A-CDM - Sitraer 2014

Report
Collaborative Decision Making
and IT at Airports
Félix Mora-Camino
Automation Research Group, MAIAA, Ecole Nationale de l’Aviation Civile, Toulouse
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1
CDM and IT at Airports
1. Introduction and current situation
2. Historical perspective of A-CDM
3. Main concepts of A-CDM
4. Main components of A-CDM
5. Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
6. Conclusion and Perspectives
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Introduction and current situation
CDM and IT at Airports
High rate increase of European air traffic
. Traffic over France increased 250% in the last 25 years, reaching 2 500 000
flights/day with about 7000 flights/day and about 20 to 25 aircraft by control sector
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Introduction and current situation
CDM and IT at Airports
Source: Eurocontrol
12 million of flights took place in 2012 in the European airspace,
which equals to around 33,000 flights every day.
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Introduction and current situation
CDM and IT at Airports
A fragmented European airspace : 10,8 million km², 41 states, 37 ANSPs ,
1750 Sectors and 64 en-route centers, 1348 Aircraft Operators, 450 Airports.
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Introduction and current situation
CDM and IT at Airports
Traffic at Main European Airports in 2013
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Introduction and current situation
CDM and IT at Airports
Delays at European Airports
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Introduction and current situation
CDM and IT at Airports
Departure delays causes at European Airports (> 15min)
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Introduction and current situation
CDM and IT at Airports
A need for more efficient airports
EUROCONTROL “Challenges of Growth” report in 2013 details the
constraints in the European air transport system between now and
2035.
This report provides a strong warning that despite a slower air traffic
growth in the next 20 years than previously expected, Europe still
faces a significant airport capacity problem, which will limit the
growth of the European aviation system.
As a result of insufficient airport capacity, it is considered that 12%
of demand for air transport will not be accommodated by 2035 - or
1.9 million flights per year will not happen, impeding 237 million
passengers to fly.
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Introduction and current situation
CDM and IT at Airports
A need for more efficient airports
The main cause of this capacity problem is that airports have been
forced to sharply reduce their capacity expansion plans:
Revenue pressures, high capital costs, lack of political support, poor
planning processes and decreasing confidence are all contributing to
constrain airport development throughout Europe.
While in 2008 a European airport capacity expansion of 40% was
expected by 2030, these previsions have been severely cut down
with now an expected capacity expansion of only 17% by 2035.
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1. Introduction and current situation
2. Historical perspective of A-CDM
3. Main concepts of A-CDM
4. Main components of A-CDM
5. Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
6. Conclusion and Perspectives
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CDM and IT at Airports
Historical perspective of A-CDM
The value of information sharing
The initiative launched in United States in 1992 and called
FAA/Airline Data Exchange (FADE), with the support of airlines
such as Northwest Airlines, can be considered as the first step
towards what evolved into the today US CDM concept.
The value of information sharing was demonstrated immediately
since, just by being better informed, airlines shown to be able to
attend in a much more efficient way the constraints imposed by
ATM.
The concept of Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) was
explicitly stated (1996) in the United States by a group of airlines,
leadered by US Airways, in response to the perception by these
airlines of the inefficient cooperation between them, the airports
and the FAA.
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CDM and IT at Airports
Historical perspective of A-CDM
The three basic rules
They created a so called CDM Group which started analyzing
the reasons why several airports presented recurrent traffic flow
problems.
The CDM Group produced first reports in which it established
three basic rules which remain valid until today:
-
Most traffic flow problems have simple causes with simple
solutions;
-
Better information sharing eliminates a large proportion of
these problems;
- For collaboration be successful, trust must be present from the
start between the different decision makers.
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CDM and IT at Airports
Historical perspective of A-CDM
US CDM: from Airports to En-route
While the CDM Group addressed at first airport traffic flow problems
(Atlanta and Philadelphia international airports) when the FAA adopted the
CDM concept, it started to apply it to en-route traffic flow problems:
At that time en-route capacity problems where in United States more critical
than those present at airports. Some large American airports where involved
with CDM as early as 1998 with the FAA’s ground-delay program (GDP).
The CDM concept was introduced in Europe by experts of IATA and was first
treated as a research topic by the European EUROCONTROL Experimental
Centre.
