Seventh Grade How to Conduct an Experiment 1 IT STARTS HERE. Four Types of Projects I. II. III. IV. Controlled experiment Fieldwork Secondary Research Design/Invention 2 IT STARTS HERE. Controlled Experiment Students must identify both the dependent and the independent variable. For the dependent variable, you can think of it as the data you are collecting, and the independent variable is the variable that causes the change. You must remember to list your constraints, and add specific measurements you are using, if it applies to your experiment. You can only change one variable in your experiment in order for your data to be reliable. 3 IT STARTS HERE. Examples of a Controlled Experiment How does age affect the blood pressure? How does hearing music affect the number of ping-pong balls a person can throw in a basket in one minute? How does the angle of a rocket affect the distance it traveled? Red = Independent Variable Purple = Dependent Variable 4 IT STARTS HERE. Fieldwork Students must go to a specific location(s) and gather data. Students must use appropriate equipment in order to gather their data. This will help you to see how changes to the independent variable affect the dependent variable. Students must make a list of all the necessary equipment needed. Students must decide how often they are measuring, or collecting data (twice a day, daily, weekly, etc.). 5 IT STARTS HERE. Examples of a Field Study How does temperature affect the amount of rainfall for the month of November? How does body temperature determine a person’s mood? How does altitude affect barometric pressure? 6 IT STARTS HERE. Secondary Research These are for experiments where students do not have the time, resources, or appropriate equipment to complete their experiment. Students use research from a reliable source in order to try to find answers to their problem. Students will analyze scientists’ and researchers’ data; however they must cite the sources of their data. 7 IT STARTS HERE. Examples of Secondary Research Do seasons affect the incidence of asthma attacks? Does smoking while pregnant cause children to have asthma? How does the cloud cover affect UV radiation? 8 IT STARTS HERE. Design/Invention Think of something for which there is a need. Determine your target audience (women, men, children, babies, etc.) Create a prototype, and test the prototype by gathering data. If the design exists already, then think of ways to make it better. For both designing a product or creating an invention, you must be able to gather data in order to see if your design or invention worked. If it didn’t work then you must try to find solutions as to why it didn’t work or ways of making it better and trying again. Web Cup Solar-Powered Flashlight 9 IT STARTS HERE. Examples of Design/Invention Investigations How can we invent a bike that will purify water? How can we create a dog sweater that measures the body temperature of a dog? 10 IT STARTS HERE. QUESTIONS 11 IT STARTS HERE.