### introduction to motion

```Science 10 – Motion
and Forces
1
Page 1
Big Ideas of Unit
• 1.0 Explore motion-related technologies
• 2.0 Observe and describe the motion of everyday
objects
• 3.0 Investigate the relationship among distance, time,
and speed for objects that undergo uniform motion
• 4.0 Investigate the relationship among speed, time, and
acceleration for objects that undergo uniformly
accelerated motion
• 5.0 Analyze graphically and mathematically the
relationship among distance, speed, time, and
acceleration for objects that undergo simple linear
motion or uniformly accelerated motion
Page 2
What is Motion???
• List some types of motion?
• What is the most extreme type of motion
that you can think of?
Page 3
1.0 Explore motion-related
technologies
Page 4
Example questions might include:
• What is the effect of waxing skis on the performance of
skis?
• Why do speed skaters wear different types of skates than
figure skaters?
• What is the effect of different wheel sizes on the
performance of a vehicle (bicycle, car, wheelchair,
etc.)?
• How long can a human keep accelerating?
• What is the effect of wearing flippers on swimming?
• Why have speed limits been established on public roads?
Page 5
Instruments of Motion
• Explore a specific motion-related
technology such as a personal
transportation device (e.g., bicycle,
snowmobile, automobile, motorcycle,
skateboard, kayak, snowshoe, or
wheelchair)
• Trace its evolution, describe the historical
development of the technology and the
roles of science and technology in the
development of that technology.
Page 6
• Make a sign, brochure or 1 page paper
technology
• You will have today and tomorrow to
research and complete the assignment so
• Be creative, use graphics and be sure to
include the proper information
Page 7
Motion
• Motion is the change of position
Ex. You are driving in your car. You are in motion
relative to the earth, but not with respect to your car.
• Uniform motion is the simplest type (straight
path)
• One must distinguish between the two terms
below:
SPEED  rate of motion
VELOCITY  rate of motion with a direction
8
Page 8
Speed (velocity) = distance traveled OR
interval of time
v=d
t
Problems: Let us suppose that a car is traveling at
20m/s.
1) What would be the position of the car after 5s?
2) Calculate the distance traveled after 20s and after
120s.
3) Calculate the time required to travel 140m.
9
Page 9
Assignment
• Speed trial lab- finish today!
• Or
• Bubblegum physics- finish today!!
Page 10
Distance-Time Graphs for Uniform
Motion
Problem  If we prepare a table to show
the position of a car at 5 second intervals,
then we can plot a graph.
t(s)
0
d(m)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
11
Page 11
Graph of Distance vs. Time
1000
900
800
Distance (m)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
Time (s)
30
35
40
12
45
50
Page 12
The distance-time graph for uniform
speed is a straight line (constant
slope)
1. How far would the car travel during a
20 second interval?
2. How far would it travel between the
25s and 50s interval?
3. How long would it take the car to
travel 450m?
13
Page 13
Graph of Distance vs. Time
80
70
60
Car A
Distance (m)
Sample Problem 2
 the motion of
two cars A and
B is represented
by the following
graph. What
can we learn
motion of the
cars from the
graph?
50
40
30
Car B
20
10
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Time (s)
14
Page 14
One line climbs more steeply than the other.
Car A, moves a greater distance within an
interval of time. Car A must be traveling
faster than car B.
• Slope (Steepness)
y  the change in vertical direction
x  the change in horizontal direction
slope = y = rise = y2 – y1
x run x2 – x1
*higher speeds give greater slopes.
15
Page 15
Let’s find the slope of both of the lines from
the previous graph.
Car A
Car B
If you look close, slope = d/t
Recall,
v = d/t
 the slope is telling us the speed of the
object that is moving.
16
Page 16
Graph of Distance vs. Time
50
45
40
Distance (m)
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
5
10
15
20
Time (s)
In this graph, the lines are parallel (equally steep).
Vehicle A and B are starting from different
17
positions, but their speeds are the same.
Page 17
Assignment
• Domino Dash
Page 18
Speed and Direction
Graph of Distance vs. Time
9
8
Distance (m)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Time (s)
This graph represents an object traveling to a
certain point, stopping for a while, then
returning to its initial position again.
19
Page 19
Calculate the slope of the 3 intervals: A, B,
and C.
Interval A 
Interval B 
Interval C 
*We see that the slope is negative for
interval C indicating that it is traveling in
the opposite direction. The object has
20
returned to its original starting position. Page 20
Average Speed
If the slope of a graph changes, the speed
of the object has also changed. Nonuniform motion is the change in speed or
direction, or both. A roller coaster is a
good example.
When an object’s speed changes several
times in a trip, the average speed can be
calculated by:
Average Speed = total distance traveled OR vav= d
total time for trip
t
Page 21
Example:
A delivery person travels from
Saskatoon to Warman to drop off a parcel.
It takes 15 minutes to travel to Warman,
10 minutes to drop off the parcel, and then
20 minutes to get back. What is the speed
of the truck to get there? What is the
speed of the truck on the way back? What
is the average speed of the trip? (The
distance from Saskatoon to Warman is
25km)
Page 22
assignment
• Describing position-time graphs
• Uniform motion
• Velocity from position-time graphs
Page 23
```