CASE STUDIES IN NEURO TRAUMA December 5, 2013 KELLI CASPER, APNP Saving Lives By Strengthening Our Region’s Trauma Care System GOALS • Brief anatomy review • Discuss important exam findings in brain and spine trauma • Discuss key management principles in brain and spine trauma • Case study of Epidural Hematoma • Case study of Diffuse Axonal Injury • Case study of Cervical Spinal Cord Injury ANATOMY REVIEW TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY • A traumatic brain injury occurs every 7 seconds and results in death every 5 minutes in the US • TBI accounts for 1/3 of all trauma related deaths in the US • Annual cost of TBI medical care in the US – approximately $56 billion • (Heegaard & Biros, 2007) MANY “FLAVORS” OF BLUNT TBI • Skull fractures • Brain contusions • Hematomas/Intracerebral hemorrhages • Epidural Hematoma • Subdural Hematoma • Traumatic SAH • Diffuse axonal injury CATEGORIZING HEAD INJURY Minimal: GCS= 15, No loss of consciousness, No amnesia Mild: GCS= 14 OR GCS= 15 plus EITHER: Brief LOC < 5 min OR impaired alertness or memory Moderate: GCS 9-13 OR LOC > 5 min OR Focal neurologic deficit Severe: GCS 5-8 Critical: GCS 3-4 (Greenberg, 2010) TBI PATHOGENESIS • Primary injury: immediate impact injury • Secondary injury: ensuing neuropathologic processes after initial injury Our job in the hospital is to intervene and disrupt these processes and secondary mechanisms SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY Amino acid and cytokine release Free radicals formed BBB damage Altered CBF Increased ICP Brain damage/cell death Functional deficits Mitochondrial damage INTERVENING FACTORS IN TBI • Hypoxia • Hypotension • Cerebral edema • Increased ICP • Reduced cerebral blood flow • Electrolyte imbalance PRACTICE GUIDELINE DEFINITIONS • • • • • • • • Level I: High degree of clinical certainty Level A: Based on consistent Class I evidence (well-designed, prospective randomized controlled studies) Level B: Single Class I study or consistent class II evidence when circumstances preclude clinical trials Level II: Moderate degree of clinical certainty Level C: Usually derived from Class II evidence (one or more welldesigned comparative clinical studies or less well-designed randomized studies) or a preponderance of Class III evidence Level III: Unclear clinical certainty Level D: Generally based on Class III evidence (case series, historical controls, case reports and expert opinion). Useful for educational purposes and to guide future research (Greenberg, 2010) CASE STUDY #1 • 51 y/o male fell down a flight of cement stairs after domestic altercation striking the left temporal area. Lost consciousness for about 10 minutes. • By the time EMS arrived, the patient was fully awake. He was brought to the ED for evaluation. GCS 15 in ED. CT scan without contrast of head showed a small left temporal epidural hematoma and left temporal bone fracture. EPIDURAL VS SUBDURAL HEMATOMAS Epidural • 1% of head trauma admissions • Arterial source (MMA) (85% of cases) • Can expand rapidly • More often requires surgical evacuation • Mortality 20-55% • “Classic presentation” Subdural • Seen in 10-20% of head trauma cases • Usually venous source of bleeding (bridging veins) • Usually expand less rapidly than EDH • More often has associated underlying brain injury (contusions, SAH) • Epidural: Usually produces more “mass effect” • Subudural: Usually more diffuse and concave appearance Small epidural hematoma (< 1 cm maximum thickness) CASE STUDY #1 • Patient was admitted to ICU for observation • EDH can rapidly expand • Moderate head injury • • • • Neuro checks every hour HOB elevated 40 degrees NPO status Seizure prophylaxis started • Temporal region associated w/higher seizure risk • Minimize sedation! • Avoid hypertension UNFOLDING EVENTS • Overnight becoming increasingly agitated followed by increasing somnolence and difficulty arousing • Thrashing of left extremities only • No longer following commands and not speaking • Left pupil 5mm and fixed, Right pupil 2mm, responsive to light • Neurosurgeon being called • Patient declined rapidly, developing respiratory distress • Rapid response called and patient emergently intubated • OR was called for emergent craniotomy and evacuation of hematoma. DISCUSSION OF EVENTS • Agitation/Restlessness is often first sign of increasing ICP • Somnolence and hemiparesis will follow as ICP continues to rise • Pupil dilates (late sign) TREATMENT COURSE • Surgical