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CDM and IT at Airports
Historical perspective of A-CDM
European CDM: from En-route to Airports
While in Europe the need for improved traffic flow management was growing
with the increasing traffic the CDM concept remained inoperative although at
that time the main delays where originated en-route. In fact, the
fragmentation of the European airspace turned impossible the application
of the CDM approach as developed by the FAA.
EUROCONTROL acknowledged the lack of progress and proposed a new
idea for Europe (2000) since it was very difficult to get European States to
turn operative the CDM in the en-route context.
It appeared more feasible to propose to the largest European airports
operating with a multiplicity of partners to improve their decision making by
introducing CDM at the level of European airports.
This is how Airport CDM (A-CDM) began.
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CDM and IT at Airports
Historical perspective of A-CDM
Historical perspective of A-CDM
In more recent years in Europe airports became a major source of delays
and the development of the A-CDM concept has proven quite useful.
Many other projects in the field of air traffic management have been
launched taking into account A-CDM as a pragmatic sub-set of CDM
implementation considering the initial failure of getting CDM on-board in
the en-route context.
A-CDM has not been an immediate success: Although many airports
created CDM teams, built systems and even booked some initial results, ACDM was at first limited to some large European airports before to be
adopted more recently by large as well as regional airports in Europe.
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CDM and IT at Airports
Historical perspective of A-CDM
A-CDM Development in Europe
12 years ago
8 years ago
4 years ago
Before 2012: Brussels, Frankfurt, Munich, London Heathrow, Paris CDG.
2012: Helsinki, Zurich.
2013: Berlin Brandenburg Int., Dusseldorf, Amsterdam, Dublin, Milan Malpensa, Vienna, Prague, Geneva,
Kiev , Madrid, Manchester, London Gatwick , Oslo Gardemoen.
2014: Stuttgart, Stockholm Arlanda, Milan Linate, Birmingham, Lisboa, Palma, Warsaw , Lyon, Athens,
Istanbul
2015: Hamburg, Copenhagen, Zagreb, Ljubljana, Budapest, Vilnius, Rome Fiumicino, Venice, Paris Orly,
Tallinn, Barcelona
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CDM and IT at Airports
Historical perspective of A-CDM
Network CDM
As the consequence of the development of A-CDM at European
Airports, it appeared that the individual airports formed “CDM islands”
and they could achieve improved benefits if the air traffic
management network of which they are a part was more fully
involved.
Bringing back the Central Flow Management Unit (CFMU, now
NMOC-Network Manager Operations Centre) into the CDM picture has
been recently a major issue in CDM implementation in Europe leading
to what can be called “network CDM”.
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CDM and IT at Airports
Historical perspective of A-CDM
NETWORK CDM
Flight Update
messages
FUM
Departure
Planning
Information
DPI
A-CDM
Source: Eurocontrol
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CDM and IT at Airports
Historical perspective of A-CDM
SWIM and CDM
The US CDM projects are expected to benefit from advanced information
sharing functionalities delivered by the System Wide Information Management
(SWIM) program which has as its main objective the data level integration of
the legacy systems as well as the new ATFM system elements being
implemented.
Unfortunately, information sharing in Europe is still at its beginning and the
only real islands of SWIM-like activity are the airports themselves even if the
information sharing practiced there is local and far from the flexible
information sharing proposed by the SWIM concept.
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CDM and IT at Airports
Historical perspective of A-CDM
Historical perspective of A-CDM
CDM in the USA encompasses today the whole traffic operation and is not split
into clearly identifiable elements like A-CDM and network CDM.
In Europe, A-CDM is composed of clearly defined concept elements which are in
fact applications that can be realized in software. They cover areas where a
limitations have been identified and they are meant to ease these shortcomings. It
is the case with:
- the CDM Information Sharing (the basis for everything else in CDM),
-
the Variable Taxi Time Calculation,
-
the
Collaborative Flight Data Update which is in fact a network CDM
element related with the CFMU.
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CDM and IT at Airports
Historical perspective of A-CDM
A-CDM and SESAR
The European CFMU has several tools used to establish network demand
and capacity and to influence both. These tools interact with the users and
the providers but their activity is not yet fully recognized as part of the
CDM concept.
This should change however as in Europe the CFMU moves progressively
from a prescriptive to collaborative approach of traffic flow management
through programs such as SESAR (Single European Sky ATM Research)
and DMEAN (Dynamic Management of the European Airspace Network).
