Biodiesel production recent update

Report
13/14 Spring Semester
Energy
(TKK-2129)
Instructor: Rama Oktavian
Email: [email protected]
Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W. 13-15, Th. 13-15, F. 09-11
Outlines
1. Biomass gasification recent update
2. Biomass pyrolysis recent update
3. Biodiesel production recent update
4. Second generation biofuel
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass conversion into energy
Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass gasification recent update
Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass
Biomass to energy technology
Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass
Introduction
1. Hydrogen is considered as clean energy and the most promising
energy source that can be used in internal combustion engines as
well as fuel cells with less pollution on the environment, especially
without CO2 emission
2. To meet the renewable and sustainable hydrogen production,
biomass is considered as the ideal primary energy source
3. Thermo-chemical routes is economically viable to produce hydrogen
energy from biomass
Biomass to energy technology
Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass
Introduction
4. Gasification is favorable process to convert biomass into hydrogen
5. Steam gasification is recommended to be the most favorable option
for enhancing both hydrogen concentration and yield in the syngas
produced
6. Steam gasification still has problem with undesirable CO2 and tar
formed during the process.
7. CaO is gaining interest in H2-rich gas production as catalyst and
sorbent for capturing CO2 and tar.
Biomass to energy technology
Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass
Routes
Biomass to energy technology
Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass
Reaction
Biomass to energy technology
Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass
Comparison result of gasifying agent
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass gasification recent update
Comparison result of gasifying agent
Biomass to energy technology
Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass
Comparison of hydrogen production cost
Biomass to energy technology
Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass
Problems, challenges, and prospects
Undesirable CO2 generation due to water-gas shift reaction
The formation of unwanted tar – condensable organic compounds could
be produced during gasification and become entrained in the syngas Use of the syngas contaminated with tars can cause fouling and
blocking of downstream pipelines and equipments
Biomass to energy technology
Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass
Problems, challenges, and prospects
The use of CaO has emerged- CO2 and tar produced during steam
gasification of biomass can be simultaneously captured and cracked
The presence of CaO in steam gasification process can provide a good
option in sustainable H2-rich gas production
Biomass to energy technology
Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass
The use of CaO study
Biomass to energy technology
Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass
CaO chemical looping gasifcation
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass pyrolysis
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/pyrolysis.html
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass pyrolysis recent update
Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave
Pyrolysis is a well-recognized thermochemical platform for production of
bio-oil, combustible gases and char from organics in biomass
Currently, fluidized bed and fixed bed (downdraft or updraft) are the
dominant reactor types for biomass pyrolysis, in which the heating is
provided by heated surfaces
Microwave irradiation is an alternative heating method
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave
Advantages of microwave heating in pyrolysis:
uniform internal heating - no need for agitation of fluidization and hence
fewer particles (ashes) in the bio-oil
easy-to-implement technology
studies suggest that this is a highly scalable technology suitable for
distributed conversion of bulky biomasses
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave
Recently, a novel concept of pyrolysis utilizing microwave absorbents is
being developed, in which the use of these absorbents could
significantly improve the heating rate – the temperature of reactor will
become steady
Some studies suggest this new heating mechanism can achieve higher
product yield
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass conversion into energy
Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)
Biomass to energy technology
Biodiesel production recent update
Lipid extraction method:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Solvent extraction method
Soxhelt extraction method
Bligh and Dyer's method
Ionic Liquids
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction
Biomass to energy technology
Biodiesel production recent update
Biodiesel sources:
Food industry involving fish
Biomass to energy technology
Biodiesel production recent update
Biodiesel sources:
Sludge from municipal waste
Biomass to energy technology
Biodiesel production recent update
Biodiesel sources:
Microalgae
Challenges:
Finding new non-edible plant which contains much oil – will not give food
competition issue
Biomass to energy technology
Biodiesel production recent update
Biodiesel production basic technology
http://www.cogeneration.net/chart_biodiesel.gif
Biomass to energy technology
Biodiesel production recent update
Different between esterification and trans-esterification
Eserification
Trans-Eserification
Biomass to energy technology
Biodiesel production recent update
Production routes for biodiesel
Transesterification of vegetable oil using homogeneous catalysts:
1. Acid catalyzed esterification process - sulphuric, hydrochloric, sulfonic
and phosphoric acids.
2. Alkali-catalyzed transesterification process - alkaline metal hydroxides
and alkoxides, sodium or potassium carbonates
3. Two-step transesterification process - feedstocks containing high free
fatty acids (FFAs) - the first step is an acid catalyzed process followed by
a second step, alkalicatalyzed transesterification
Biomass to energy technology
Biodiesel production recent update
Production routes for biodiesel
Supercritical fluid method :
Enzyme-catalyzed transesterification process
Ultrasound assisted transesterification
Biomass to energy technology
Biodiesel production recent update
Production routes for biodiesel
Membrane technology of biodiesel production
Reactive distillation technology of biodiesel production
Biomass to energy technology
Biomass fermentation
Process scheme
http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/centralgrasslandsrec/biofuels-research-1/janets_ethanol.jpg
Recent update
2nd generation biofuel
Why??
First-generation biofuels are extracted from agricultural products: beetroot,
rape seed, etc. They compete with foodstuffs.
Concerns and constraints:
1. Compete with food crops
2. Expensive total production cost
3. Accelerating deforestation
4. The biomass feedstock may not be produced sustainably
5. Potentially has a negative impact on biodiversity
R. Sims, M. Taylor, J. Saddler, W. Mabee. 2008. From 1st to 2nd generation biofuel technologies, IEA
Recent update
2nd generation biofuel
Second-generation biofuels are produced using the inedible part of plants
(straw, wood, plant waste). Unlike first-generation biofuels, they do not
compete with the use of raw materials as food. They can be used directly by
traditional vehicles and considerably reduce CO2 emissions.
Second-generation biofuels produced from ‘plant biomass’ refers largely to
lignocellulosic materials, as this makes up the majority of the cheap and
abundant nonfood materials available from plants
The examples of 2nd generation biofuels are cellulosic ethanol and Fischer–
Tropsch fuels
http://www.airliquide.com/en/second-generation-biofuels-1.html
Recent update
2nd generation biofuel
Air Liquide is developing Bioliq®, a process that produces secondgeneration biofuels using straw in three successive stages:
1. The first step in the process consists of high-temperature pyrolysis of the
straw to convert it into synthetic crude: bioliqSynCrude®.
2. The second step consists of gasification, i.e. the transformation of the
synthetic crude into synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon
monoxide.
3. Through several chemical reactions, the Bioliq® process then converts
the synthesis gas into methanol or directly into biofuels.
The Bioliq® process can produce 1 liter of diesel from 7 kg of straw.
http://www.airliquide.com/en/second-generation-biofuels-1.html
Recent update
2nd generation biofuel
Second-generation biofuels present an energy and environmental
advantage: they have a much better carbon footprint than other fuels: up to
90% reduction in CO2 emissions compared to mineral fuels and about 50%
compared to first-generation biofuels.
could significantly reduce CO2 production, do not compete with food crops
and some types can offer better engine performance
http://www.airliquide.com/en/second-generation-biofuels-1.html
Recent update
2nd generation biofuel comparison
Recent update
2nd generation biofuel comparison

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