evacuation via Craniotomy with evacuation of EDH • He eventually regained consciousness and able to ambulate and use right hand CASE STUDY #2 • 47 y/o male in MCA on highway, lost control, no helmet, thrown from motorcycle. Unresponsive at scene, CPR initiated • Intubated at scene, arrived to ED GCS 3, chemically paralyzed and sedated. • Neuro exam very limited DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY INITIAL PERTINENT CLINICAL INFORMATION • SBP on admit to ICU 140’s. MAP 80’s. • Pupils unequal, R= 4mm, reactive to 2mm, L= 8mm, non-reactive to light. • Sodium: 141 • H/H: 13.3/38.8 • Platelet: 227,000 • PCO2 = 37, PO2 = 129 INITIAL TREATMENT COURSE • • • • • • • • • Arterial line inserted. Central line inserted. HOB elevated 40 degrees Sedated with propofol / fentanyl drips Loaded with Cerebyx (Fosphenytoin) 20 mg PE/kg, then TID ICP bolt placed by Neurosurgeon. Initial ICP’s 7-9mm Hg. CPP 60’s Mannitol 25 gm IV every 6 hours started Stress ulcer prophylaxis, Protonix 40 mg IV daily Bilateral SCD’s placed for DVT prophylaxis Serum electrolytes / osmolality q 6 hrs DISCUSSION OF TREATMENT • • • • • • • • • ICP monitoring & goals CPP monitoring & goals Sedation goals Mannitol treatment 3% saline treatment DVT prophylaxis Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) Nutrition goals Refractory increased ICP • Barbituate coma • Decompressive Craniectomy TYPES OF ICP MONITORING DEVICES Goal ICP < 20 CEREBRAL PERFUSION PRESSURE • Importance of Cerebral Perfusion Pressure • CPP = Mean arterial pressure (-) Intracranial pressure • Goal > 60 mm Hg, prefer > 70 mm HG MANNITOL (LEVEL II RECOMMENDATION FOR INTRACRANIAL HTN AFTER SEVERE TBI) • • • • Pro’s Increases cerebral blood flow by it’s plasma expansion and osmotic effect Reduces ICP within minutes Possible free radical scavenging (Greenberg, 2010) • • • • Con’s Risk of acute renal failure Risk of hypotension May draw more fluid into CNS causing worsening cerebral edema Electrolyte disturbances due to excessive urinary output HYPERTONIC SALINE • • Pro’s Effective at reducing ICP through osmotic effects similar to Mannitol Less risk of hypovolemic hypotension • • • • • (Greenberg, 2010) Con’s May cause severe hypernatremia Electrolyte disturbances Not enough convincing evidence to support use over Mannitol No changes in neurologic outcome over Mannitol SUPPORTIVE CARE • Sedation / Pain management • Nutrition • Stress Ulcer prophylaxis • DVT prophylaxis • Skin care • Oral hygiene CONTINUED HOSPITAL COURSE • • • • • • • • IVC filter placed (DVT risk with ICH) Percutaneous bedside tracheostomy placed, dobbhoff placed for nutrition Required a few days of Levophed for goal CPP > 60 ICP’s remained relatively normal Gradually began to open eyes, and although not commanding, localized purposefully to stimulus ~ 12 days post-injury, nodding to questions, trying to mouth words, began sitting on edge of bed ~ 18 days post-injury, speaking more sense, less agitation, progressing in PT/OT/Speech, trach removed Discharge to a brain rehab facility ~ 3 weeks post-injury SPINAL CORD INJURY • 12,000 new cases each year • Average age at time of injury ~ 40 years • 77% of these are males • $4 Billion spent annually on acute and chronic care of spinal cord injured patients • (Chittiboina, et al. 2012) CAUSES OF SCI Cause% MVC's Falls Violence Other/unknown Sports (Chittiboina, et al. 2012) CASE STUDY #3 • 22 y/o male dove into shallow lake. Friends pulled him out of water, patient unable to move arms or legs. In ED, cervical CT scan showed at C7 burst fracture. CT CERVICAL SPINE MRI CERVICAL SPINE INITIAL NEUROLOGICAL EXAM • Alert and oriented with normal speech • CN II – XII grossly intact • Motor exam showed preserved biceps 3+/5, triceps 2/5 bilaterally, Hand intrinsics absent on right side, subtle finger movement on left side • No motor or sensory perception below C7 • + priapism DISCUSSION • “Level of Injury” • “Complete Injury vs Incomplete Injury • Spinal shock LEVEL OF INJURY • Some use level of completely normal function • Some use most caudal segment with motor function at least 3/5 • Know the major spinal nerve root motor distribution • Know the major spinal nerve root sensory dermatomes MAJOR SPINAL NERVE ROOT MOTOR DISTRIBUTIONS Segment Muscle Action to Test C1 – C4 Neck muscles C3, C4, C5 Diaphragm Inspiration/FEV1 C5, C6 Deltoid, Biceps Abduct arm, Elbow flexion C6, C7 Extensor carpi radialis Wrist extension C7, C8 Triceps, Extensor digitorum, hand intrinsics