The A-CDM concept is an integral part of such programs.
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CDM and IT at Airports
1. Introduction and current situation
2. Historical perspective of A-CDM
3. Main concepts of A-CDM
4. Main components of A-CDM
5. Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
6. Conclusion and Perspectives
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Main concepts of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
A-CDM Theoretical background
Identification: Airport flow management copes with a multi-agent multiobjective system composed of event driven interconnected stochastic
processes (traffic flows and networked queues).
Fundamental issues are related with cooperative games, information
management, decentralized dynamic decision making and coordination.
Decision making tools are composed of coordination mechanisms,
scheduling algorithms, dynamic programming, programming under
uncertainty, sequencing algorithms, assignment algorithms, conflict
resolution algorithms.
Implementation: Decision tools are designed to be used at the operations
planning level (day horizon), operational level with sliding time horizon
(some hours ahead) or at the real-time level through imediate reactive
decision making.
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Main concepts of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Classical limitations to Airport Flows Operations
ATC: Apron and taxiway congestion, traffic and frequency overload, late
incoming information which reduces pre-planning flexibility, sub-optimal
pre-departure sequences.
Network Operations (CFMU): Poor CTOT slot adherence, inaccurate
traffic load predictions (over-deliveries or capacity under-utilization).
Airport Operations: Inefficient use of airport infrastructure, poor airport
slot compliance, inadequate information communication producing late
stand and gate changes.
Aircraft Operators: Poor punctuality caused by last minute delays,
inefficient fleet operation, missed connections, preference and priorities
not considered.
Ground Handling: poor service level compliance, low turn-round
predictability (last minute changes), inefficient use of manpower and
equipment.
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Main concepts of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Situation awareness
In general airport stakeholders lack of up-to-date situational awareness due
to an inadequate information sharing and the availability of fragmented
information flows.
Reasons for that are:
- Most relevant information is available somewhere around
the
airport in different systems but it is not made available on time
to all the involved airport stakeholders.
- The information systems of each actor have been developed
independently.
- Some stakeholders are reluctant to share with others what they
consider to be commercially sensitive information.
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Main concepts of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Main Information
flows between
Airport Partners
Source: Eurocontrol
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Main concepts of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Slot allocation
CFMU
Aircraft
Operator
Rotation type
and schedule
State of
ground
operations
Stand
allocation
Slot
allocation
ATC
ETA
Ground
Handling
Airport
Operation
ETD
Main information transfers between airport partners
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Main concepts of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Airport Information Flows
A global vue of
information flows at
Stockolm airport
Source: Stockholm Arlanda
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Main concepts of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Main airport information processing systems
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Source: Frankfurt Airport
Main concepts of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Main objectives
Airport Collaborative Decision Making-(A-CDM) proposes a global approach to
improve efficiency of operational decision making at airports:
Main objectives: reduction of delays and costs
A-CDM drive all airport stakeholders to work as a team where individual partners
must co-ordinate their decisions and activities to reach common goals.
Means:
- Sharing of accurate and timely information, adaptation of procedures,
mechanisms.
- Tools to improve predictability of events and optimize the utilization
of resources.
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Main concepts of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Expected benefits
ATC: Flexible pre-departure planning, reduced apron and taxiway congestion,
lighter controllers’ workload to cope with a smoother traffic flow.
Network Operations (CFMU): Enhanced compliance with Calculated Take-Off
Time (CTOT), reduction of traffic sector overloads by a better utilization of
available capacity.
Airport Operations: Increased punctuality in departures and arrivals by airport
slot adherence, efficient use of stands and gates, better recovery in adverse
conditions or disruptions, reduced environmental nuisance (emissions and noise).
Aircraft Operators: Daily program of flight operations on schedule, early
prediction of schedule disruptions, preferences and priorities better taken into
account, reduced taxiing and holding time.
Ground Handling: Enhanced punctuality of operations, optimized resource
management, service level compliance.
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Main concepts of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
« CDM Airport »
An airport is considered to be « a CDM airport » (Level 1) when the
following applications:
- A-CDM Information Sharing (ACIS),
- Turn-Around Process (CTRP)
- Variable Taxi Time Calculation (VTTC)
are applied at the airport.
