Science and Urban Life Kerstin Cecil Technology and City Life • By 1890 Chicago and Philidelphia claimed more than one million people. • By 1900 New York had a population of 3.5 million people. • As the population increased the cities had to improve the amount of space, transportation, and communication. • The only solution for the small amount of space was to build upwards. Skyscrapers --Sky scrapers became Americas greatest contribution to Architecture --Skyscrapers solved the problem of how to make the most out of a limited and expensive space. In 1980 an architect named Louis Sullivan designed the ten – story wainwright building in St. Louis --Daniel Burnham designed the 285 foot tower in 1902 named the Flatiron Building --Architects were able to design taller buildings because of two things » invention of elevators » Development of internal steel skeletons Electric Transit • Before the civil war horses had drawn street cars • During the 1870’s and 1880’s underground moving cables controlled street car lines • Electricity changed urban transportation greatly • Richmond, Virginia(1888) was the first city to electrify its urban transit • New rail road lines also fed suburbs, so residents could now commute downtown to their jobs. Electric transit cont. • When congestion on the streets got too bad some larger cities moved the transportation above street level. • These elevated street cars were called “el” trains. • Other cities like New York moved it under ground these were called subways. New technologies transform communications • In addition to a railroad network that now spanned the nation, advances in aviation, printing, and photography helped speed the transmission of information. Appliances and mail delivery • In the 20th century Orville and Wilbur Wright, two brothers experimented with engines to keep objects aloft that were “heavier than air” • Their first successful flight was on December 17th 1903 at Kitty Hawk covered 120 ft. and lasted 12 seconds • Not much attention was paid to the borthers success. • Until the government saw its potential. • The first transcontinental airmail service was created in the 1920’s A revolution in printing • The literacy rate had risen to nearly 90% by 1890. • There was an increasing interest in books, magazines , newspapers etc. • A series of technological advances in printing aided there efforts. • William Bullock created the web perfecting press which printed o both sides of a continous paper roll. Printing cont. • The Linotype Machine created by Ottmar Mergenthaler also helped speed up the tedious process of typing. • Chemical engraving helped to recreate paintings and photographs cheaply. Photography • Before the 1880’s photography was a professional activity. • George Eastman developed a paper-based film as an alternative to the heavy glass plates previously used. • In 1888 Eastmen invented his Kodak camera. • It prompted millions of americans to become photographers.