Step Up To: Psychology

Report
Step Up To:
Psychology
John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
&
Jason S. Spiegelman, M.A., ABD
From: Hockenbury &
Hockenbury
Discovering Psychology 5e
Worth Publishers (2010)
Chapter 11: Social Psychology
Understanding Prejudice
and Conformity
Attribution
and
Attitudes
Person
Perception:
Forming
Impressions of
Other People
Obedience: Just
Following Orders
Helping out a
Stranger
Person Perception: Forming
Impressions of Other People
500
400
300
200
100
Attribution and Attitudes
500
400
300
200
100
Understanding Prejudice
and Conformity
500
400
300
200
100
Obedience: Just
Following Orders
500
400
300
200
100
Helping out a Stranger
500
400
300
200
100
1. __________ refers to the effects of
situational factors and other people on
an individual’s behavior.
•
•
•
•
A) Social psychology
B) Social influence
C) Social cognition
D) Social constructs
2. Social __________ is a type of mental
process that we use to cluster people into
groups on the basis of their shared
characteristics. It is often an automatic
and unconscious process.
•
•
•
•
A) categorization
B) clustering
C) personifying
D) glossing
3. No one suspected that the clown visiting
sick children in the hospital was serial
killer John Wayne Gacy. He just wasn’t that
“type” of person. This illustrates:
•
•
•
•
A) expectation evaluation
B) social cognition
C) trait theory of personality
D) implicit personality theory
4. Kristi is sitting alone on the bus. She feels
uncomfortable when the bus stops and
only one person gets on and sits next to
her. Her discomfort is, in part, caused by:
•
•
•
•
A) social influence
B) social norms
C) person perception
D) implicit personality theory
5. Which of the following is not one of the
basic principles of person perception?
• A) Your reactions to others are determined by your
perception of them, not by who they really are
• B) Your goals in a situation determine the amount
and kinds of information you collect about others
• C) Your self-perception is not involved in the way in
which you perceive others
• D) In every situation you evaluate people partly in
terms of how you expect them to act
6. “That guy who just cut me off on the
highway must be a real jerk!” This
statement best demonstrates the:
•
•
•
•
A) fundamental attribution error
B) actor-observer discrepancy
C) just-world hypothesis
D) self-serving bias
7. Culture plays a large role in the attributions that
we tend to make. For example, Japanese
students tend to make _______ attributions
when they fail an exam, while American
students tend to make ________ attributions in
the same circumstance.
•
•
•
•
A) external; internal
B) internal; external
C) positive; negative
D) negative; positive
8. Attitudes are comprised of three
different components. Which of the
following is not one of those three?
•
•
•
•
A) behavioral component
B) cognitive component
C) diathesis component
D) affective component
9. When you behave in a way that is in
conflict with your attitude, you
experience:
•
•
•
•
A) behavioral reassessment
B) thought confusion
C) attitude adjustment
D) cognitive dissonance
10. Which of the following conditions does
not inspire people to behave in ways that
are consistent with their attitudes?
• A) when we are exposed to media
sources that challenge our attitude
• B) when the attitude is based on direct
experience
• C) when the attitude is extreme or
frequently expressed
• D) when you are very knowledgeable
about the topic of the attitude
11. Prejudice is best defined as:
• A) taking negative action toward people
who belong to a different social group
• B) speaking badly about people who
belong to a different social group
• C) a negative attitude toward people who
belong to a specific social group
• D) all of the above
12. What was the main task of the
Solomon Asch experiment
exploring conformity?
•
•
•
•
A) selecting matching colors
B) choosing line sizes
C) administering electric shocks
D) pretending to be prison
inmates or guards
13. Nick says that all women are bad drivers.
His social categorization of women based
on one common attribute (being female) is
an example of a(n):
•
•
•
•
A) in-group classification
B) out-group classification
C) stereotype
D) cognitive dissonance
14. This study demonstrated that
cooperation among group members
can lessen prejudice.
•
•
•
•
A) The Stanford Prison Experiment
B) The Jigsaw Classroom Experiment
C) The In-group Out-group study
D) The Robbers Cave Experiment
15. When an individual decides to change
their behavior to win the approval or
social acceptance of others, (s)he is
being affected by:
•
•
•
•
A) ethnocentric pressure
B) normative social influence
C) informational social influence
D) biased conformity
16. The results of Stanley Milgram’s
research into obedience found that:
• A) the subjects who continued knew it
wasn’t real
• B) most subjects discontinued when
shock levels became extreme
• C) subjects had to be threatened to
deliver dangerous levels of shock
• D) most subjects continued to deliver
the highest level of shock
17. Who was the only person in the
Milgram Obedience study to receive
an actual electric shock?
