Chapter 4

Chapter 4
4.1 Vehicle Instrumentation
• A scale with an indicator needle or numeric marker that
keeps track of changing conditions such as fuel level or
Warning lights
• Usually red or yellow and they attract your attention to
indicate a more serious problem with your vehicle
• Indicates how fast you are going
• Measures your engine in revolutions per minute (rpm)
• Meter that displays the total number of miles a vehicle has driven since being manufactured
Fuel Gauge
• E, ¼ , ½ , ¾ , F
• Rule of thumb-Don’t let it get below ¼ full
• In cold weather, keep at least ½ a tank
Fuel Gauge
Warning Lights
Alternator warning light
• Red light on the panel, looks like a battery
• Alternator is a generator that produces electricity to power the car’s electrical system
Braking System warning light
• Reminds you that the parking brake is on
• Indicates that part of the braking system is not working properly
Warning Lights
Temperature Warning Light
• Will come on if the engine temp is too high or if the coolant in the radiator is too hot.
• Loss of coolant, clogged radiator, broken belt, thermostat, oil change
Oil Pressure Light
• Will come on if the engine oil is not circulating at the right pressure.
• If gauge reads “low”, Stop Immediately
• Slow leak, puncture in oil pan, natural burning
4.2 Operating Devices
What are you going to need
when driving?
High Beams must be capable of illuminating objects up to 350 feet
Low Beams must be capable of illuminating objects up to 100 feet
Must be on from sunset to sunrise/May be ticketed
Red lights that can be seen from a distance of 500 feet
Back-up Lights
White or amber lights on the back of the vehicle that are activated when the car is
put into reverse
Daytime Running Lights?
Parking Lights
White or amber colored lights on the front of the vehicle
Turn Signals
Located on all four corners of the vehicle
Must be visible from 100 feet
Lever is always located on the left side of the steering column
Hazard Lights
Emergency flashers
Used to let other drivers know you need help, either an emergency or the car is not
functioning properly
Can be used for slow moving vehicles also
Other Operating Devices
Windshield Wipers
Must have them on to remove rain, snow, and other moisture from the windshield
to see clearly
Must be heard from a distance of 200 feet
Required by law and used to warn others of your presence or impending collision
Interior Rearview Mirrors
Rectangular mirror suspended from the roof or attached to the windshield
Allows you to see directly behind you
Can be adjusted for day and night driving
Exterior Sideview Mirrors
Allows you to see down the sides of your vehicle and neighboring lanes of traffic
*Adjust mirrors every time you get into
the car*
Blind Spots
• Areas not reflected in your mirrors
• Sizes of the blind spot depend on the size of the vehicle
Drivers who are short and drive big cars have a bigger blind spot
Drivers who are tall in a smaller car will have a smaller blind spot
• Never trust your mirrors! Always turn your head and look before you
change your position
Other Operating Devices
• Seat adjustment
• Door locks
• Windows
• Sun visors
• Heating and cooling and defrost
Pre-Start Procedure
1. Check around the car
2. Get in Lock the door
3. Put key in Ignition
4. Adjust your seat
5. Adjust your mirrors
6. Put on seat belt
7. Start the Car
Pre-Start Procedure
Outside Checks
Getting into Vehicle
Walk around vehicle
Keys in hand
Check tires
Walk front to back
Wheels Pointed?
Get in quickly
4. Windshield, Headlights,
Loose objects in windows
6. Unwanted passengers
4. Close and lock door
Key in ignition
Inside Checks
Lock Doors
• Less likely to fly open in a collision
Adjust Seat
• Be comfortable
• Back firmly against seat
• Sit high enough to see over steering wheel
Hand Position
• Hands at 9 & 3
• In a comfortable position with elbows slightly bent
Foot Position
• Reach for accelerator and brake to find a comfortable position
• Knees slightly bent
Adjust Head Restraint
• Should rest at the middle of the back of your head
Adjust Rear View Mirror
• It should show the area behind you through the rear window
Adjust Side View Mirrors
• They should show a slight amount of the sides of the vehicle
Fasten Safety Belts
• You and your passengers
4.3 Vehicle Controls
Five basic Controls
1. Steering wheel
2. Ignition
3. Accelerator
4. Brakes
5. Gear shift
Cruise control
Vehicle Controls
• Steering Wheel
Controls the wheels of the vehicle
Power steering assists the driver so that turning requires minimal effort
• Ignition
Where you insert the key located on the right side of the steering column.
Four positions
Off, on, start, acc.
• Accelerator
Gas pedal-press down to give it gas, let off to slow it down
Different vehicles accelerate at different rates
• Brakes
Too much pressure makes the car stop abruptly, ease on to the brake unless
Vehicle Controls
• GearShift
On the steering column or center console
• Clutch
Manual transmission vehicles only
• Cruise control
Allows you to regulate your vehicles speed for highway or freeway driving
without using the accelerator

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