
• Any single characteristic that results in a phenotypic ratio that totals 16 (such as
12:3:1, 9:3:4, or others) is typical of a two-gene interaction.
Epistasis in mouse coat color
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Appendix
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Key terms
• allele one of a number of alternative forms of the same gene occupying a given position on a chromosome
• carrier a person or animal that transmits a disease to others without itself contracting the disease
• chromosome a structure in the cell nucleus that contains DNA, histone protein, and other structural proteins
• codominance a condition in which both alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed, with neither one being
dominant or recessive to the other
• dominant a relationship between alleles of a gene, in which one allele masks the expression (phenotype) of another allele at the
same locus
• dominant a relationship between alleles of a gene, in which one allele masks the expression (phenotype) of another allele at the
same locus
• dominant lethal an inheritance pattern is one in which an allele is lethal both in the homozygote and the heterozygote; this allele
can only be transmitted if the lethality phenotype occurs after reproductive age
• epistasis the modification of the expression of a gene by another unrelated one
• filial of a generation or generations descending from a specific previous one
• gene a unit of heredity; the functional units of chromosomes that determine specific characteristics by coding for specific
proteins
• genetics the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics, in particular
chromosomes and DNA
• genetics the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics, in particular
chromosomes and DNA
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
• genotype the specific genetic information of a cell or organism, usually a description of the allele or alleles relating to a specific
gene.
• genotype the combination of alleles, situated on corresponding chromosomes, that determines a specific trait of an individual,
such as "Aa" or "aa"
• hemizygous having some single copies of genes in an otherwise diploid cell or organism
• heterozygous of an organism which has two different alleles of a given gene
• homozygous of an organism in which both copies of a given gene have the same allele
• hybrid offspring resulting from cross-breeding different entities, e.g. two different species or two purebred parent strains
• incomplete dominance a condition in which the phenotype of the heterozygous genotype is distinct from and often intermediate
to the phenotypes of the homozygous genotypes
• independent assortment separate genes for separate traits are passed independently of one another from parents to offspring
• law of segregation a diploid individual possesses a pair of alleles for any particular trait and each parent passes one of these
randomly to its offspring
• linkage the property of genes of being inherited together
• monohybrid a hybrid between two species that only have a difference of one gene
• mutation any heritable change of the base-pair sequence of genetic material
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
• parental of the generation of organisms that produce a hybrid
• phenotype the appearance of an organism based on a multifactorial combination of genetic traits and environmental factors,
especially used in pedigrees
• phenotype the observable characteristics of an organism, often resulting from its genetic information or a combination of
genetic information and environmental factors
• probability a number, between 0 and 1, expressing the precise likelihood of an event happening
• product rule the probability of two independent events occurring together can be calculated by multiplying the individual
probabilities of each event occurring alone
• Punnett square a graphical representation used to determine the probability of an offspring expressing a particular genotype
• recessive able to be covered up by a dominant trait
• recessive able to be covered up by a dominant trait
• recessive lethal an inheritance pattern in which an allele is only lethal in the homozygous form and in which the heterozygote
may be normal or have some altered non-lethal phenotype
• recombination the formation of genetic combinations in offspring that are not present in the parents
• sum rule the probability of the occurrence of one event or the other event, of two mutually exclusive events, is the sum of their
individual probabilities
• true-breeding plant a plant that always produces offspring of the same phenotype when self-fertilized.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
• X-linked associated with the X chromosome
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Appearance and genetic makeup of garden pea plant flowers
Based on Mendel's experiments, the genotype of the pea flowers could be determined from the phenotypes of the flowers.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Mendel's Experiments With Peas
Experimenting with thousands of garden peas, Mendel uncovered the fundamentals of genetics.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Mendelian Crosses
In one of his experiments on inheritance patterns, Mendel crossed plants that were true-breeding for violet flower color with plants true-breeding for white
flower color (the P generation).The resulting hybrids in the F1 generation all had violet flowers.In the F2 generation, approximately three-quarters of the
plants had violet flowers, while one-quarter had white flowers.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Results of Mendel's Garden Pea Hybridizations
Mendel conducted thousands of experiments and found the same ratios of offspring every time, regardless of which trait he examined.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Role of probability in segregation of alleles and fertilization
