Mammals are characterized by each of the following EXCEPT

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Mammals are characterized by
each of the following EXCEPT
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
mammary glands.
hair.
endothermy.
three-chambered
hearts.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
A feature that is present in most female
mammals, but not male mammals, is
1. generating body
heat internally.
2. subcutaneous fat.
3. the ability to
nourish young
with milk.
4. breathing air.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
To determine whether a vertebrate is a bird
or a mammal, it would be useful to know if it
1. has a fourchambered heart.
2. breathes air.
3. has hair.
4. is an endotherm.
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2
3
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5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Which organ is used by a cow
to feed her newborn calf?
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
mammary gland
placenta
marsupium
rumen
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The first true mammals
appeared during the
1. Permian Period.
2. late Triassic
Period.
3. Cretaceous
Period.
4. Cenozoic Era.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The three main groups of
mammals are the
1.
monotremes,
marsupials, and
placental mammals.
platypuses, echidnas,
and marsupials.
rodents, carnivores, and
primates.
kangaroos, koalas, and
wombats.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The earliest mammals
1.
appeared about 65 million years ago and
had simple teeth.
were large and resembled modern
elephants.
were small and probably were most
active during the daytime.
probably were nocturnal and ate insects.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25% 25% 25% 25%
1
2
3
4
To release heat from their bodies when
necessary, some mammals use their
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
external body hair.
subcutaneous fat.
sweat glands.
high rate of
metabolism.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Mammals that have baleen feed
on
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
insects.
nectar.
plankton.
fruit.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Which body system includes the
rumen?
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
respiratory
circulatory
excretory
digestive
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Which sequence correctly describes the
path of newly swallowed plant food through
the digestive tract of a cow?
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The volume of the chest cavity
increases when
1. the rib cage lowers.
2. air leaves the lungs.
3. the diaphragm
contracts.
4. the bottom of the
chest cavity moves
upward.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The mammalian circulatory
system consists of
1.
one loop powered by a fourchambered heart.
two separate loops powered by a fourchambered heart.
two separate loops powered by a
three-chambered heart.
four separate loops powered by a twochambered heart.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25% 25% 25% 25%
1
2
3
4
In mammals, the amount of water in the
body is controlled mainly by the
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
kidneys.
diaphragm.
heart.
lungs.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Which part of a mammal’s brain contains a
well-developed cerebral cortex—the center
of thinking?
1. medulla oblongata 25% 25% 25% 25%
2. spinal cord
3. cerebrum
4. cerebellum
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
A mammal that cannot properly adjust its
breathing rate under varying conditions
probably has a defect in its
25% 25%
25%
25%
1. medulla
oblongata.
2. spinal cord.
3. cerebrum.
4. cerebellum.
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
One group of mammals is reproductively
different from the other two groups because
its members
1. are live-bearing.
2. reproduce by
external fertilization.
3. lay eggs.
4. do not nourish their
young with milk.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The egg-laying mammals are
called
1. marsupials.
2. monotremes.
3. placental
mammals.
4. insectivores.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
An example of an animal with a
marsupium is a(an)
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
elephant.
sea lion.
mouse.
kangaroo.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The only continent on which you can expect
to find a wild mammal with a cloaca is
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
North America.
South America.
Australia.
Africa.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The function of a placenta is to
1.
exchange materials between an
embryo and its mother.
store and process newly swallowed
plant food.
store urine until it is eliminated from
the body.
increase the volume of the chest
cavity during breathing.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25% 25%
1
2
25%
3
25%
4
In which of the following mammals does an
embryo spend the most time developing
inside the mother?
25% 25%
25%
25%
1. echidna
2. elephant
3. kangaroo
4. koala
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
Mammals of species X reproduce without forming a
placenta. You could determine to which of the three groups
of mammals species X belongs if you knew any of the
following EXCEPT
1.
2.
3.
4.
25%
how its reproductive and urinary
systems connect to the outside of
the body.
what happens to its eggs after they
are fertilized.
how it controls its body temperature.
how its young obtain milk from the
mother.
1
1
2
3
4
5
25%
2
25%
3
25%
4
Which of the following mammals
is a proboscidean?
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
shrew
rabbit
bat
elephant
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
A hoofed mammal is either
a(an)
1. perissodactyl or a
proboscidean.
2. perissodactyl or an
artiodactyl.
3. artiodactyl or a
sirenian.
4. sirenian or a
xenarthran.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Which of the following animals is LEAST
closely related to the other three?
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
mole
vole
mouse
porcupine
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The similar appearance of armadillos
and aardvarks is an example of
1. continental drift.
2. convergent
evolution.
