A Prototype Of Solar Powered Car

A Prototype Of
Solar Powered Car
Guided by: Mr. M. Sriramulu
Presented by:
Sophiya Senapati(110101eer075)
Baisakhi Samal(110101eer027)
Subhasmita Patra(110101eer040)
G.Hari Prasad(110101eer50)
Deepankar Samantsinghar(110101eer46)
• The basic principle of solar car is to use energy that is
stored in a battery during and after charging it from a
solar panel.
• The charged batteries are used to drive the motor which
serves here as an engine and moves the vehicle in reverse
or forward direction.
• The DPDT switch and relay is provided to control the
motor speed.
• This avoids excess flow of current when the vehicle is
supposed to be stopped suddenly.
• Energy from Sun is captured by the solar panels and is
converted to electrical energy.
• The electrical energy thus formed is being fed to the
batteries that get charged and is used to run 12V high
torques DC series motor.
• The shaft of the motor is connected to the rear wheel of
the vehicle through Belt Drive.
• The batteries are initially fully charged and thereafter they
are charged by panels.
• This helps in completing the charging-discharging cycle
of the batteries, which is very important for proper
working of batteries.
1 front & 2 rear wheel
Plywood as a base
DC series motor
Solar panel
Charge Controller
DPDT switch
• 4 Batteries each of 4V & 1.5A, connected in series.
• 2 Solar Panel each of 8.86V & 0.35A are connected in
• Speed is approximate 1km/hr .
• 2 Motor each of 60rpm and 12V.
• 2 DPDT swtich
• 4 relay each of 12V
• Charging time max 4-5hrs depending on light and heat
intensity of weather.
• Discharging time is 3-4hrs maximum.
• Permanent magnet brushless DC series motor.
• It has a very high efficiency characteristics over a large
power range.
• Require minimal maintenance, due to elimination of
mechanical commutator and brushes.
• Long operating life and higher reliability.
• No brushes means no arcing which can be paramount when
working in flammable gas locations.
• Capable of producing very high torque at a low power.
• High power density and torque to inertia ratio give a fast
dynamic response.
• Speed restrictions due to the traditional mechanical
commutator are eliminated.
• 2 DC motor each of 12v is used. These are connected to
the 2 rear wheel of the solar car prototype.
• Wheels are connected to the shaft of the motor through
Belt Drive.
• 4 L-shaped clamp is used for support purpose on the base.
• The primary energy source for the vehicle is the battery.
• The overall battery voltage is chosen depending on the
motor’s specification and the desired nominal cruising
• lead-acid batteries is used due to ease of availability and
relatively cheap cost.
• One major drawback is- relatively large weight.
• In this prototype, 4 lead acid batteries are connected in
series, each of 4v and 1.5A . So total voltage is 12v.
• Absorbs energy from sun.
• Energy obtained from the sun by a solar array supplement
the energy taken from the batteries.
• The solar array can sometimes supply ample energy, and the
excess simply flows into the batteries.
• The solar array consists of a configuration of solar
photovoltaic cells, usually encapsulated to protect against
the elements and damage.
• The encapsulation of cells also increases the overall
efficiency of the array.
• Solar cell type is mono-crystalline cells having an
efficiency of nearly equal to 15% .
• Solar cells convert sunlight (photons) to electricity
• Ratings of the panel is 3watt, 8.86V, 0.35A, open circuit
voltage is 10.72V and 0.38A.
• Here 2 solar panels are connected in series and total
voltage is around 17V.
• A solar charge controller regulates the voltage and current
coming from your solar panels which is placed between a
solar panel and a battery.
• It is used to maintain the proper charging voltage on the
• As the input voltage from the solar panel rises, the charge
controller regulates the charge to the batteries preventing any
over charging.
• The charge controller circuit is consisting of diode, capacitor
and one LED light is connected through a resistance.
• Diode is used to prevent the reverse flow of current from
battery to solar panel.
• In order to control the motor DPDT switch and relay
are used.
• Here 4 relays and 2 DPDT switch are used.
• One DPDT switch is connected with two relays and
these relays together connected to a single motor.
Block Diagram
DPDT switch
• It has 6 terminal.
• The middle points of this is connected to VCC and
• Other 4 points are connected with motor.
• It has 5 terminal.
• One common terminal,2 database terminal (D1 & D2)
and normally open and normally closed switch.
• Between D1 and D2 one coil is there and it acts like a
• At first the relay is normally closed after power given
to the coil it is normally opened.
• It is used for braking purpose.
• Ratings of relay used
• NO-7A 250V ac
12A 120V dc
NC-10A 120V ac
10A 24V dc
• For a prototype model, we have taken a motor of 12V &
60 rpm.
where, I=
(measured by multimeter)
T= Power*speed =
• Since the motor is 12V, We required a battery of 12 V so
as to give power to the motor .
• Battery used is 4V,1.5Ah,Battery connected in series so
Total voltage=12V
Total current=1.5A
Now, Charging current= 10% of battery current
= 10% * 1.5= 0.15Ah
Since, Solar Panel rating must be greater than that of
battery ratings.
Voltage of solar panel > 12v
current > charging current i.e. 0.15
So ratings of the solar panel is:
2 solar panel each of 8.86v and 0.35A.
so, voltage of solar panel= 17.72v≈18v
• In ideal case,
Charging current= (battery current)/(current
of solar panel)
= 1.5/0.35=4.28hr
• In practical,
Charging current= (1.5)+(12% of 1.5)/0.35
& Discharging current= (1.5)-(12% of 1.5)/0.35
Cost Analysis
2 solar panel -1000
2 motor -400
Tyre with belt drive-250*2=500
Base plywood-100
Castro wheel-50
Wire for connection-15*4=60
Switch Box- 50
L clamp-20*4=80

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