•
•
•
•
A) Stanley Milgram
B) The “learner”
C) The “teacher”
D) The “experimenter”
18. Which of the following was not one of
the forces that influenced the obedience
of subjects in Milgram’s studies?
• A) the amount of physical
separation from the “learner”
• B) the situation or context in
which the obedience occurred
• C) increasing the pay offered to
the “teacher”
• D) gradual, repetitive escalation
of the task
19. Which of the following variations of
Milgram’s obedience study resulted in the
fewest “teachers” delivering the maximum
shock (450 volts) to the learner?
• A) The teacher was free to choose the
shock level.
• B) The teacher and learner were in the
same room.
• C) The teacher was male and the
learner was female.
• D) The teacher was clearly much
younger than the learner.
20. Based on the results of the Stanford Prison
Experiment, what might we have been able
to predict about the treatment of prisoners
at Abu Ghraib?
• A) Implied social rules and norms can
be just as powerful as explicit orders
• B) People will follow the direct orders of
a superior when in the military
• C) We will easily scapegoat those
different from ourselves
• D) People cannot resist pressure to
perform evil action
21. The “bystander effect” has been used as
an explanation for why nobody came to
the immediate aid of __________, who
was stabbed to death in New York City.
•
•
•
•
A) Betty Zimbardo
B) Shelby Milgram
C) Sheila Asch
D) Kitty Genovese
22. According to studies done on helping
behavior, if you want to collect for a charity,
the person most likely to give would be:
• A) Joe, who was just told by his boss
that he is receiving a promotion
• B) Mary, who has $100 in her pocket
• C) David, who just lost a tennis match
• D) Sarah, who has never given before
23. Which of the following is not an example
of an altruistic act?
• A) Returning a lost dog to collect the
posted reward
• B) Holding a door open for a stranger
carrying two babies
• C) Giving up your seat on a crowded
bus for an elderly passenger
• D) Jumping into traffic to save a
stranger’s child from getting hit by a
car
24. You are stuck with a flat tire when you are out of
your house, and you have no jack and no spare
tired. In which of the following situations are you
most likely to get help from a stranger?
• A) In a crowded mall parking lot the day
before Christmas
• B) On a deserted country road that gets
one or two cars each hour
• C) When you are stuck on the side of a
busy highway during rush hour
• D) In a stadium parking lot before a
professional football game
25. Which of the following factors has not been
found to increase the likelihood of helping
behavior occurring?
• A) Perceiving that the other person is
deserving of help
• B) Knowing how to help
• C) Seeing that others are unwilling to
help
• D) Having a personal relationship
with the person who needs help
Stop here, or continue as a review
1. __________ refers to the effects of
situational factors and other people on
an individual’s behavior.
•
•
•
•
A) Social psychology
B) Social influence
C) Social cognition
D) Social constructs
2. Social __________ is a type of mental
process that we use to cluster people into
groups on the basis of their shared
characteristics. It is often an automatic
and unconscious process.
•
•
•
•
A) categorization
B) clustering
C) personifying
D) glossing
3. No one suspected that the clown visiting
sick children in the hospital was serial
killer John Wayne Gacy. He just wasn’t that
“type” of person. This illustrates:
•
•
•
•
A) expectation evaluation
B) social cognition
C) trait theory of personality
D) implicit personality theory
4. Kristi is sitting alone on the bus. She feels
uncomfortable when the bus stops and
only one person gets on and sits next to
her. Her discomfort is, in part, caused by:
•
•
•
•
A) social influence
B) social norms
C) person perception
D) implicit personality theory
5. Which of the following is not one of the
basic principles of person perception?
• A) Your reactions to others are determined by your
perception of them, not by who they really are
• B) Your goals in a situation determine the amount
and kinds of information you collect about others
• C) Your self-perception is not involved in the way in
which you perceive others
• D) In every situation you evaluate people partly in
terms of how you expect them to act
6. “That guy who just cut me off on the
highway must be a real jerk!” This
statement best demonstrates the:
•
•
•
•
A) fundamental attribution error
B) actor-observer discrepancy
C) just-world hypothesis
D) self-serving bias
7. Culture plays a large role in the attributions that
we tend to make. For example, Japanese
students tend to make _______ attributions
when they fail an exam, while American
students tend to make ________ attributions in
the same circumstance.
•
•
•
•
A) external; internal
B) internal; external
C) positive; negative
D) negative; positive
8. Attitudes are comprised of three
different components. Which of the
following is not one of those three?
•
•
•
•
A) behavioral component
B) cognitive component
C) diathesis component
D) affective component
9. When you behave in a way that is in
conflict with your attitude, you
experience:
•
•
•
•
A) behavioral reassessment
B) thought confusion
C) attitude adjustment
D) cognitive dissonance
10. Which of the following conditions does
not inspire people to behave in ways that
are consistent with their attitudes?
