Non-discrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Screening Guidelines to be followed by CISF Security Staff For Passengers with Disabilities at Indian Airports Compiled by: Rajesh Bhatia, Shivani Gupta, Smiti Bhatia and Suranjana Ghosh Aikara June 2014 Approximately 70 million people in India have a disability. India ratified CPRD (Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) in 2007 to recognise and protect the rights and dignity of Persons of Disabilities, oppose discrimination against them and uphold their freedom to make their own choices. On average, 1 out of every 10 travellers has some level of disability, which also includes the elderly and injured. An airport can be a stressful environment and poses challenges for all travellers. Imagine encountering those challenges with a DISABILITY. Now, imagine how you can help alleviate those challenges. Be kind, courteous and knowledgeable to ensure that passengers with disabilities have a positive experience at the airport security screening. The key to providing exemplary service is knowing how to effectively interact with people with disabilities. Let us learn how. Content and Objectives of this Presentation Content: • Screening Dos and Don’ts for the passengers with disabilities, at airports in India. Objectives: • Train CISF staff in charge of airport security screening, with appropriate protocol for screening passengers with disabilities satisfactorily, without compromising dignity of people with disabilities. Consider, Remember and Practice Treat passengers with disabilities in a pleasant, helpful & respectful manner. Pay emphasis and attention on the person, not the disability. • Behaviour and Attitude: – Show respect for the individual – Be kind and courteous – Speak directly to the person, not their companion – Be Patient and Calm – Do not ask any personal questions – Do not make any disgraceful / humiliating comments • Assistance: – Offer to help and request permission before assisting – Listen and follow directions – Bring passenger to the front of the line – Respect passenger’s mobility equipment and handle with care Screening Techniques for different catogories: Persons with disabilities may include: 1. Mobility Impairment a. b. use wheelchair or scooters, have metal joint implants, wear cast, brace or other support Persons with Prosthetic limbs 2. Intellectual Disabilities 3. Developmental Disabilities 4. Blind or Low Vision 5. Deaf or Hard of Hearing 6. Persons with Deafblindness 7. Speech impaired Children with Disabilities Persons with Medical needs 1a. Mobility Impairment Passengers with Mobility Impairment may: • Use Wheelchair or Scooters • Use Mobility Devices like canes, crutches or braces • Have Metal Joint Implants, like artificial knees or hips • Have a Cast, Brace or Support Appliance • Have Difficulty Walking or Standing • Cannot Remove Shoes Screening Passengers with Mobility Impairment Dos • • • • • • Use ETD to screen passenger’s wheelchair/scooter. Removable items need Xray screening. Screen passengers with thorough pat-down. Conduct screening in private area, with CISF officer of same gender as passenger, with a companion of passenger’s choice (if requested). The passenger’s walker, crutch, cane, or other assistive mobility device must undergo X-ray screening, unless it cannot fit through the Xray. If an item cannot fit in the X-ray, or the passenger cannot be separated from the item, it must be inspected with ETD. Use ETD to screen passengers who cannot remove shoes and have metal joint implants. Passengers with cast, brace or calipers or supportive appliances should be screened without removing them with a thorough pat down process and ETD. Don’ts • • • Do not force wheel chair users to stand from their wheel chairs. Do not attempt to manually lift the wheel chair user as this is against his/her dignity and most of all it jeopardizes his/her safety. Under no circumstances should the passenger be asked to remove cast, brace, calipers, metal implants or supportive alliances and shoes if the passenger cannot remove shoes. Common Types of Wheelchairs Manual Wheelchair Motorized Wheelchair Motorized Scooter Common Types of Braces, Callipers and Casts Arm brace Calliper Leg brace Arm cast Common Types of Mobility Devices Shoulder Crutches Elbow Crutches Walker Cane for Visually Impaired 1b. Prosthetic Limbs Prosthetic limbs are mechanical devices worn by amputees. They can be worn above knee, below knee, on the elbow or shoulder, depending on the nature of amputation. Parts of a prosthetic limb: • Pylon - internal frame or skeleton of the prosthetic limb. Provides structural support and formed of metal rods or lighter carbon-fibre composites. • Foam cover - Pylons are enclosed with a foam-like material, shaped and coloured to match the person’s