Estimate the amount of work the engine performed on a 1200-kg car as it accelerated at 1.2 m/s2 over a 150meter distance. W KE Fd m = 1200 kg a = 1.2 m/s2 d = 150 m F = ma W = ∆KE=Fcosqd W = ma×d W = (1200 kg)(1.2 m⁄s^2 )(cos0o)(150 m) W = 2.2x10^5 J To complicate matters further, consider the fact that only about 15% of the energy extracted from gasoline actually propels the car. The rest gets exhausted as heat and unburnt fuel. Linear momentum of an object is equal to the product of its mass and velocity SI Units of momentum are kgm/s A lowercase p is used for the momentum of an individual particle • The total linear momentum of a system is the vector sum of the momenta of the individual particles • The total linear momentum of a system, expressed by an uppercase P, is used for the total momentum of the individual particles of the system Given: mcar = 1500 kg mtruck = 40 000 kg vcar = 25 m/s vtruck = 1 m/s a) pcar=mcarvcar= (1500 kg)(25 m/s) = 3.75 x 104 kgm/s b) ptruck = mtruckvtruck=(40000kg)(1m/s) =4.00 x 104 kgm/s The much slower truck has more momentum than the faster car because the truck has much greater mass. Given: m1 = m2 = 1500 kg v1 = 25.0 m/s v2 = 15.0 m/s p1 = m1 v1 = (1500kg)(25.0m/s) = 3.75 x 104kgm/s p2 = m2v2 = (1500kg)(15.0m/s) = 2.25 x 104kgm/s Continued on next slide… From vector addition, the magnitude of the total momentum is And the direction is given by 1. Determine the momentum of a ... a. 60-kg halfback moving eastward at 9 m/s. b. 1000-kg car moving northward at 20 m/s. c. 40-kg freshman moving southward at 2 m/s. 2. A car possesses 20 000 units of momentum. What would be the car's new momentum if ... a. its velocity were doubled. b. its velocity were tripled. c. its mass were doubled (by adding more passengers and a greater load) d. both its velocity were doubled and its mass were doubled. 1. a) p = m*v = 60 kg*9 m/s p = 540 kg•m/s, east b) p = m*v = 1000 kg*20 m/s p = 20 000 kg•m/s, north c) p = m*v = 40 kg*2 m/s p = 80 kg•m/s, south 2. a) p = 40 000 units (doubling the velocity will double the momentum) b) p = 60 000 units (tripling the velocity will triple the momentum) c) p = 40 000 units (doubling the mass will double the momentum) d) p = 80 000 units (doubling the velocity will double the momentum and doubling the mass will also double the momentum; the combined result is that the momentum is doubled twice -quadrupled) Newton’s second law, F=ma, can also be expressed in terms of momentum. If the mass is constant, then • If an object’s momentum changes, then a force must have acted upon it. Solve the problems on “Chapter 4” Momentum and Energy” › Momentum p. 27 Worksheet Impulse is the change in momentum. • When a moving object stops, its impulse depends only on its change in momentum. This can be accomplished by a large force acting for a short time, or a smaller force acting for a longer time. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cia geLSYXUE Predict what will happen when two identical balls are dropped from the same height onto the same type of surface Solve the problems on “Chapter 4” Momentum and Energy” - Impulse-Momentum p.31 • Use the Rally Coach Method to work through the Examples 3, 4, 5, and 6. A hockey player applies an average force of 80.0 N to a 0.25 kg hockey puck for a time of 0.10 seconds. Determine the impulse experienced by the hockey puck. Given: F=80.0 N m=0.25 kg t=0.10 s I = Ft When bunting, a baseball player uses the bat to change both the speed and direction of the baseball. (a) How will the magnitude of the momentum of the baseball before and after the bunt change? (Describe in words, not numbers) (b) The baseball has a mass of 0.16 kg; its speeds before and after the bunt are 15m/s and 10 m/s respectively; the bunt lasts 0.025 s. What is the change in momentum of the baseball? (c) What is the average force on the ball by the bat? (b) Choose the direction of motion before the bunt as positive. v = 10 m/s, vo = 15 m/s. p = mv – mvo = (0.16 kg)(10 m/s) – (0.16 kg)(15 m/s) = 4.0 kgm/s in direction opposite v0 (c) A boy catches—with bare hands and his arms rigidly extended—a 0.16-kg baseball coming directly toward him at a speed of 25 m/s. He emits an audible “Ouch!” because the ball stings his hands. He learns quickly to move his hands with the ball as he catches it. If the contact time of the collision is increased from 3.5 ms to 8.5 ms in this way, how do the magnitudes of the average impulse forces compare? Given: m=0.16 kg, v0=25 m/s, v=0m/s, t1=3.5ms, t2=8.5ms Favg t = mv mvo = mvo, So the magnitude is A karate student tries not to follow through in order to break a board. How can the abrupt stop of the hand (with no followthrough) generate so much force? Assume that the hand has a mass of 0.35 kg and that the speeds of the hand just before and just after hitting the board are and 0, respectively. What is the average force exerted by the fist on the board if (a) the fist follows through, so the contact time is 3.0 ms, and (b) the fist stops abruptly, so the contact time is only 0.30 ms? By stopping, the contact time is short. From the impulse momentum theorem (Favg t = p = mv mvo), a shorter contact time will result in a greater force if all other factors (m, vo, v) remain the same.