The SIOP Model: practice/application

Report
THE SIOP MODEL:
PRACTICE/APPLICATION
Tina Kelman & Wendy Burt
Let’s Review
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Lesson Preparation
Building Background
Comprehensible Input
Strategies
Interaction
Practice & Application
Lesson Delivery
Review/Assessment
Practice & Application
Superman
Practice & Application
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Content Objectives:
 Identify
a variety of ways for students to enhance
learning through hands-on practice.
 Create application activities that extend the learning in
new ways and relate to language or content objectives.
Practice & Application
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Language Objectives:
 Design
activities that
integrate different
language skills as students
practice new content
knowledge.
 Discuss the importance of
linking practice and
application activities to
specific lesson objectives.
Practice & Application
Limited English
Proficient (LEP)
students
English Language Learners (ELLs)
Language Acquisition
Stephen Krashen’s
5-pronged theory of
Language Acquisition
Language Acquisition
Language acquisition is a
subconscious and intuitive
process…much like how children
pick up their first language.
Language Acquisition
The monitor: If students learn
language through rules,
rather than naturally,
fluency will be delayed.
Language Acquisition
The natural order of
acquisition: ELLs will first
acquire that which has the
most meaning, form comes
later.
Language Acquisition
Providing comprehensible
input – to acquire
language.
Language Acquisition
The affective filter:
a cognitive shut-down if
anxious.
Knowing vs. Doing
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Madeline Hunter (1982) said:
“The difference between knowing how something
should be done and being able to do it is the
quantum leap in learning…new learning is like wet
cement, it can be easily damaged. A mistake at
the beginning of learning can have long-lasting
consequences that are hard to eradicate (p.71).
Practice & Application
It is essential that students acquiring English have
multiple, daily opportunities to practice and apply
what they are learning for two reasons:
1.
2.
Students are more likely to retain new information if
they immediately put it to use
Teachers can assess students’ learning while they
are practicing and applying their new understanding
Practice & Application
These opportunities for practicing
and applying new learning must
occur regularly within each
lesson, not just at its conclusion.
Practice & Application
Learning to fly
Fortune Teller
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2.
3.
4.
Fold the bottom (short end) of a sheet of paper so
that it is aligned with one side of the paper. Crease
side making a big triangle. Cut the extra piece of
the paper so that only the triangle remains.
Fold the triangle in half to make a smaller triangle.
Crease the edges well.
Unfold the FT completely (square with lines to the
center). Fold each of the four corners into the very
center of the square (do not let the sides overlap).
Turn the FT over and fold each of the new corners
into the center again. Crease all the edges well!
Fortune Teller
5. Fold the FT in half to form a rectangle.
6. Fold the FT in half one more time so that it is
one small square.
7. Unfold the last two folds
8. Gently pull out the square flaps and insert
your index fingers and thumbs of the FT in
order to use.
Fortune Teller
Add these questions to your flaps:
 How much material should be practiced at one time?
 How long should the practice sessions be?
 How often should the practice sessions be?
 How will they know if they have done well?
You will answer these questions as we go through this
session.
3 Components of Practice & Application
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Hands-On Practice with New Knowledge
Application of Content and Language
Knowledge in New Ways
Integration of All Language Skills
Practice & Application
Three-Minute Pause provides a
break in large sections of
content
Provides a chance for students to
stop, reflect on the concepts and
ideas that have just been
introduced, make connections to
prior knowledge or experience,
and seek clarification.
Tell students to turn
to a partner:
 Summarize Key
Ideas Thus Far
 Add your own
thoughts
 Pose clarifying
questions to your
partner, another
group or the
teacher
Practice & Application
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Just like riding a bike…
 Training
wheels
 Talking about experience
 Listening to others describe the experience
 Observing others
 Help from others
 Independent practice
Practice & Application
Remember!
There is a difference between talking about riding a
bike, and actually riding it.
Just as there is a difference between classroom notes
on how to solve inequalities in Algebra, and actually
solving them.
Practice & Application
 Hands-on
materials and/or manipulatives
provided for students to practice using new content
knowledge
 Activities
provided for students to apply content and
language knowledge in the classroom
 Activities
integrate all language skills
(i.e., reading, writing, listening and speaking)
Practice & Application
Meaningful practice allows teachers
the opportunity to observe the
extent to which all students,
especially English learners,
understand new information and
concepts
Practice & Application
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Practice and application should include not
only end-of-unit activities, but also
opportunities to practice and apply what
students have learned during lessons
When are kids going to learn the vocabulary
& language if we never give them the
opportunity to use it?