skin tone to make the prosthetic limb look lifelike. • Socket - the portion of the prosthetic device where the amputee’s limb stump is fitted in. • Advanced prosthetic limbs can be equipped with a microprocessor (computer chip) and sensors. They may have a power charging point. Different Types of Prosthetic Limbs Below knee prosthetic limb with and without foam cover Above knee amputee without prosthesis Above knee amputee with prosthesis and foam cover Above knee prosthetic limb without foam cover Prosthetic arm Screening Passengers with Prosthetic Devices Dos • • • • • • Passengers should be screened without removing prosthetic limbs, with Explosive Trace Detectors (ETD). Physical pat-down to be done by officer of passenger’s gender to resolve any alarms of ETD. The passenger can request a private screening at any time and a private screening should be offered when the officer must pat-down sensitive areas. During a private screening, another CISF employee of the passenger’s gender must also be present and the passenger may be accompanied by a companion of his or her choosing. Provide the passenger with a chair if he or she needs to sit down. Ask the passenger before the pat-down begins, about any difficulty in raising his or her arms, remaining in the position required for a patdown, or any areas of the body that are painful when touched. Don’ts • • • • Do not ask the passenger to remove his/her prosthesis. Do not ask the passenger to strip to remove prosthesis. Do not make a passenger remove or lift any article of clothing that may compromise their modesty. Under no circumstances should the passenger's prosthesis be put through X-Ray machine. 2. Intellectual Disabilities Screening Method Etiquette • • • • • • Screen along with passenger’s travelling companions, if required Allow passenger or travelling companions to offer suggestions on the best way to approach and screen the passenger, especially if it is necessary to touch during screening. Offer to screen passenger using walkthrough metal detectors. If passenger declines this option, then screen using a thorough pat down process instead. Tell the passenger exactly what is going to happen. Eg “I will have to pat you along your arms, your body, and legs. I will also use this (ETD) to pat you down”. • • • • • • Speak directly to the passenger when making a request or giving an instruction, eg “Lift your arms” etc. Passenger might need a minute or so to process information and allow the screening. Wait. A moments patience will enable successful screening. Use short sentences giving one piece of information at one time. Be prepared to repeat or rephrase the information Act naturally and maintain eye contact Do not be confrontational or frighten the individual. Focus on the person – not the disability. 3. Developmental Disabilities Screening Method Etiquette • • • • • • Passengers with developmental disabilities may experience impaired cognition, mobility and/or sensory deficit. They must be screened without being separated from their traveling companions. If the passenger uses a wheelchair follow direction provided in the slide on screening passengers with mobility impairments Allow passenger or travelling companions to offer suggestions on the best way to approach and screen the passenger, especially if it is necessary to touch during screening. Offer to screen passenger using walk-through metal detectors. If passenger declines this option, then screen using a thorough pat down process instead. • • • • • • Speak directly to the passenger when making a request or giving an instruction, eg “Lift your arms” etc. The passenger might seem unfocussed, looking away, and not listening to at all. She/he might just have difficulty in looking at you. The does not mean she/he is not listening. Passenger might need a minute or so to process information and allow the screening. Wait. A moments patience will enable successful screening. Use short sentences giving one piece of information at one time. Be prepared to repeat or rephrase the information Act naturally and maintain eye contact. Do not be confrontational or frighten the individual. Focus on the person – not the disability. 