Review for AAS
• Palatability: how a food appeals to the palate
(smell, sight, taste, texture, etc.)
• Retail Cuts: small cuts of meat customers
purchase at grocery stores
• Antemortem: before death
• Wholesale Cuts: large sections of carcass ( half a
hog or quarter of a beef) that are sold to stores
who cut them into retail cuts
• Rigor Mortis: a physiological process where
muscles stiffen and lock into place
• Exsanguination: removal of an animal’s blood
• Postmortem: after death
• Mastication: chewing
• Meat (muscle?): any edible tissue from
• Chine: the backbone of an animal
• Kosher: any food prepared according to
Jewish dietary law
• Immobilization: to render an animal
oblivious to pain
• Aging: to let a carcass hang in a cool
environment for a period of time to let
enzymes break down meats
4 Categories of Meats
Red: beef, veal, lamb, pork (?)
Poultry: chicken, turkey, duck (?)
Fish: trout, crab, salmon, lobster, tilapia
Game: bear, turkey, duck, antelope, grouse, deer,
moose, pheasant
Meat Names
History of the Meat Industry
• Uncle Sam:
– Sam Wilson a pork producer
• Cincinatti was called
– Porkopolis
• Wall Street:
– actually a wall erected in Manhattan to prevent
pigs from entering town, kept the name ever
History of the Meat Industry
• Packing Industry: went from an art to a
science (why?)
• The Packing Industry:
– meats were salted and packed into barrels
• Used to be one animal at a time, now:
– Beef = 4,000/line/day
– Pork = 8,000/line/day
– Chickens = 70-80,000/line/day
History of the Meat Industry
No federal inspection
Upton Sinclair’s book “The Jungle”
Meat Inspection Act of 1906
Humane Slaughter Act of 1957
Meat Industry
• Seven areas of inspection
• Sanitation, antemortem, postmortem,
control and restriction of condemned
materials, product, laboratory
inspection, marketing and labeling
The slaughter process
Live inspection
Humane slaughter act
Bolt, electricity, gas
No pain
Heart must continue pumping
Kosher Slaughter:
~ Any food prepared according to Jewish dietary law
~Are exempt from stunning the animal but must be done
as humanely as possible
~Must be from religiously acceptable animals
~Meats are undesirable if improperly slaughtered, are not
cloven hooved, etc. called non kosher
~Kosher foods have a mark (Circle U)
~Area must be blessed by a rabbi, only the forequarters can
be used because sciatic nerve in hindquarters
Continuation of Slaughter
• Exsanguination
• Slit the throat, done quickly to prevent
hemorrhaging or spots in the meat from ruptured
blood vessels
• Gut the animal, save edible organs (liver is the
most common edible organ)
• Internal organs are inspected for health problems,
each carcass for consumption has to be inspected
Processing the Carcass
• Carcasses are split
• Cooler
• rigor mortis (6-12 hours for beef and lamb,
30m-3hours for pork)
• Enzymes and microorganisms break down
• Rigor – Relax = Meat
When does Meat become
• After the rigor/relax process!!!
• Why hang a carcass?
– Over a week
– Enzymes and microorganisms break down
– Increase palatability and flavor and tenderness
Meats are Good!
• Meats taste good because of intramuscular
– marbling
• This is fat within the meats, not globs that
you can cut off
Antimortem Effects that can affect meat quality:
A. Feed
B. Genetics
C. Sex/Age
D. Stress
E. Disease
***Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS) is a stress that actually ruins
the meat of an animal and causes the meat to be (PSE) pale, soft
and excudative (watery)
*** DDF or dry, dark and firm is a stress condition in cattle
causing “dark cutters”
Postmortem effects that can affect meat
~heating and cooling is the main one!
Where do steaks and chops come from?
~the loin of the animal

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