Elbow Extension, Finger Extension L2, L3 Iliopsoas Hip flexion L3, L4 Quadriceps Knee extension L4, L5 Medial hamstrings, tibialis anterior Ankle dorsiflexion L5, S1 Lateral hamstrings, posterior Foot inversion, great toe tibialis, extensor hallucis extension, ankle longis plantarflexion MUSCLE STRENGTH Grade Strength 0 No contraction 1 Flicker or trace contraction 2 Movement with gravity eliminated 3 Movement against gravity 4 Movement against resistance 4 – slight resistance 4 moderate resistance 4+ strong resistance 5 Normal strength SENSORY DERMATOMES DISCUSSING SPECIAL REFLEXES IN SCI • Priapism • Cremasteric reflex • Anal cutaneous reflex (“anal wink”) • Bulbocavernous reflex COMPLETE VS INCOMPLETE SCI Incomplete lesion • Any residual motor or sensory function more than 3 segments below the level of injury • Sensation or voluntary movements in LE’s • Preserved sensation around anus, voluntary rectal sphincter contraction Complete lesion • No preservation of any motor and/or sensory function more than 3 segments below the level of injury SPINAL SHOCK • Hypotension following spinal cord injury • Interruption of the sympathetics (implies injury above T1) • Loss of vascular tone below level of injury • Leaves parasympathetics relatively unopposed causing a relative bradycardia • Loss of muscle tone results in venous pooling • Blood loss from other associated wounds TREATMENT COURSE • • • • • • • • • • • Cervical immobilization with rigid collar initially Methylprednisolone drip started per protocol Placed in cervical tongs by Neurosurgeon in ICU Central/Arterial lines placed Levophed drip used in ICU for maintaining SBP > 90 SCD’s for DVT prophylaxis Foley catheter insertion NPO SUP: Protonix 40 mg IV daily Anxiety & Pain control with small doses Ativan/Fentanyl as needed Pre-operative readiness for surgical stabilization CERVICAL TRACTION • Level III recommendation • Purpose: to restore anatomic alignment • Complications: • Skull penetration of pins • Reduction of cervical dislocations may cause neurologic deterioration (i.e. retropulsed disc) • Higher level injuries (C1-C3) need caution (fragments pulled toward canal) • Infection (Osteomyelitis) – good pin care is essential SURGICAL STABILIZATION HOSPITAL COURSE / OUTCOME • Early physical and occupational therapies • Improving left hand intrinsics by POD 2 • Transferred to a Spinal Cord Rehab facility by POD 3 STEROID PROTOCOL IN SCI • Still highly controversial • Considered Level III Recommendation • Asserted that beneficial (sensory & motor) effects at 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year are seen for both complete and incomplete injuries only if given within 8 hour of injury • (Greenberg, 2010) STEROID PROTOCOL • Administration: • 16 Gm/256 ml bacteriostatic water • 30 mg/kg initial IV bolus over 15 minutes, followed by 45 minute pause, then maintenance drip at 5.4 mg/kg/hour x 23 or 47 hours** • (Greenberg, 2010) DVT PROPHYLAXIS IN SCI Level I Recommendation Level II Recommendations * LMW heparin, rotating bed, • Not recommended: lowadjusted dose heparin or dose heparin used alone some combination of these • Not recommended: oral measures anticoagulation alone * Low dose heparin + pneumatic compression stockings or electrical stimulation *Titrate dose of SQ heparin q 12 hours to a PTT of 1.5 x control *Heparin 5000 units q 12 hours (Greenberg, 2010) Level III Recommendations • Duplex doppler ultrasound, venography are recommended as diagnostic tests for DVT in patients with SCI • Vena Cava interruption filters for patients who do not respond to or are not candidates for anticoagulation EVALUATING STABILITY TYPES OF VERTEBRAL FRACTURES BRACING OPTIONS REFERENCES • • • • • • • Blumenfeld, H. Neuroanatomy through Clinical Cases. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts; 2002. Fix, J.D. Neuroanatomy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 3rd edition, 2002. Greenberg, M.S. Handbook of Neurosurgery. Thieme Publishing, 7th edition, 2010. Heegard, W. & Biros, M. (2007). Traumatic Brain Injury. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America, 25, 655-678. Lindsay, K.W., Bone, I. & Callander, R. Neurology and Neurosurgery Illustrated. Churchill Livingstone, 4th edition, 2004. Ling, G. & Marshall, S. A. (2008). Management of Traumatic Brain Injury in the Intensive Care Unit, Neurologic Clinics, 26, 409-426. Chittibonia et al. (2012). Head and Spinal Cord Injury. Neurology Clinics, 30 (1), 241-276.