4. Blind or Low Vision Screening Method Etiquette • • • • • Screen passenger using ETD and a thorough pat-down. Canes and other devices like Braille note takers may undergo X-ray screening. If an item doesn’t fit in the X-ray, or the passenger cannot be separated from the item, it should be inspected with ETD. CISF staff to ask passenger if he/she needs to be immediately reunited with the device after X-ray screening. • • • • Introduce yourself as a CISF officer and give your name. Don’t touch the person without asking permission. Don’t engage with a guide dog without permission. Be specific when giving directions. To act as a Human Guide, offer your elbow for the person to take. 5. Deaf and Hard of Hearing Screening Method Etiquette • • • • • Ask the passengers about the type of assistance needed or technology used, e.g. hearing aids or cochlear implants, before screening begins. Screen passengers by walk-through metal detectors. If a passenger is unable to, conduct a pat-down. Do not remove hearing aids or cochlear implant. Do additional screening only if it alarms walk-through metal detector or looks unusual in imaging technology. • • • • • • Get the person’s attention. You can wave or touch the person on the shoulder or back of the arm. Have a pen and paper handy. Speak directly to the person, clearly and at a normal speed. Be patient. If you need to speak loudly, do so for the entire conversation. Avoid sounding harsh. Provide a clear view of your face while speaking to enable passenger to lip read. Do not eat or chew while speaking If a particular word is not understood, try to substitute that word with another word. 6. Persons with Deafblindness Screening Method Etiquette • • • • • • • Ask the passengers about the type of assistance needed or technology used, e.g. hearing aids or cochlear implants, before screening begins. Screen passengers by walk-through metal detectors. If unable to, conduct a patdown. Do not remove hearing aids or cochlear implant. White Canes and other devices like Braille note takers may undergo X-ray screening. If an item doesn’t fit in the X-ray, or the passenger cannot be separated from the item, it should be inspected with ETD. CISF staff to ask passenger if he/she needs to be immediately reunited with the device after X-ray screening • • • • Get the person’s attention. touch the person on the shoulder or back of the arm. Communicate by spelling the alphabets on the passengers palm and offer your palm for response (Tactile sign). Do not touch the passenger or hand something to them without prior explanation. Guide the passenger’s hand to objects by letting their hand rest lightly on the back of yours. Do not leave without letting the passenger know by touch or by signal, even for short periods. 7. Speech Impairments Screening Method Etiquette • • • Screen passengers by a walk-through metal detector and ETD. If unable to be screened by a walkthrough metal detector, do a thorough pat- down. • • • • • Listen, but if you have difficulty understanding, don’t pretend you understand. Be patient. Repeat what you do understand for confirmation. Ask person to spell, rephrase or write down the information. Have pen and paper handy. If possible, ask questions that require short answers or a nod or shake of the head. Maintain eye contact. Move to a quieter location if necessary or possible. Children with Disabilities Screening Method Etiquette • • • • • Do not remove the child from his/her mobility aid (wheelchair or scooter). The parent/guardian should be responsible for removing child from equipment, at parent's/guardian's discretion, to accomplish screening. If the child is unable to walk or stand, the Security Officer should conduct a pat-down search of the child while he/she remains in their mobility aid, as well as a visual and physical inspection of their equipment. Parent/guardian to remain with child at all times, and can ask for the child to be screened in private. • • Ensure Parent/Guardian informs the CISF Officer if the child has a disability, medical condition or medical devices, and if they think the child may become upset during the screening process. Welcome suggestions from parent/guardian on how to best accomplish the screening process and minimize any confusion for the child. Ask Parent/Guardian what the child's abilities are. E.g.: whether the child can walk through the metal detector or can be carried through the metal detector by the parent/guardian. PASSENGERS WITH MEDICAL NEEDS Passengers with Bandages and Dressings Screening Method Etiquette • If a passenger has dressings or bandages used to cover wounds from an injury or surgical procedure, he or she should inform the CISF officer of the location of the dressings and/or bandages and of any need for assistance before screening begins. • Passengers with dressings or bandages can be screened using walk through metal, detector, ETD or a thorough pat down. • Do not disturb the patient’s bandages and dressings that may cause injury or inconvenience to the passenger. Screening Techniques for Travellers with Medical Conditions: 1. Have Internal Medical Devices 2. Need Medication 3. Have Medically Necessary Liquids 4. Have Medically Necessary Radioactive Substances 5. Use Portable Oxygen and have CPAPs, BiPAPs, and APAPs (Respiratory Machines) 6. Use Nebulisers (a drug delivery device used to administer medication in the form of a mist inhaled into the lungs.) 