In a genetic cross, the probability of the dominant trait being expressed is dependent upon its frequency.In this case, both parents possessed a dominant
and a recessive gene for the trait of flower color.The dominant trait is expressed in 3/4 of the offspring and the recessive trait is expressed in 1/4.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Mendelian crosses
In one of his experiments on inheritance patterns, Mendel crossed plants that were true-breeding for violet flower color with plants true-breeding for white
flower color (the P generation).The resulting hybrids in the F1 generation all had violet flowers.In the F2 generation, approximately three-quarters of the
plants had violet flowers, and one-quarter had white flowers.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Punnett square analysis of a monohytbrid cross
In the P generation, pea plants that are true-breeding for the dominant yellow phenotype are crossed with plants with the recessive green
phenotype.This cross produces F1 heterozygotes with a yellow phenotype.Punnett square analysis can be used to predict the genotypes of the F2
generation.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Example of a test cross
A test cross can be performed to determine whether an organism expressing a dominant trait is a homozygote or a heterozygote.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Example of multiple alleles for rabbit coat color
Four different alleles exist for the rabbit coat color (C) gene.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Example of a mutant allele interfering with the function of a wild-type gene
As seen in comparing the wild-type <em>Drosophila</em> (left) and the Antennapedia mutant (right), the Antennapedia mutant has legs on its head in
place of antennae.
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Example of incomplete dominance
These pink flowers of a heterozygote snapdragon result from incomplete dominance.
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Eye color in Drosophila is an example of a X-linked trait
In <em>Drosophila</em>, the gene for eye color is located on the X chromosome.Clockwise from top left are brown, cinnabar, sepia, vermilion, white,
and red.Red eye color is wild-type and is dominant to white eye color.
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Punnett square analysis of <em>Drosophila</em> eye color
Punnett square analysis is used to determine the ratio of offspring from a cross between a red-eyed male fruit fly and a white-eyed female fruit fly.
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Inheritance of a recessive X-linked disorder
The son of a woman who is a carrier of a recessive X-linked disorder will have a 50 percent chance of being affected.A daughter will not be affected, but
she will have a 50 percent chance of being a carrier like her mother.
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Affects of Huntington's disease on neurons
The neuron in the center of this micrograph (yellow) has nuclear inclusions characteristic of Huntington's disease (orange area in the center of the
neuron).Huntington's disease occurs when an abnormal dominant allele for the Huntington gene is present.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Gene pairs enable genetic combinations
A child will inherit half of its genes (one of each of its 23 pairs) from its mother and the other half from its father.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Recessive traits are only visible if an individual inherits two copies of the recessive allele
The child in the photo expresses albinism, a recessive trait.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
The Law of Segregation states that alleles segregate randomly into gametes
When gametes are formed, each allele of one parent segregates randomly into the gametes, such that half of the parent's gametes carry each allele.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Independent assortment of 2 genes
This dihybrid cross of pea plants involves the genes for seed color and texture.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Independent assortment of 3 genes
The forked-line method can be used to analyze a trihybrid cross.Here, the probability for color in the F2 generation occupies the top row (3 yellow:1
green).The probability for shape occupies the second row (3 round:1 wrinked), and the probability for height occupies the third row (3 tall:1 dwarf).The
probability for each possible combination of traits is calculated by multiplying the probability for each individual trait.Thus, the probability of F2 offspring
having yellow, round, and tall traits is 3 × 3 × 3, or 27.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Linked genes can be separated by recombination
The process of crossover, or recombination, occurs when two homologous chromosomes align during meiosis and exchange a segment of genetic
material.Here, the alleles for gene C were exchanged.The result is two recombinant and two non-recombinant chromosomes.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Unlinked genes assort independently
This figure shows all possible combinations of offspring resulting from a dihybrid cross of pea plants that are heterozygous for the tall/dwarf and
inflated/constricted alleles.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Epistasis in mouse coat color
In mice, the mottled agouti coat color (A) is dominant to a solid coloration, such as black or gray.A gene at a separate locus (C) is responsible for
pigment production.The recessive c allele does not produce pigmentnand a mouse with the homozygous recessive cc genotype is albino regardless of
the allele present at the A locus.Thus, the C gene is epistatic to the A gene.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Which is one of the seven characteristics that Mendel observed in
pea plants?