An EUROCONTROL Airport CDM team is responsible for ensuring in
Europe the standardization and dissemination of the best practice of Airport
CDM implementation.
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Main concepts of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
FULL A-CDM
The full A-CDM concept consists of six core elements (Eurocontrol,
EUROCAE, European Commission):
1. Information Sharing of the latest data important for the turnaround
process to all partners involved at the right time using a A-CDM platform
(IT-Tool, interface).
2. Milestone Approach: Using the milestone approach, it becomes possible
to the partners involved, to monitor in a coordinated way, through significant
events (milestones), the whole process.
3. Variable Taxi Time (VTT): By using variable taxi times instead of
default times, more realistic in-block- and take-off times can be provided.
4. Collaborative Pre-Departure Sequence: By implementing predeparture sequencing, an optimized off-block sequence is being generated,
taking into account operational aspects and limitations.
5. CDM in Adverse Conditions: This element enables an efficient
management of the operation when the capacity at the airport is limited
(weather, ops).
6. Collaborative Management of Flight Updates: The exchange of arrival
and departure information with the CFMU (NMOC) allows a more accurate
planning for all flights.
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1. Introduction and current situation
2. Historical perspective of A-CDM
3. Main concepts of A-CDM
4. Main components of A-CDM
5. Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
6. Conclusion and Perspectives
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Main components of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
CDM and IT at Airports
Information sharing
1) A-CDM information sharing is the basis of all other A-CDM
applications.
In general, information sharing uses the existing IT infrastructure at the
airports.
The information flows can be improved by combining data from different
sources.
The adaptation of the existing information systems might be necessary to
include data that is not currently processed.
The responsibility and quality of information at each phase of a flight will
be defined.
This should provide a common overview of the real-time operations to all
stakeholders and should result in a common situation awareness which is
necessary in a multi agent situation to insure an efficient use of the
available airport resources.
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Main components of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Information exchange agreements
The sharing of information between the A-CDM
partners is based on local Service Level Agreements,
Memoranda of Understanding and Protocols for non
disclosure of information to other parties.
The quality of data is defined following the need of
the different CDM applications and processes.
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Main components of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Data sources
Information produced by main airport stakeholders:
Aircraft Operator/ Ground Handlers: Aircraft movement data,
flight priority, changes in turn-around times, TOBT updates, planning
data, flight plans, aircraft registration, aircraft type, flight type.
Airport: slot data, stand and gate assignment, environmental
information, special events, airport capacity reduction.
Network Operations: Flight plans data, SAMs, SRMs, FUMs
including change and cancellation messages.
Air Traffic Control: real time updates of ELDT, TLDT, ALDT,
runway and taxiways conditions, taxi times ans SID, TSAT, TTOT,
runway capacity, A-SMGCS data/radar information.
Service providers: Meteo office, fire, police, customs, ground
handling, fuel, de-icing,…
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Main components of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Data integration
Common Situation
Awareness tool
ATC
Flight
Plans
Airport
Flight
Data
Base
Coordinated
Airport
Slots
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Source: Franckfurt Airport
39
Main components of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
2) The Milestone Approach involves:
- A set of selected milestones along the processing of the aircraft at the airport
(arrival, landing, taxi-in, turn-round, taxi-out and departure), at which the set of
partners involved change.
- The time performance, assessed at each milestone or between two milestones.
- The flight profile is built by linking these milestones:
The time performance between each milestones with real time
updating and communication, are essential for the
working of the
Milestone Approach. Information must be timely communicated to
enable each partner to react in time and to update their own
milestones.
Then, predictability and efficiency can be improved with the collaboration of
each partner leading to improved decision making processes.
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Main components of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Main milestones for A-CDM
number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
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Milestones
Time reference
ATC Flight Plan activation
EOBT – 2 hours
Take off from outstation
Local radar update
Final approach
Landing
In-block
Ground handling starts
TOBT update prior to TSAT
TSAT issue
Boarding starts
Aircraft ready
Start up request
Start up approved
Off-block
Take off
41
EOBT-3 hours
EOBT-2 hours
ATOT from outstation
Varies with A/P
Varies with A/P
ALDT
AIBT
ACGT
Varies with A/P
Varies with A/P
Varies with A/P
ARDT
ASRT
ASAT
AOBT
ATOT
Mandator
y/Optional
HR
HR
HR
HR
HR
R
HR
HR
R
R
HR
R
R
R
R
HR
HR
Main components of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Sequential view of milestones and processes
(source Eurocontrol)
Different Airport CDM Partners can be responsible for different milestones,
with the aim of integrating all of the milestones into a common seamless
process for the flight.
