Where People Go Unit 4 Speaking a Where are these places? 1 Paris 2 London 3 New York 4 Rio de Janeiro 5 Athens 6 Cairo 7 Taj Mahal 8 Ayers Rock b How long would it take you to get to each place from where you live? c How would you get there: by air, road or ... ? d What is the time difference: - between these places and your country? - between these places and GMT? Vocabulary Match the words in A and B which have the same meaning. Which words are British and which American? A B autumn bill a check a closet a cupboard fall an elevator ground floor a faucet a lift first floor a one-way ticket a fortnight a round trip a restroom a tap a return a toilet a single two weeks Listening Listen to an American family talking about their holiday in Europe and take notes on the comments they make about each of these topics: PARIS AND FLORENCE SWISS CHOCOLATE CHEESE ICE CUBES SHOPPING Articles Countable Singular a school Plural / schools Uncountable / sand DEFINITE REFERENCE the school the schools the sand The definite article 1. Look at the following and put them into logical groups. Africa/the Himalayas/the Alps/ Italy/ Asia/ Kilimanjaro/ Australia/Lake Michigan/the beaches of Goa Lake Ontario/ Buenos Aires/Lenin's Mausoleum/the Czech Republic/the Louvre/ Japan/Madame Tussaud's/ Geneva/the Mayan ruins of Yucatan/ Everest/ the Gobi Desert/ the Nile/the Pacific/ the Parthenon/ the Mediterranean/ the Sahara/ Saigon/St Basil's cathedral/ the Seychelles/ Napoleon/Count Dracula/ the temples of Bangkok/ the Thames/ the Uffizi/ the United Kingdom/ the United States of America/ the West Indies/ the Yangtze The definite article 2. Look at the examples and write rules for the use of the in each case. • Rule 1: t he Uffizi, the Prado, the Victoria and Albert • Rule 2: the Nile, the Thames, the Atlantic • Rule 3: the Seychelles, the West Indies, the Philippines • Rule 4: the Sahara, the Alps, the Rockies • Rule 5: the Czech Republic, the USA, the UK • Rule 6: Innsbruck, Switzerland, Europe • Rule 7: Napoleon, Count Dracula, Prince Charles • Rule 8: Lake Ontario, Everest, Lake Garda • Rule 9: the beaches of Goa, the Tower of London, the Mayan ruins of Yucatan • Rule 10: Madame Tussaud's, St Basil's Cathedral, Other When a noun or adjective is used to create a category: The Russians want as many tourists as possible. But: a Before nationalities, when referring to an individual. She's British but her husband is Greek. b When referring to an ability to speak a language. He's very gifted at languages. He can speak French, Russian, German, Spanish and Arabic. The word the has been deleted from this article. Put it back whenever necessary. The first paragraph has been done for you. Seventy percent of Britons believe visiting London is more dangerous than going abroad, while in Scotland this rises to 80 per cent. These findings come despite a number of tourist killings in Florida, Egypt and elsewhere in Africa, according to Lunn Poly, the travel firm which polled a random sample of 1,030 adults about their holiday intentions. Trips to Florida from Britain fen by 20 percent last summer and nearly half of people who were polled said they would not go there next year. That is bad news for Disney World in Orlando, top American attraction for British tourists, and bookings are also down to Disneyland near Paris. British fear of London is not shared by nine million foreigners who visited capital last year London's attractions, such as Changing of Guard being main reason why Britain was world's sixth tourist destination. At least 25 per cent of British families are expected to holiday abroad next year, and a record nine million are forecast to book a foreign package holiday. It looks as if biggest beneficiary will be cheapest country, Spain, where bookings are up by50 per cent - not least because peseta has fallen faster than pound. Figures We say 9 million (NOT '9 millions). • BUT we say millions of foreigners, thousands of tourists, etc. For figures over 100, British English uses and between the hundreds and the tens: • 257 two hundred and fifty-seven USA: two hundred fifty-seven • 1,000 a thousand or one thousand If we use a decimal we say point. Each figure is said separately: 0.35 8.75 USA zero point three five eight point seven five UK nought point three five eight point seven five Fractions are expressed using ordinal numbers: • a third 1/3 a quarter 1/4 a half 1/2 two fifths 2/5 three quarters 3/4 Note these mathematical terms: • 18x34=612eighteen multiplied by/ times thirty-four equals/makes/is six hundred and twelve • 27%3 = 9 twenty-seven divided by three is nine Many figures are pronounced individually: • Flight 8A 818 eight one eight • My room number is 631. six three one From, to , and by are used to indicate changes in figures: • The price has risen by 5%, from $100 to $105. When speaking about money we say the currency unit after the figure: • £55 fifty-five pounds / $800 eight hundred Canadian dollars Past Continuous • FORM [was/were + present participle] Examples: • You were studying when she called. • Were you studying when she called? • You were not studying when she called. Past Continuous USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past I was watching TV when she called. When the phone rang, she was writing a letter. USE 2 Parallel Actions I was studying while he was making dinner. REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs Jane was being at my house when you arrived. Not Correct Jane was at my house when you arrived. Correct Past Continuous -exercises 1. The Titanic (cross) the Atlantic when it (strike) an iceberg. 2. After I (find) the wallet full of money, I (go, immediately) to the police and (turn) it in. 3. The doctor (say) that Tom (be) too sick to go to work and that he (need) to stay at home for a couple of days. 4. Sebastian (arrive) at Susan's house a little before 9:00 PM, but she (be, not) there. She (study, at the library) for her final examination in French. 5. Sandy is in the living room watching television. At this time yesterday, she (watch, also) television. That's all she ever does! 6. A: I (call) you last night after dinner, but you (be, not) there. Where were you? B: I (work) out at the fitness center. 7. When I (walk) into the busy office, the secretary (talk) on the phone with a customer, several clerks (work, busily) at their desks, and two managers (discuss, quietly) methods to improve customer service. 8. I (watch) a mystery movie on TV when the electricity went out. Now I am never going to find out how the movie ends. 9. Sharon (be) in the room when John told me what happened, but she didn't hear anything because she (listen, not) . 10. It's strange that you (call) because I (think, just) about you. Present Perfect Continuous FORM has/have + been + present participle Examples: • You have been waiting here for two hours. • Have you been waiting here for two hours? • You have not been waiting here for two hours Present Perfect Continuous USE - Duration from the Past Until Now Examples: They have been talking for the last hour. She has been working at that company for three years. What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes? We have been waiting here for over two hours! REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs Sam has been having his car for two years. Not Correct Sam has had his car for two years. Correct Present Perfect Continuous -exercise Robin: I think the waiter (forget) us. We (wait) here for over half an hour and nobody (take) our order yet. Michele: I think you're right. He (walk) by us at least twenty times. He probably thinks we (order, already) . Robin: Look at that couple over there, they (be, only) here for five or ten minutes and they already have their food. Michele: He must realize we (order, not) yet! We (sit) here for over half an hour staring at him. Robin: I don't know if he (notice, even) us. He (run) from table to table taking orders and serving food. Michele: That's true, and he (look, not) in our direction once.