A) flower size
B) seed texture
C) leaf shape
D) stem color
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Which is one of the seven characteristics that Mendel observed in
pea plants?
A) flower size
B) seed texture
C) leaf shape
D) stem color
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Why was the fact that Mendel used "true-breeding" plants so
important for the success of his research?
A) It made them easier to hybridize with other plants.
B) It ensured that offspring always looked like parents.
C) It ensured that they could not self-pollinate.
D) It ensured that recombinant traits would show in each generation.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Why was the fact that Mendel used "true-breeding" plants so
important for the success of his research?
A) It made them easier to hybridize with other plants.
B) It ensured that offspring always looked like parents.
C) It ensured that they could not self-pollinate.
D) It ensured that recombinant traits would show in each generation.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Which of the following is a Mendelian cross?
A) mating two true-breeding organisms with the same trait
B) mating any two organisms with the same trait
C) mating two true-breeding organisms with different traits
D) mating any two organisms with different traits
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Which of the following is a Mendelian cross?
A) mating two true-breeding organisms with the same trait
B) mating any two organisms with the same trait
C) mating two true-breeding organisms with different traits
D) mating any two organisms with different traits
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Imagine you are performing a cross involving seed color in garden
pea plants. What F1 offspring would you expect if you cross truebreeding parents with green seeds with those with yellow seeds?
A) 100 percent yellow-green seeds
B) 50 percent yellow, 50 percent green
C) 25 percent green, 75 percent yellow
D) 100 percent yellow seeds
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Imagine you are performing a cross involving seed color in garden
pea plants. What F1 offspring would you expect if you cross truebreeding parents with green seeds with those with yellow seeds?
A) 100 percent yellow-green seeds
B) 50 percent yellow, 50 percent green
C) 25 percent green, 75 percent yellow
D) 100 percent yellow seeds
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Consider a cross where inflated pods are dominant and
constricted pods are recessive. If you performed this cross and
obtained 650 inflated pod plants in the F2 generation,
approximately how many constricted pod plants would you expect
to have?
A) 600
B) 217
C) 1950
D) 468
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Consider a cross where inflated pods are dominant and
constricted pods are recessive. If you performed this cross and
obtained 650 inflated pod plants in the F2 generation,
approximately how many constricted pod plants would you expect
to have?
A) 600
B) 217
C) 1950
D) 468
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
If two purple flowered (Bb) pea plants were crossed, what is the
probability of obtaining a white flowered (bb) pea plant in the
offspring? (B = purple allele, b = white allele)
A) 1/4
B) 1/2
C) 3/4
D) 0
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If two purple flowered (Bb) pea plants were crossed, what is the
probability of obtaining a white flowered (bb) pea plant in the
offspring? (B = purple allele, b = white allele)
A) 1/4
B) 1/2
C) 3/4
D) 0
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
How is it possible that organisms with the same phenotype can
have different genotypes?
A) Different genetic makeups (phenotypes) can lead to the same physical
traits (genotype)
B) Different physical traits (phenotypes) can lead to the same genetic
makeup (genotype)
C) Different genetic makeups (genotypes) can lead to the same physical
traits (phenotype)
D) Different physical traits (genotypes) can lead to the same genetic
makeup (phenotype)
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
How is it possible that organisms with the same phenotype can
have different genotypes?
A) Different genetic makeups (phenotypes) can lead to the same physical
traits (genotype)
B) Different physical traits (phenotypes) can lead to the same genetic
makeup (genotype)
C) Different genetic makeups (genotypes) can lead to the same physical
traits (phenotype)
D) Different physical traits (genotypes) can lead to the same genetic
makeup (phenotype)
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
What is the main purpose of using a Punnett square?