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Main components of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Main objectives of the Milestone Approach
The main objective of the Milestone Approach is to further improve the
common situational awareness of all partners when the flight is inbound and
in the turn round flight phases. The main objectives are to:
-
Ensure linkage between arriving and departing flights by determining
significant events in order to track the progress of flights and the
distribution of these key events as Milestones.
-
Enable early decision making by defining information updates and triggers:
new parameters, downstream estimates updates, alert
messages,
notifications, etc.
-
Improve quality of information by specifying data quality in terms of
accuracy, timeliness, reliability, stability and predictability based on a
moving time window.
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Main components of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Aircraft processing monitoring
(source Malpensa Airport)
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17/11/2014 2014
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Managing ground handling
Ground handling composition
Taxi in
Unload
luggage
Deboarding
passengers
cleanin
g
A-CDM
Fuelling
Load
luggage
Catering
Boarding
passengers
Pushing
back
Taxi out
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Sanitation
45
Water
Managing ground handling
Ground handling position
Arriving aircraft
Arrival traffic
management
Crew
&
maintenance
management
by airlines
Arrival
Passengers/fret
management
Ground
handling
Departure
traffic
management
Departure
passengers/fret
management
Departing aircraft
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Arriving
passengers
46
Departure
passengers
Managing ground handling
Example of assignment problem for ground handling resources
Objectif function:
min  f jt  AGHT j  t 'T  S tj '  1     xX iI kt  jI kt Di , j aix, ,jt 
p
f





under the following constraints :
  a 1
  a
 a 
xX
iI pkt
iI kpt
x ,t
i, j
k
j I f t
x,t
i, j
1
j  I fkt
t  T2
x  X
t  T2
kt
Initial milestone
of ground
handling
j  I fkt
x  X
aix, ,jt  0,1
i  I pkt
j  I fkt
x  X
Di , j  x ,t

ai , j
b tj   bit  S it 
V
x 

i  I pkt
j  I fkt
x  X
j  I fkt
t  T2
iI kpt
x,t
i, j
k
k I f t
f jt  btj  S tj
a xj ,,kt
j  I fkt
b tj  f jt '
kt
t  T2
t'T 
Information given by another ground handling fleet
service provider
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kt
kt
t  T2
t  T2
Main components of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Target Off-Block Time
One of the main contributions to performance from Airport CDM is the
establishment of the TOBT (Target Off-Block Time) since the confidence for
decision making relies on the quality (timeliness, accuracy and predictability)
of the TOBT, which in turn depends on several other milestones. So the
precision of each milestone should also be analyzed to identify which ones
need to be improved to obtain an accurate TOBT.
The progress of the flight is monitored automatically and as the flight
progresses through each of the milestones, more information is added and
modified as it becomes available (i.e. flight plan, ATFM measures, actual
progress etc), and the downstream milestones are updated while eventual
alerts are emitted if required.
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Main components of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Delayed arrival
A delayed arrival will usually have an impact on the departure phase of the
flight using the same aircraft, and can also affect:
- the involved crew
- the flights carrying transfer passengers
- the gate/stand occupation and subsequent partner resource planning.
If a flight becomes late, the Aircraft Operator is prompted to modify the
assigned stands and gates or re-schedule the corresponding outbound flight
and any associated connecting flights.
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Main components of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
3) Pre Departure Sequencing
Although many sequencing algorithms have been developped, in many cases
the First Come First Served (FCFS) principle is still adopted. This results in
most cases in increased queues at the runway threshold and additional waiting
times for engine-on aircraft, resulting in over consumption of fuel and pollutant
emissions.
Pre-Departure sequencing uses the Target Off-Block Times (TBOT) obtained
from the turn-round process to make the ATC handle more efficiently the depart
of aircraft from their parking stand.
Using TBOT information as well as information about the current operational
situation of aprons, taxiways and runways, ATC produces a Target Start-Up
Approval Time (TSAT) to place efficiently each departing aircraft in a predeparture sequence.