3. social interaction.
4. homeostasis.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Continental drift caused the separation of
different mammal groups from one another
during the
25% 25%
25%
25%
1. early Triassic
Period.
2. Permian Period.
3. early Cenozoic
Era.
4. Paleozoic Era.
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
Convergent evolution has
occurred in mammals because
1.
2.
continents have drifted apart.
similar ecological opportunities have
existed in widely separated places.
climate underwent changes in the past.
different mammals eat the same foods.
3.
4.
25%
1
1
2
3
4
5
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Which of the following is NOT a
characteristic of primates?
1. opposable digits
2. a well-developed
cerebrum
3. binocular vision
4. a cloaca
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Having a thumb that can move against the
other fingers makes it possible for a primate
to
1. hold objects firmly.
2. merge visual
images.
3. display elaborate
social behaviors.
4. judge the locations
of tree branches.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
A primate that is blind in one
eye would have difficulty
1.
distinguishing between objects on the
basis of their color.
seeing the full range of colors that a
primate with two eyes can see.
estimating the distance to an
unfamiliar object.
holding an object in the hand that is on
the same side as that eye.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
An example of a prosimian is
a(an)
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
spider monkey.
baboon.
orangutan.
lemur.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
A primate that uses its prehensile tail to
swing from branch to branch is the
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
gibbon.
squirrel monkey.
macaque.
orangutan.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The group that includes gibbons and
humans but does not include tarsiers is the
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
primates.
prosimians.
hominoids.
hominids.
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
On which continent would you find a monkey
that can hold onto a branch while it uses its
hands and feet to grasp something else?
25% 25%
25%
25%
1. South America
2. Africa
3. Asia
4. Australia
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
Hominids differ from other primates on the
basis of all of the following EXCEPT
1. brain size.
2. method of
reproduction.
3. method of
locomotion.
4. shape of the hip
bones.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Bipedal locomotion consists of
1.
swinging from branch to
branch.
using the tail to grasp
branches during
walking.
moving the big toe
against the other digits.
walking on two feet.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Fossil evidence indicates that
Australopithecus afarensis
1. was primarily a
meat-eater.
2. had a large brain.
3. was bipedal.
4. appeared later
than Homo
ergaster.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Most paleontologists think that
Paranthropus was a(an)
1. ancestor of
Australopithecus.
2. ancestor of modern
gorillas.
3. ancestor of modern
humans.
4. distant relative of
modern humans.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
The earliest hominid that belonged to the
same genus as modern humans was
probably
25% 25%
25%
25%
1. Homo habilis.
2. Homo
neanderthalensis.
3. Homo afarensis.
4. Homo ergaster.
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
Suppose scientists could compare the DNA of modern
humans with the DNA of Homo erectus populations that
lived in different sites around the world. If the DNA of a
modern human native to each site were found to be most
similar to the DNA of Homo erectus from the same site, that
finding would
1. support the multiregional model.
2. support the out-of-Africa model.
3. support both the multiregional model and the outof-Africa model.
4. disprove both the multiregional model and the outof-Africa model.
1
2
3
4
5
Two hominids whose fossils you would NOT
expect to find in rocks of the same age are
1.
Homo sapiens and Homo
neanderthalensis.
Kenyanthropus platyops and
Australopithecus afarensis.
Homo ergaster and Homo erectus.
Homo neanderthalensis and
Australopithecus afarensis.
2.
3.
4.
25%
1
1
2
3
4
5
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Which statement is true of the
Neanderthals?
1.
They evolved after the
Cro-Magnons.
They made stone tools.
They became extinct
about 1 million years
ago.
They replaced Homo
sapiens in Europe and
the Middle East.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
Which of the following was NOT a
characteristic of the Cro-Magnons?
1.
making sophisticated
stone blades
producing cave
paintings
having a skeleton
similar to that of a gorilla
burying their dead with
elaborate rituals
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
5
25%
1
25%
25%
2
3
25%
4
All mammals are ectotherms.
_________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
The first mammals were very large.
_________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
The Permian Period is usually called the
Age of Mammals.
_________________________
1. True
50%
50%
2. False
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
The first true mammals evolved before the period
during which dinosaurs were the dominant land
vertebrates. _________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
A mammal with reduced canines and
flattened premolars is most likely a
herbivore. _________________________
1. True
50%
50%
2. False
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
Cows can digest cellulose because they
have symbiotic bacteria in their rumen.
_________________________
1. True
50%
50%
2. False
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
A mammal that can learn to find its way through a maze
more quickly than another mammal probably has a betterdeveloped cerebellum. _________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
Among mammals, only the monotremes lay
eggs. _________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
Slow-moving, herbivorous mammals that live in
rivers and warm coastal waters are in the order of
sirenians. _________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
Convergent evolution has produced mammals that
have different adaptations on different continents.