A) to determine whether an organism that expressed a dominant trait was
a heterozygote or a homozygote
B) to determine whether the breeding cross was a monohybrid
C) to predict the possible outcomes of a genetic cross or mating and their
expected frequencies
D) to determine whether the breeding was 'true-breeding'
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
What is the main purpose of using a Punnett square?
A) to determine whether an organism that expressed a dominant trait was
a heterozygote or a homozygote
B) to determine whether the breeding cross was a monohybrid
C) to predict the possible outcomes of a genetic cross or mating and their
expected frequencies
D) to determine whether the breeding was 'true-breeding'
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Which of the following patterns of inheritance would have
confused Mendel if he had worked with a model system other
than garden peas?
A) incomplete dominance
B) the existence of only 2 alleles for every trait
C) hidden recessive allele
D) no blending of alleles
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Which of the following patterns of inheritance would have
confused Mendel if he had worked with a model system other
than garden peas?
A) incomplete dominance
B) the existence of only 2 alleles for every trait
C) hidden recessive allele
D) no blending of alleles
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Why are males more likely to be affected by X-linked traits than
females?
A) Males are not more likely to be affected than females.
B) Males are homologous and not hemizygous
C) Only one allele is required for the trait.
D) Males have three alleles for X-linked traits.
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Why are males more likely to be affected by X-linked traits than
females?
A) Males are not more likely to be affected than females.
B) Males are homologous and not hemizygous
C) Only one allele is required for the trait.
D) Males have three alleles for X-linked traits.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Why is a dominant lethal inheritance pattern rarely seen?
A) Recessive lethal inheritance is rare not dominant lethal
B) Two copies of the mutated allele are required
C) The allele only lasts one generation and is not transmitted
D) The mutated allele must come from the father
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Why is a dominant lethal inheritance pattern rarely seen?
A) Recessive lethal inheritance is rare not dominant lethal
B) Two copies of the mutated allele are required
C) The allele only lasts one generation and is not transmitted
D) The mutated allele must come from the father
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
A horse has 64 chromosomes. How many does it inherit from
each parent?
A) 64
B) 16
C) 8
D) 32
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
A horse has 64 chromosomes. How many does it inherit from
each parent?
A) 64
B) 16
C) 8
D) 32
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Which of the following traits is NOT controlled by genetics?
A) Hair color
B) Shoe size
C) Colon cancer
D) A poison oak rash
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Which of the following traits is NOT controlled by genetics?
A) Hair color
B) Shoe size
C) Colon cancer
D) A poison oak rash
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
If an individual expresses a phenotype associated with a
dominant gene, does he or she have a recessive allele for that
gene?
A) You cannot tell unless you know what the parent's phenotypes are.
B) You cannot tell unless you know the genotype of that person.
C) You cannot tell unless you know how old the offspring are.
D) You cannot tell unless you know how many offspring are produced.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
If an individual expresses a phenotype associated with a
dominant gene, does he or she have a recessive allele for that
gene?
A) You cannot tell unless you know what the parent's phenotypes are.
B) You cannot tell unless you know the genotype of that person.
C) You cannot tell unless you know how old the offspring are.
D) You cannot tell unless you know how many offspring are produced.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
A plant with red flowers (Rr) is crossed with another plant with red
flowers (Rr). What is the probability that an offspring from this
cross will have white flowers (rr)?
A) 1/4
B) 1/2
C) 3/4
D) 0
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
A plant with red flowers (Rr) is crossed with another plant with red
flowers (Rr). What is the probability that an offspring from this
cross will have white flowers (rr)?
A) 1/4
B) 1/2
C) 3/4
D) 0
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
For human blood type, the A and B alleles are codominant, while
the O allele is recessive. If an AB mother had children with a B
blood type father (genotype BO), what proportion of the children
would express the B protein alone?
A) 1/4
B) 1/2
C) 3/4
D) 0/4
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
For human blood type, the A and B alleles are codominant, while
the O allele is recessive. If an AB mother had children with a B
blood type father (genotype BO), what proportion of the children
would express the B protein alone?
A) 1/4
B) 1/2
C) 3/4
D) 0/4
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
If the genotype of one animal is AaBb, and the genotype of the
other animal is Aabb, what percentage of their offspring will be
AaBb?
