Being an effective role model

Report
Being an effective role model
Drs Margaret Kingston
& Leena Patel
You ARE a role model,
but are you always a good one?
Being a positive role model is:
 A key attribute of a successful doctor
 A requirement of all UK registered doctors by the General
Medical Council
Education is an integral part of medical practice & learning
form role models is an important aspect of medical education
because:
 It teaches the application of knowledge and skills
 Influences career choices
 Is how our students and trainees develop professionalism
Students & trainees are aware of
their role models - good & bad!
“I think a role model is the single best way to learn… if you can see
someone do it and understand how and why they do it, I think that’s
when you’ll get it”
“Enthusiastic about her discipline, involved students actively in the
work, excellent knowledge and practical skills, nice to patients, staff
and students”
“I’ve found my first rotation was very stressful, humiliating, I worked
and read because of fear…”
Personal
considerations…

Who are / were your
role models?

What was their
influence on your
learning and career
choices?

Who are you a role
model for?

What are your good
and bad attributes as
a role model?
ILOs for this workshop
“Research indicates that being a positive role model is a
set of skills, attitudes and behaviours which may be
taught and acquired by doctors…”
Define positive and negative attributes of a role
model
Understand how learning from role models
happens
How you can effectively teach through role
modelling
Studies have established the
attributes reported in medical role models:
Individuals who:
 Excel in their clinical knowledge and skills
 Through communication skills they maintain good
professional relationships
 Are effective and enthusiastic teachers
A tall order!
 Students & trainees have multiple role models,
learning different things from different
individuals; the “composite” role model
How learning from role models happens
This is a complex process! Aspects have been
explained through various learning theories:
Individuals learn “to talk, from talk”
Students & trainees learn professionalism through
the “Hidden Curriculum” :
This is a process of assimilation into a community of
practice, not only by possession of shared expertise, but
also the development of professional values and
standards
Cruess, 2008
Video clip
(cardiac arrest, first episode, see youtube!)
• For those you consider to be acting as a role model in
these scenarios:
– What positive attributes of a role model are they
displaying?
– Are they demonstrating any negative role model
attributes?
– How could learning through role modelling be
improved in this situation?
Positive role model attributes
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Personal characteristics
Compassion
Caring
Empathic
Patient-centred approach
Excellent communication skills
Good inter-professional
relationships
Respectful
Good team player
Demonstrates leadership
Integrity
Honesty
Good sense of humour
Calm
Positive attitude
Clinical skill
• Practically skilful
• Demonstrates clinical
competence
• Knowledgeable
• Sound clinical reasoning
• Ability to reach the correct
diagnosis
• Strives for excellence
• Presentation skills
• Aware of own strengths and
weaknesses
Positive role model attributes
Teaching abilities
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Taking an interest in students and trainees
Spending time with students and trainees
Enthusiasm
Patience
Provide clear explanations
Versatile, learner centred teaching style
Constructive feedback
Demonstrating clinical reasoning
Facilitation patient interaction and learning opportunities
Identifying opportunities for reflection
Negative role model attributes
Personal characteristics
• Making derogatory comments
about patients or fellow
professionals
• Inappropriate humour
directed at patients or
colleagues
• Lack of empathy
• Unfriendliness
• Complaining
• Expressing anger or frustration
• Bitterness and cynicism
• Opinionated
• Lack of confidence
• Un co-operative
Clinical skill
• Lack of knowledge
Teaching abilities
• Forgetting names and faces
• Excessive criticism
• Frightening or humiliating
students or trainees
• Promoting unnecessary
competition between students
or trainees
How to MAXIMISE learning
through role modelling
1.
Attention: Drawn attention to the behaviour or skill being modelled by:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
2.
3.
4.
Physically emphasising it
Asking them relevant questions
Providing an enthusiastic narrative
Subdividing and explaining specific aspects of a complex skill.
Retention: This may be enhanced by adoption of the following strategies:
I.
Repetition of a skill or relaying of an important fact
II.
Symbolic representation to create visual memory
III. Drawing appropriate parallels or realistic exemplification of possible
harmful effects (e.g. giving telling examples)
IV. Relating new to existing knowledge
Production: Provide experience with appropriate autonomy
Motivation:
I.
II.
Awareness of motivators for learners including personal rewards such as
enjoyment, enthusiasm and dedication, financial gains or social status,
professional autonomy or influence.
Increasing frequency and magnitude of observed rewards & concurrence
with the trainee’s own aspirations increases the effect.
How to MAXIMISE learning
through role modelling
Wright & Caresse, 2002
How to MAXIMISE learning
through role modelling
Blue sky thinking….
When it gets tough….
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Remember – you are a role
model!
Make time for teaching
Explicitly model skills &
behaviours
Recognise & use seminal events
Provide experience & feedback
Creating a positive learning
environment and culture
Providing learner centred
teaching
Show you love it!
Time for teaching:
– “Teaching when time is
limited – Irby BMJ 2008;
336: 384 ”
2. Competing priorities:
– Demonstrate how these are
managed, including work-life
balance/merge
3. Adverse work related pressures:
– Explicitly model effectively
dealing with these
Time to have a quick go?
Feedback from role pay
1. The scenario
2. Positive role modelling skills to be utilised
3. Barriers to learning
Scenario one
Positive role modelling
Barriers to learning from
skills to be utilised
effective role modelling

Patient centred

Personal opinions
Problem Based Learning
approach

Attitudes of other
(PBL) group and during a 
Excellent
case discussion one
communication skills

Inappropriate humour
You are the tutor of a
students
member of the group

Respectful

Excessive criticism
expresses homophobic

Positive attitude

Humiliating or
and racist attitudes; how

Constructive feedback
do you handle this?

Versatile learner

Patience
centred teaching

Clear explanation
frightening approach
Scenario two
Positive role modelling Barriers to learning from
skills to be utilised
You are in a busy clinic and a 
effective role modelling
Compassion

Lack of empathy

Time pressure
patient who has recently

Caring
received a serious diagnosis

Patient centred
is very distressed. You have a
approach
student sitting in. How do you 
Excellent
handle the patient and
communication
effectively teach the student?
skills

Calm

Hot review

Identifying
opportunities for
reflection
Scenario three
Positive role modelling
Barriers to learning from
skills to be utilised
effective role modelling

Patient centred

Lack of confidence
procedure with a student
approach

Time pressure
in attendance, how do you 
Practically skilful
You are undertaking a
effectively teach the

student to do this?
Facilitating patient
interaction and
opportunity for learning

Patience

Explicitly demonstrating
skills
So, in summary, being a
good role model is important!
Because, being a positive role model is
 A key attribute of a successful doctor
 A requirement of all UK registered doctors by the General
Medical Council
Furthermore, our students and trainees learn important skills
and make important choices because of this:
 Through it they learn the application of knowledge and skills
 We influence their career choices
 It is how our students and trainees develop professionalism –
which has never been more important than it is now!
You ARE a role model; how can
you be a good one (nearly) all the time?
1. Remember that you are a role model
2. Actively demonstrate your positive role model characteristics
and skills
3. Actively demonstrate dealing with challenges
4. Create opportunities for authentic learner centred
experiences with constructive feedback
5. Enjoy yourself!
ILOs for this workshop
Define positive and negative attributes of a role
model
Understand how learning from role models
happens
How you can effectively teach through role
modelling
Thank you for your participation
 Any last questions or comments?

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