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Main components of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Objective of Pre-Departure sequencing
The main objective of Pre-Departure Sequencing is to improve
punctuality (slot adherence, schedules of airline operators). This is
achieved by improving event predictability through the on-line
computation for each departing flight of TSAT and TTOT.
This increase of predictability eases the ground handling activity which
can be performed much more efficiently.
Traffic controllers remain responsible for safety, runways throughput and
capacity.
The A-CDM approach allows to take maximum benefit of applications
such as AMAN (Arrival Management), A-SMGCS (ground traffic
management) and DMAN (Departure Management) by allowing to
minimize the effect of the airport bottleneck (aprons, gates, taxiways or
runways).
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Main components of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
TSAT computation
The TSAT is calculated by taking into account of TOBT, Calculated Take-Off
Time (CTOT), wake vortex, Standard Instrument Departure (SID) routing,
variable taxi times, and any capacity constraints such as Low Visibility
Procedures.
ELDT : Estimated Landing Time,
EIBT : Estimated In-Block Time,
TOBT : Target Off-Block Time,
TTOT : Target Take Off Time,
ELDT
EXIT : Estimated Taxi-In Time
MTTT : Minimum Turn-round Time
EXOT : Estimated Taxi-Out Time
TSAT : Target Start Up Approval Time
EIBT=ELDT + EXIT , TOBT=EIBT + MTTT
TTOT=TOBT + EXOT + Constraints
TSAT=TTOT - EXOT
TSAT
A re-assessment of a flight on the network (re-calculation of CTOT) will be
done if the TTOT is outside a Slot Tolerance Window (for instance: STW =
CTOT-5 min till CTOT+10 min). The Calculated Take-Off Time becomes
tailor-made where possible.
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Main components of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
TSAT information display
Example of TSAT information display (Frankfurt Airport)
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CDM and IT at Airports
1. Introduction and current situation
2. Historical perspective of A-CDM
3. Main concepts of A-CDM
4. Main components of A-CDM
5. Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
6. Conclusion and Perspectives
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17/11/2014 2014
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Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
A-CDM costs
Airport CDM implementation and operation is not designed as a very
expensive process, as it does not make use of completely new systems or
procedures but mainly involves enhancing and improving existing systems
and processes.
For example, information sharing is accomplished by combining data from
various partners using the existing infrastructure at the airport.
Furthermore, milestones can be defined to improve the data quality and
predictability of turn-round events without the need for new infrastructures,
newly developed systems or procedural changes.
The relatively low investment needs of A-CDM make it a friendly concept for
airport stakeholders.
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Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
Definition and
assumptions of IT project
Flow chart
steps of Cost
Benefit
Analysis for
A-CDM
projects
Baseline scenario
and alternatives
Costs and benefits
identification
Common benefits to
all stakeholders
Cost Benefit Analysis per stakeholder
Airlines
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Airport
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Ground
handlers
ANSP
Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
CBA A-CDM Barcelona Airport
Barcelona-El Prat, with 34.4 million passengers, with almost 100 000 tons and
276.497 operations in 2013. The airport has 3 runways and two passenger
terminals.
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Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
CBA A-CDM Barcelona Airport
A-CDM costs for Barcelona Airport
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Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
CBA A-CDM Barcelona Airport
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Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
CBA A-CDM Barcelona Airport
Actual off block
time with
scheduled,
estimated and
target
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Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Cost Benefit Analysis of TITAN
TITAN CBA
The Turnaround Integration in Trajectory and Network (TITAN)
project directly addresses airport operations focusing on the turnaround
process. TITAN develops a new advanced operational concept for the
turnaround process for an airport which is assumed to be operated under the
A-CDM concept and compatible with the SESAR approach. The main
improvement expected from TITAN is an increased predictability of the
turnaround process.
The Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) considered here is relative to the
implementation of TITAN tool at a generic airport. According to the CBA
approach for A-CDM, a CBA has been developed for each of the stakeholders
affected by TITAN project: Airlines, Airports, Ground Handlers, and Air
Navigation Service Providers.
The Tool prototype, the validation exercises, the expert judgments, and the
interviews with the stakeholders are the sources for the data used in the
assumptions for the cost benefit analysis.