_________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
Primates have opposable vision, which is
the ability to merge images from both eyes.
______________________________
1. True
50%
50%
2. False
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
New World monkeys live almost entirely in
trees. _________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
Bush babies and lemurs are in the group of
primates known as anthropoids.
_________________________
1. True
50%
50%
2. False
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
Primates that have a bowl-shaped pelvis
usually walk on two legs.
_________________________
1. True
50%
50%
2. False
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
Members of the genus Australopithecus
used tools. _________________________
1. True
2. False
1
2
3
4
50%
5
1
50%
2
Participant Scores
0
0
Participant 1
Participant 2
0
0
0
Participant 3
Participant 4
Participant 5
Two features that are found in all mammals
but are not found in other chordates are hair
and _________________________.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Indricotherium was an extinct mammal that stood more
than 5 meters high at the shoulder. The earliest era or
period during which Indricotherium could have lived was
the _________________________.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Mammals have ____________________
and body fat that help conserve body heat.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
In darkness, dolphins rely on their sense of
____________________ to locate objects
around them.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
A flexible ____________________ allows
mammals to move both vertically and from
side to side.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
If a mammal has a rumen in its digestive tract, the
mammal’s molars and premolars are adapted for
grinding ____________________.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
During embryonic development, a young mammal’s blood
comes closest to its mother’s blood when the blood of the
developing embryo flows through
_________________________.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
The only monotremes that exist today are
the _________________________ and the
spiny anteaters.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Because an oryx has four toes on each foot,
this hoofed mammal is classified in the order
called ____________________.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
If geographically isolated species have similar
characteristics that were not present in their ancestors,
those mammals are said to have undergone
_________________________.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Primates can display more complex behaviors
than many other mammals because their brains
have a well-developed ____________________.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
The anthropoids that are native to Central
and South America are called
____________________ monkeys.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Primates that walk on two feet use
____________________ locomotion.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
The first hominid in the genus Homo was named Homo
habilis because evidence indicates that members of the
species used ____________________.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Members of the species Homo
____________________ flourished in
Europe from 200,000 to 30,000 years ago.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
List two characteristics that are found only in
mammals and three other characteristics that are
found in mammals and in some other vertebrates.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
How can mammals be distinguished from
other vertebrates on the basis of the fossils
they leave behind?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Describe the adaptation that
humpback whales use to feed.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Name the four specialized types
of mammalian teeth.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
What is the function of the
diaphragm?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Bony fishes that live in the ocean continually lose water across their
respiratory surfaces, because the salt concentration in sea water is
higher than that in the fishes’ bodies. Why don’t marine mammals
encounter the same problem?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
What are two ways in which
mammals maintain homeostasis?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
What are the most important characteristics
that scientists use to classify mammals into
subgroups?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
What is a marsupium?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
How do the incisor teeth of rodents
differ from those of lagomorphs?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
The kultarr is a desert-dwelling Australian mammal that has long
hindlegs and a long tail. It hunts spiders and other arthropods. Female
kultarrs have a pouch in which the young complete their early
development. What characteristics would you expect to see in a
placental mammal that exhibits convergent evolution with the kultarr?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
What adaptation of primates makes it
possible for a person to swim the
backstroke?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Why is binocular vision important to a
primate that moves through the branches of
trees?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
What is a prosimian?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has stated that
“mankind stood up first and got smart later.” What
evidence supports that statement?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
What adaptations enable mammals to
maintain a constant body temperature?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Suppose you find a tooth at the bottom of an old cabinet
that had been used to store a variety of mammalian skulls.
How would you decide what type of tooth it was and
whether it came from a carnivore or a herbivore?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Explain how mammals inhale
and exhale.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Compare your sense of hearing
with that sense in other mammals.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Why are monotremes sometimes said to be
intermediate between reptiles and mammals
in their manner of reproduction?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Suppose a group of scientists discovers an unidentified
female mammal in New Guinea. How might they determine
whether the mammal is a monotreme, a marsupial, or a
placental mammal?
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Compare and contrast artiodactyls and
perissodactyls. Give an example of a
mammal in each of these two groups.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Compare and contrast New World
monkeys and Old World monkeys.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Distinguish among the terms
anthropoid, hominoid, and hominid.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5
Identify two features of the primate skeleton that are
associated with bipedal locomotion, and contrast these
features with their counterparts in a primate that is not
bipedal.
1
2
3
4
5
0 of 5

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