• A) when we are exposed to media
sources that challenge our attitude
• B) when the attitude is based on direct
experience
• C) when the attitude is extreme or
frequently expressed
• D) when you are very knowledgeable
about the topic of the attitude
11. Prejudice is best defined as:
• A) taking negative action toward people
who belong to a different social group
• B) speaking badly about people who
belong to a different social group
• C) a negative attitude toward people who
belong to a specific social group
• D) all of the above
12. What was the main task of the
Solomon Asch experiment
exploring conformity?
•
•
•
•
A) selecting matching colors
B) choosing line sizes
C) administering electric shocks
D) pretending to be prison
inmates or guards
13. Nick says that all women are bad drivers.
His social categorization of women based
on one common attribute (being female) is
an example of a(n):
•
•
•
•
A) in-group classification
B) out-group classification
C) stereotype
D) cognitive dissonance
14. This study demonstrated that
cooperation among group members
can lessen prejudice.
•
•
•
•
A) The Stanford Prison Experiment
B) The Jigsaw Classroom Experiment
C) The In-group Out-group study
D) The Robbers Cave Experiment
15. When an individual decides to change
their behavior to win the approval or
social acceptance of others, (s)he is
being affected by:
•
•
•
•
A) ethnocentric pressure
B) normative social influence
C) informational social influence
D) biased conformity
16. The results of Stanley Milgram’s
research into obedience found that:
• A) the subjects who continued knew it
wasn’t real
• B) most subjects discontinued when
shock levels became extreme
• C) subjects had to be threatened to
deliver dangerous levels of shock
• D) most subjects continued to deliver
the highest level of shock
17. Who was the only person in the
Milgram Obedience study to receive
an actual electric shock?
•
•
•
•
A) Stanley Milgram
B) The “learner”
C) The “teacher”
D) The “experimenter”
18. Which of the following was not one of
the forces that influenced the obedience
of subjects in Milgram’s studies?
• A) the amount of physical
separation from the “learner”
• B) the situation or context in
which the obedience occurred
• C) increasing the pay offered to
the “teacher”
• D) gradual, repetitive escalation
of the task
19. Which of the following variations of
Milgram’s obedience study resulted in the
fewest “teachers” delivering the maximum
shock (450 volts) to the learner?
• A) The teacher was free to choose the
shock level.
• B) The teacher and learner were in the
same room.
• C) The teacher was male and the
learner was female.
• D) The teacher was clearly much
younger than the learner.
20. Based on the results of the Stanford Prison
Experiment, what might we have been able
to predict about the treatment of prisoners
at Abu Ghraib?
• A) Implied social rules and norms can
be just as powerful as explicit orders
• B) People will follow the direct orders of
a superior when in the military
• C) We will easily scapegoat those
different from ourselves
• D) People cannot resist pressure to
perform evil action
21. The “bystander effect” has been used as
an explanation for why nobody came to
the immediate aid of __________, who
was stabbed to death in New York City.
•
•
•
•
A) Betty Zimbardo
B) Shelby Milgram
C) Sheila Asch
D) Kitty Genovese
22. According to studies done on helping
behavior, if you want to collect for a charity,
the person most likely to give would be:
• A) Joe, who was just told by his boss
that he is receiving a promotion
• B) Mary, who has $100 in her pocket
• C) David, who just lost a tennis match
• D) Sarah, who has never given before
23. Which of the following is not an example
of an altruistic act?
• A) Returning a lost dog to collect the
posted reward
• B) Holding a door open for a stranger
carrying two babies
• C) Giving up your seat on a crowded
bus for an elderly passenger
• D) Jumping into traffic to save a
stranger’s child from getting hit by a
car
24. You are stuck with a flat tire when you are out of
your house, and you have no jack and no spare
tired. In which of the following situations are you
most likely to get help from a stranger?
• A) In a crowded mall parking lot the day
before Christmas
• B) On a deserted country road that gets
one or two cars each hour
• C) When you are stuck on the side of a
busy highway during rush hour
• D) In a stadium parking lot before a
professional football game
25. Which of the following factors has not been
found to increase the likelihood of helping
behavior occurring?
• A) Perceiving that the other person is
deserving of help
• B) Knowing how to help
• C) Seeing that others are unwilling to
help
• D) Having a personal relationship
with the person who needs help
Acknowledgments
• Step Up Created by:
John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
• Questions written by:
Jason S. Spiegelman, M.A., ABD
• Based on Discovering
Psychology 5e by
Hockenbury & Hockenbury
• Published by Worth
Publishers, 2010
Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
B
A
D
B
C
A
B
C
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
D
A
C
B
C
D
B
D
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
C
C
A
A
D
A
A
B
25. C

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