Physical Development: 1-3 year olds Ages

Report
Physical Development:
1-3 year olds
Ages
 Toddler- one to two years old
 Preschooler- three to five years old
or when they start school
Factors influencing growth
and physical development
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Genes/heredity
Nutrition
Health
Life experiences
Height and Weight
Changes
 From 1-3 years old, height and weight
slows by half, as compared to the first
year of life.
 Children also begin to show a greater
variation in size
Body proportions
 From 2-3 years old, the chest becomes
larger around than the head and the
abdomen
 Arms, legs, and torso lengthen
Teeth
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By age one, child has approximately 8 teeth
By age two, 16 teeth
By age three, 20 teeth
A full set of baby teeth is 20.
A child should begin going to the dentist
around 18 months to become comfortable and
to start preventative care before permanent
teeth come in.
Developmental milestones
 Not all children reach these milestones at the
same age
 These are averages
 Variations are caused by differences in
physical size, health, diet, interests,
temperament, and play opportunities
 Can help caregivers choose activities that are
developmentally appropriate for child’s age
motor skills
Gross motor skills
12-18 months:
walking
18-24 months:
jumps in place
2-2 ½ years:
pushes self on wheeled
toys
2 ½ - 3 years:
alternates feet going up
stairs
Fine motor skills
12-18 months:
picks up small objects
with thumb and pointer
finger
18-24 months:
grasps crayon with fist
2-2 ½ years:
turns one page of a book
2 ½ - 3 years:
screws lids on and off
containers
dexterity
 The skillful use of hands and fingers
 Turning on a faucet requires greater
dexterity than walking steadily
Sensory integration
 Combines information from the various
senses to make a single, whole picture of
what’s happening
 Sensory dysfunction is when one cannot
process all the information the senses
take in; may react more strongly to
different types of stimulation, like light or
noise, and less strongly to taste or touch.
Sleep patterns
 Age one- two naps, morning and
afternoon
combining for several hours
 As children get older, daytime naps
become shorter
 By age two, children typically give up
morning nap and sleep longer at night
Night terrors vs.
nightmares
 Night terrors occur early in the child’s
sleep cycle
 Night terrors aren’t likely to be
remembered
 Nightmares are frightening dreams that
seem real
 Nightmares are more serious and may
signal anxiety in child’s life
Self feeding
 Age 1- eat finger foods, use a spoon,
drink from a cup
 Age 2- use a fork, but eat slowly
 Age 3- can use spoon and fork skillfully
and can chew tough foods cut into small
pieces
Serving sizes
 Young children need smaller servings
and need to eat more frequently
 Their stomachs are smaller
 Food should be offered every 3-4 hours
Meal appeal
Variety is the key! Provide differences in:
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Color
Texture
Shape
Temperature
Provide an ease of eating- cut up foods
Good eating habits
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Be a role model
Try new foods
Let child help in kitchen
Encourage child to eat only when hungry
and eat slowly
 Don’t use food as reward or punishment
 Encourage drinking water instead of
sugary drinks
hygiene
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Bathing themselves
Hand washing
Brushing teeth
Using the toliet
Using a tissue
Still need adult supervision and help
Toliet teaching
Physical and emotional signs of readiness:
 Can control bladder and bowel functions
 Recognizes signals that elimination is
necessary
 Can remove clothes easily
 Shows an interest in wanting to be grown up
and use the toliet
 Can physically control sphincter muscles at 18
months
Dressing
 Starts helping on own at age 13-14
months
 By age two, can do pants but shirts are
difficult
 By age three, children can dress
independently
 Learns independence, responsibility, self
esteem
Choosing clothes
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Comfort
Fabric
Durability
economy
fibers of clothes
Synthetic Fibers
Advantages:
 Durable
 Wrinkle resistant
 Quick drying
Disadvantages:
 Doesn’t absorb
moisture well
 Holds heat and
perspiration against
body
Flame resistant
fabric can catch
on fire but will
not burn as
quickly as other
fabrics
Only sleepwear
is required to be
flame resistant
checkups
 Ages 12, 15, 18, 24 months and 3 years
 Vaccines introduce small amount of
disease carrying germs to body
 Vaccines cause immune system to set up
defenses against future exposure to that
disease
Safety hazards and
protection
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Choking
Unsafe toys
Poisoning
Burns
Traffic accidents
Sunburns
pets

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