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Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Cost Benefit Analysis of TITAN
The generic airport presents 150.000 annual movements and considers a
generic airport operator, a generic ANSP, ten generic airlines and three
generic ground handlers.
Main assumptions are:
• There exists an infrastructure where the information is located
(middleware, common repository, information management system,
interfaces, etc.). The tool is granted access to this information. The
existing infrastructure is provided by the airport operator who does not
have to pay for the subscription to the TITAN Tool.
• The TITAN tool is supposed to be developed and provided by a developer
company.
• The users have to pay for the TITAN Tool utilization; a single investment
payment would grant them the access (investment/acquisition costs)
besides the airport operator.
• Tool operation requires Hardware (HW), Software (SW), training and
installation (implementation) to be connected.
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Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Cost Benefit Analysis of TITAN
• A key assumption is the existence of an infrastructure provided at the
airport (A-CDM) where the information is located and the TITAN Tool
will grant access to it.
• The TITAN tool requires maintenance and resources to be used
(operational costs). This is included in the CBA as an annual fee.
• It is also assumed that any user (i.e. any stakeholders using the tool) will
have to pay for the TITAN Tool. These costs are split on Acquisition cost
(one-off) and Recurring Costs. Cost figures are based on future tool
developers/providers estimations (Annual Operational costs).
The main CBA effort for the TITAN project is to determine the benefits the
TITAN Tool will be delivering to future users. These benefits can be
translated into monetary terms through delay reductions savings (airlines
benefit) and operational cost reduction for all the stakeholders.
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Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
CDM and IT at Airports
Cost Benefit Analysis of TITAN
With this operational cost reduction and the benefits derived from delays
reductions, the main figures of merit (NPV) of the project for each stakeholder
are:
Airline NPV 5.250.000 €
Airport NPV 785.000 €
Negative NPV figures for ANSP and GH are due to the costs they have to pay
for the tool and the small benefits they get compared with the Airport and
Airlines.
GH NPV -45.000 €
ANSP NPV -125.000 €
The main challenge for a specific TITAN Tool implementation will be to
establish the effective operational cost reduction. Once this is made, other
distribution of costs can be considered, based on the benefits of each
stakeholder. Then it is easy to create a business case showing positive figures
for all the involved stakeholders.
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CDM and IT at Airports
1. Introduction and current situation
2. Historical perspective of A-CDM
3. Main concepts of A-CDM
4. Main components of A-CDM
5. Cost Benefit Analysis of A-CDM
6. Conclusion and Perspectives
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CDM and IT at Airports
Conclusion and Perspectives
• Today the A-CDM concept is well established in Europe and in spreading
around the world. Examples are New Delhi, Sydney and New York (JFK)
which are adopting it. In USA, the “surface CDM” is now under
development.
• The Network CDM concept is taking shape within programs such as SESAR
and NEXGEN.
• New enhancements of A-CDM can be expected in many fields to manage
much more efficiently different aspects of airport operation and air
transportation:
- Environment issues : integrating balanced approach objectives in the ACDM process.
- Safety issues : including ground vehicle fleets management into the ACDM process.
- Improve collective intelligence to cope with disrupted situations.
- Integrate the passenger as a pro-active stakeholder in the A-CDM
process.
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CD and IT at Airports
XIII SITRAER , São Paulo, Novembro 2014
Thank You very much for your
attention, questions?
Félix Mora-Camino
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CDM and IT at Airports
SESAR
The European Commission started in 2004 the Single European Sky project
with SESAR (Single European Sky ATM Research) being its technical
program.
SESAR aims at developing a new ATM system able to cope with greater
safety and lower costs increasing traffic flows. Its new technologies and
procedures should also lead to the reduction of the environmental impact of
air transportation.
SESAR goals for 2020 are:
• enable 300% increase in airspace capacity
• improve safety by a factor of 10
• cut ATM costs by 50%
• reduce environmental impact by 10%
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CDM and IT at Airports
SESAR
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A-CDM and Users
The MetaCDM (Multimodal, Efficient Transportation in Airports –
Collaborative Decision Making) project adopts a passenger-centric approach to
examine how airside and landside CDM can be best interlinked with other
transport modes to minimize in particular the impact of severe Disruptions.
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CDM and IT at Airports
A-CDM and safety
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