A) 9/16
B) 1/2
C) 3/16
D) 1/4
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
If the genotype of one animal is AaBb, and the genotype of the
other animal is Aabb, what percentage of their offspring will be
AaBb?
A) 9/16
B) 1/2
C) 3/16
D) 1/4
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Two genes, A and B, are linked. Consider that one parent has the
genotype AaBb and the other has the genotype aabb. Which of
the following genotypes would NOT be considered a recombinant
in the offspring?
A) AaBb
B) aaBb
C) Aabb
D) It is impossible to tell.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Two genes, A and B, are linked. Consider that one parent has the
genotype AaBb and the other has the genotype aabb. Which of
the following genotypes would NOT be considered a recombinant
in the offspring?
A) AaBb
B) aaBb
C) Aabb
D) It is impossible to tell.
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Two individuals, both with the genotype AaBb, produce a number
of offspring. The dominant "A" allele masks the effect of the "B"
genotype. What phenotypic ratio do you expect to see in the
offspring?
A) 12:3:1
B) 9:3:3:1
C) 9:3:4
D) 15:1
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Two individuals, both with the genotype AaBb, produce a number
of offspring. The dominant "A" allele masks the effect of the "B"
genotype. What phenotypic ratio do you expect to see in the
offspring?
A) 12:3:1
B) 9:3:3:1
C) 9:3:4
D) 15:1
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Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
Attribution
• Connexions. "Introduction." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44474/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "genetics." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/genetics
• Wikibooks. "Human Physiology/Genetics and inheritance." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Human_Physiology/Genetics_and_inheritance
• Wiktionary. "genotype." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/genotype
• Wiktionary. "phenotype." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/phenotype
• Wikipedia. "true-breeding." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/true-breeding
• Connexions. "Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44476/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Connexions. "Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44476/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "parental." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/parental
• Wiktionary. "filial." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/filial
• Connexions. "Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44476/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "hybrid." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hybrid
• Wiktionary. "recessive." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/recessive
• Wikipedia. "dominant." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/dominant
• Connexions. "Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44476/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/sum-rule
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• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/product-rule
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• Wiktionary. "probability." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/probability
• Connexions. "Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44476/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "genotype." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/genotype
• Wiktionary. "phenotype." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/phenotype
• Connexions. "Characteristics and Traits." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44478/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Connexions. "Characteristics and Traits." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44478/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "heterozygous." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/heterozygous
• Wiktionary. "homozygous." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/homozygous
• Wiktionary. "monohybrid." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/monohybrid
• Wiktionary. "Punnett square." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Punnett+square
• Connexions. "Characteristics and Traits." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44478/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "codominance." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/codominance
• Wikipedia. "Incomplete dominance." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incomplete_dominance#Incomplete_and_semidominance
• Wiktionary. "allele." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/allele
• Connexions. "Characteristics and Traits." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44478/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "carrier." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/carrier
• Wiktionary. "X-linked." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/X-linked
• Wiktionary. "hemizygous." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hemizygous
• Connexions. "Characteristics and Traits." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44478/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
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• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/dominant-lethal
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/recessive-lethal
• Wiktionary. "mutation." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/mutation
• Wikibooks. "Human Physiology/Genetics and inheritance." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Human_Physiology/Genetics_and_inheritance
• Connexions. "Laws of Inheritance." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "genetics." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/genetics
• Wiktionary. "chromosome." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/chromosome
• Wiktionary. "gene." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/gene
• Connexions. "Laws of Inheritance." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wikipedia. "Dominance (genetics)." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominance_(genetics)
• Wikipedia. "Recessive." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recessive
• Wiktionary. "recessive." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/recessive
• Wikipedia. "dominant." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/dominant
• Wikipedia. "law of segregation." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/law%20of%20segregation
• Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Foundation of Genetics." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Foundation_of_Genetics
• Connexions. "Laws of Inheritance." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wikipedia. "independent assortment." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/independent%20assortment
• Connexions. "Laws of Inheritance." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
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• Wiktionary. "recombination." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/recombination
• Wiktionary. "linkage." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/linkage
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