* a) Explain how and why the diet of a competitive weightlifter may need to differ from that of an untrained individual. (4 marks) b) Footballers need ‘stamina’to play the game effectively. State two classes of food that are most suitable for players who require stamina and why they are needed in their diet. (3 marks) a) * Extra protein – for muscle growth and repair. * Extra calories/carbohydrates/fats – for greater energy requirement. * Extra vitamins/minerals – for higher metabolism, greater muscle nerve functioning, improved energy release from food. * Extra fluid/water – to avoid dehydration, replace fluid lost through sweat, regulate body temperature. b) * Carbohydrates * Fats * Needed for ATP production / energy. Sports performers need to be fit. One possible limit to fitness in some activities is body fat. A high ’Body Mass Index’ (BMI) indicates a high percentage body fat and possibly obesity. a) b) How is Body Mass Index (BMI) calculated? (2 marks) How may ‘obesity’affect performance in different activities? (2 marks) a) * BMI shows height to weight ratio. * Divide weight (kg) by height (m) and compare to BMI chart. b) * Increased weight affects endurance activities. * Decreased range of motion / flexibility. a) b) c) Name the six classes of food. (3 marks) How should the diet required by a marathon runner differ from an inactive person? (3 marks) What are the benefits of having sufficient fibre in a performer’s diet? (2 marks) a) * Carbohydrates, fat, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals. b) * Extra calories / carbohydrates / fats – increased energy requirements. * Extra vitamins/minerals – for higher metabolism, greater muscle nerve functioning, improved energy release from food. * Extra fluid/water – to avoid dehydration, replace fluid lost through sweat, regulate body temperature. c) * Prevent constipation / efficiency of digestive system. * Can reduce blood cholesterol levels. * Can help control blood glucose levels for those with diabetes. a) b) c) Why do people engaged in physical activity need to make sure that they eat foods containing sufficient iron and calcium? (4 marks) Fat is an important component of an athlete’s diet. Describe two beneficial functions of dietary fat. (2 marks) Why is excess fat considered to be a disadvantage to an endurance athlete? (4 marks) a) * Iron – formation of haemoglobin in red blood cells to transport oxygen around the body, aids metabolism, aids the immune system. * Calcium – needed to strengthen bones, involved in nerve and muscle function. b) * Energy source, good for low intensity/aerobic/slow release of energy, source of vitamins. c) * Excess weight/obesity, limits range of motion/flexibility, overheating, causes heart disease/high blood pressure/diabetes etc. a) b) c) What is basal metabolic rate? (2 marks) How could you measure the amount of fat in the body of an athlete? (2 marks) What are the main health risks to being obese? (2 marks) a) * The rate at which a person uses energy to maintain the basic functions of the body. * Depends on age, gender, activity levels, body weight. b) * Skinfold calipers / skinfold method – involves measuring thickness of skin at various areas. * Bioelectrical impedance – tiny electric current passes through body and estimates fat percentage. * Water submersion – measurement of water displaced. c) * Cancer, heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, high blood pressure. a) Explain how a diet containing sufficient ‘vitamins’ and ‘minerals’ contributes to effective performance. (2 marks) b) Netball players should have a suitably balanced diet for their sport. What do you understand by the term balanced diet? (1 mark) c) What are the advantages and disadvantages of a netball player having a diet rich in fat? (4 marks) a) * Vit K / vit B12 / iron – needed for production of red blood cells and haemoglobin. * Calcium / vit D – needed for bones. * Calcium/magnesium – aid muscle contractions. * Vit B2 / sodium / iron – needed for energy metabolism. * Potassium / sodium / calcium – nerve transmission. b) * Diet containing sufficient amounts of all nutrients required. c) * Advantages – energy source, good for low intensity/aerobic/slow release of energy, source of vitamins. * Disadvantages – excess weight/obesity, bad for endurance events, limits range of motion/flexibility, overheating, causes heart disease/high blood pressure/diabetes etc.