7. Have Diabetes 8. Have Ostomies 9. Are Breast Cancer Survivors 10. Have Difficulty Waiting in Line 1. Internal Medical Devices Passengers with internal medical devices (pacemaker or defibrillator) to inform the screening officer before screening begins. Dos • Screen passengers with a pat-down process. Don'ts • Do not screen with a metal detector as it can hamper the internal device. 2. Medication • Allow medications in pill OR other solid form through security screening checkpoints in unlimited amounts, but after screening. • Passengers to inform officers and separate medication from baggage before screening. • Screen with X-ray and/or ETD. • If a passenger does not want a medication X-rayed, they can request CISF staff for an inspection prior to screening. 3. Medically Necessary Liquids • Categories: – Liquids, gels, aerosols – Bags, pumps , syringes – Freezer packs or frozen gel packs – Baby formula and food, breast milk and medications • Screening Method: – X-ray (additional screening for items in excess of 3.4 ounces) – X-ray or inspection – X-ray and additional screening – Permit in excess of 3.4 ounces in reasonable quantities for flight 4. Medically Necessary Radio-active Substances • Screen passengers with pat-down process or a walk-through metal detector. • If a passenger has radioactive medication, it should be permitted through a screening checkpoint once screened. 5.Portable Oxygen and Passengers with CPAPs, BiPAPs, APAPs (Respiratory Equipment) • Passenger must inform the screening officer if Oxygen can be disconnected before the screening process begins. • Passengers who can disconnect must be screened with ETD or pat-down. • If the passenger’s respiratory equipment cannot be disconnected, it should be tested for traces of explosives. If explosive material is detected, additional screening is needed. • Screen all CPAPs, BiPAPs, and APAPs with X-ray. If the X-ray cannot see through all parts of the CPAP, BiPAP, or APAP, additional screening by X-ray or other methods is needed. • Passengers must remove CPAPs, BiPAPs, and APAPs from its carrying case, but facemasks and tubing can remain in the case. 6. Nebulisers These are devices used to administer medication in the form of a mist inhaled into the lungs. • Screen Nebulisers by x-ray. • Passengers must remove the Nebuliser from its carrying case; facemasks and tubing may remain in the case. • Nebuliser to be placed in a clear plastic bag during x-ray screening; • Screening officer may need to remove it from the bag to test for traces of explosives. 7. Diabetes • Screen passengers using insulin pumps without disconnecting from the pump. • Do thorough pat down followed by ETD sampling of the hands. • The passenger’s insulin pump can be subject to additional screening. • Diabetes-related supplies, equipment, and medication, including liquids, to be screened by X-ray or hand inspection. • Accessories required to keep medically necessary liquids, gels, and aerosols cool – such as freezer packs or frozen gel packs are subject to additional screening. • Liquids, gels, and aerosols to be screened by X-ray and medically necessary items in excess of 3.4 ounces to undergo additional screening. 8. Ostomies Ostomy is a Surgical procedure that creates an artificial opening for the elimination of bodily wastes. • Screen passenger using ostomy without having to empty or expose it. Passengers MUST inform screening officer about the ostomy before the screening begins. • Screen using metal detector, or a thorough pat-down. • Passenger’s ostomy can be subject to additional screening. Under most circumstances, this should include the passenger conducting a self patdown of the ostomy, followed by ETD sampling of the hands. 9. Breast Cancer Survivors • Security screening to be done through walk-through metal detectors, ETD or a thorough pat -down procedure. • Screening officers must accommodate the passenger’s needs and extend dignified and sensitive treatment. 10. Difficulty Waiting in Line • Designate separate lanes at screening check points specifically for passengers with disabilities and medical conditions, senior citizens and those travelling with young children. • The passenger should inform the personnel overseeing the line that he or she may have difficulty standing or waiting in line due to a disability or medical condition before entering the line. • CISF staff must courteously screen such passengers before they screen others. THANK YOU Disclaimer: In order to keep the recommended guidelines in synch with internationally followed screening practices for People With Disabilities, this document has been put together with references from the Transportation Security Guidelines of the United States of America and recommendations from representatives of various constituencies of disabilities in India.