Practice & Application
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Practice helps master skills
 Reading
 Writing
 Listening
 Speaking
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Proficiency depends on opportunities for
comprehensible input and targeted output
Practice & Application
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Carefully choose
activities in lesson
Activities must support
students’ progress
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Must target objectives
Differentiation
Hands-On Practice with New Knowledge
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Hands-on materials/manipulatives
 Makes
practice more relative & meaningful
 Increases chances of mastery
 Enhances overall practice session
 Connects abstract to the concrete
Hands-on materials
AbStrAcT
Concrete
Studies Show that We Learn
10% of what we READ
20% of what we HEAR
30% of what we SEE
70% of what is DISCUSSED with others
80% of what we EXPERIENCE personally
90% of what we TEACH others
Application of Content and Language
Knowledge in New Ways
Questions to consider
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How much material
should be covered at
once?
How long in time
should practice
periods be?
Answers to remember
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Small, meaningful
amounts of material
Short practice times
Practice & Application
Questions to consider
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How often should
students practice?
How will students know
how well they have
done?
Answers to remember
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New material
 Practice
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Old material
 Space
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frequently
sessions
Give specific
feedback
Practice & Application - Graffiti
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In the version of graffiti
described here, each group
uses a different colored
marker so that everyone can
identify which group made
which contribution to the
charts.
After a specified period
(usually no more than three to
five minutes), and at a specific
signal, each group rotates to
the next chart page until the
group has traveled full circle
and arrived back at its page.
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The rotation and recording
aspect of the strategy should
take about 15 to 20 minutes. If
groups have too much time at
any chart page, there won’t be
anything for subsequent groups
to write.
Subsequent groups may put
checkmarks beside ideas to
agree with them, may write
disagreements beside items
already recorded, or may add
new information and ideas to
the chart page.
Applying Knowledge
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Activities to apply content &
language knowledge
 Discussing
and “doing” make concepts
concrete
 Involvement
application
in relevant & meaningful
What is meaningful practice…?
Practice that is directly tied to
a standard
Practice & Application-Vygotsky
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Correcting Errors – Zone of Proximal Development which is the
difference between what a learner can do without help and what he
or she can do with help.
Current
level of
development
“Zone of
Proximal
Development”
(can be learned
with
“scaffolding”)
Level of
development
currently out of
reach
ZPD Examples
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A student is able to perform simple addition when working with a teacher or
parent, but is frustrated when performing the task alone. By guiding the student
to use tools and strategies, and by asking questions about why he/she is using
each tool or strategy, the student is able to fortify knowledge and eventually
add independently.
A 16 year old is able to effectively drive forward and backward but cannot
parallel park. Through targeted guidance from a teacher, the child is able to
learn how to park.
A child is struggling to learn how to read. By working with the student to teach
how to sound out words and use other word recognition strategies, the child is
able to learn to read.
An aspiring swimmer is attempting to learn a difficult dive. Knowing the
strengths that she possesses in other diving techniques, her coach is able to
directly target her instruction so that she can confidently conquer the dive.
Language Skills
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Activities integrate all language skills
 Reading,
writing, listening & speaking
 Read what we write
 Talk about what we read
 Listen to others talk about they read
Language Skills
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L1 – speaking & listening acquired first
L2 – reading & writing acquired first
All skills are interconnected
Different learning styles
Language Skills
Writing
Reading
Language
Listening
Speaking
Turn and discuss…
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Think about a college or graduate school course. What is one
activity you remember well? What made it memorable? Did it
involve different learning styles or senses?
Now, think about a recent lesson you taught or observed. Was
there an activity that would be memorable for the students? If
not how could the activity have been more engaging and
unforgettable? Did you incorporate all four language domains?
Explain to a partner why it is important to link practice &
application activities to the learning objectives.
TPR
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Create your own TPR signals for the different
components of Practice and Application
Practice your signals
Each group presents to the whole group
Create your own TPR movement
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Hands-On Practice with New Knowledge
Application of Content and Language Knowledge in New
Ways
Integration of All Language Skills
Practice & Application Activities
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Bingo
BYO Jeopardy
Poetry & Patterns –
Math Haikus
Graphic Organizers
Jigsaw projects
Vocabulary Go Fish
Chants
Songs
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Texas Two Step
Family Feud
Student created word
problems
Student created test
questions
Teach concepts to
another student
Discussion circles
Solving problems in
cooperative groups
Discussion Questions
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What adjustments & techniques can a teacher use
to provide ELs with successful experiences while they
read, write, listen, & speak about new information?
What materials could you use in your classroom to
meet all language skills?
Think back to a lesson you have given or been a
part of. What could have been done differently to
ensure meaning for all learners?
Conclusion
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Integrate 4 language components
Practice & application are essential for mastery
Patience with errors
Enhance with hands-on activities
Not all skills are linked to an objective
Practice & Application

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