Regional Forum PowerPoint Presentation

Report
Prevent, Teach, and Reinforce:
Promoting Student Use of Expected
Behaviors
2014-2015 Regional Forum
presented by:
and the
Regional Special Education Technical Assistance Support
Center
• From the NYS PBIS TAC & the RSE-TASC
• Details…
1. registration
2. flash drive
3. handouts
4. restrooms, breaks, lunch
5. evaluations
PBIS Training Expectations
EXPECTATION
BEHAVIOR
BE
RESPONSIBLE
 Make yourself comfortable
 Take care of your needs
 Return quickly and quietly
 Tell us your questions
BE
RESPECTFUL
 Turn cell phones off or to “vibrate”
 Listen to others attentively
 Contribute to the team
 Follow up on assigned tasks
BE
ENGAGED
 Share your passion
 Take notes
 Plan with your team
 Have FUN!!!!
3
Resources - Flash drive
• Learn how to utilize the
supports embedded in
Tiers Two and Three of the
PBIS model
Goals
• Understand how the
behavior pathway unfolds
and influences the
environment
• Understand how to utilize the
behavior pathway to intervene
and shape behavior
• Learn how to prevent, teach, and
reinforce functionally related
replacement behaviors
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
Tier 3: FBA process is
initiated when previous
interventions tried have
been unsuccessful.
Tier 2: Small group
strategies or low level
targeted interventions
should be tried and data
collected.
Tier 1: Strong classroom
management and school
policy is the first line of
defense for ALL students.
Integrated
Elements
Supporting Social Competence &
Academic Achievement
OUTCOMES
Supporting
Decision
Making
Supporting
Staff Behavior
PRACTICES
Supporting
Student Behavior
Thinking About Intervention Levels/Tiers
Primary (T1)
Secondary (T2)
Intensive (T3)
Instruction/
Intervention
Approach
Comprehensive
research-based
curriculum
Standardized,
targeted smallgroup instruction
Individualized,
based on student
data
Group Size
Class-wide (with
some small group
instruction)
3–7 students
1 student
Monitor
Progress
1x per term
At least 1x per
month
Weekly
Population
Served
All students
At-risk students
Significant and
persistent learning
needs
How can Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports
(PBIS) support individuals who exhibit
challenging behavior?
– Learn how to utilize Tier Two Interventions to meet the needs of
students who are not responding to Tier 1 supports.
– Learn how to utilize Tier Three Interventions to meet the needs
of students who have not responded to the combination of Tier 1
and Tier 2 Supports.
• Learn about the SCIENCE behind behavior
– Setting Events, Antecedents, Consequences and Functions
• Learn about techniques to help PREVENT setting events and
antecedents from triggering behaviors
• Learn about how to TEACH functionally equivalent replacement
behaviors
• Learn how to respond to inappropriate behavior and REINFORCE the
use of a replacement behavior
Data Based
Individual
Evaluation (DBI)
1.
Secondary intervention
program, delivered with
greater intensity
2.
Progress monitoring
3.
Informal diagnostic
assessment
4.
Adaptation
5.
Continued progress
monitoring, with
adaptations occurring
whenever needed to
ensure adequate
progress
Check In/Check Out(CICO)
Small group intervention
• Systematic performance feedback
• Daily organizational and
behavioral support
• High rates of positive adult
attention
• Positive communication link
between home and school
• Sets students up for success each
morning and can be faded to
develop student selfmanagement.
Who is CICO for?
• Students who continue to
demonstrate problems after PBIS
universal supports are in place
– Students with 2-5 office
discipline referrals
• Need increased levels of
structure, routine, and feedback
• Demonstrate patterns of behavior
that are functionally related to
obtaining attention
• Low levels of disruption
– Talk out/Talk back
– Unprepared
– Non-compliant
Basics of CICO
1.
Morning Check-In (Get
Daily Progress Report
DPR)
2.
Regular Teacher
feedback throughout
the day
3.
End of the day checkout
• Tally and record
points
• Receive recognition
4.
Data collection and
progress monitoring
5.
Take DPR home and
return signed copy
Elementary Example of DPR
0= Not Yet
1= Good
2= Excellent
Be Safe
Be Respectful
Keep hands, feet, and
objects to self
Use kind words
and actions
Be Your Personal Best
Follow directions
Class
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
Recess
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
Class
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
Lunch
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
Class
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
Recess
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
Class
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
Total Points =
Points Possible =
Today ______________%
50
Working in class
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
Goal ______________%
Teacher
initials
Check-in Check-out Cycle
Tier Two
Intervention
Morning
Check-In
Weekly Progress Monitoring
Class
Check out
Data Based Decisions
Teacher
Checks
Home
Check-In
Program Update
Class
Check in
Afternoon
Check-out
EXIT
Morning Check-in
• Consistent location (same place, same time)
• Begin with positive greeting
Hello JaQuan it is so nice to see you!
• Ask probing questions
How was your night at home?
Did you get your homework done?
How are you feeling today?
• Address any potential setting events
I can imagine last night was difficult. How can we plan to have a good day today?
What can we do to make sure we are meeting expectations?
• Prompt the student to get DPR
• Reminder of expectations
Be Respectful
Be Safe
Be a Problem Solver
Throughout the day
•
Student carries DPR
•
All teachers greet and pre-corrects as antecedent strategies
• Hello JaQuan, nice to have you in class today.
• We want to make sure that you are following expectations in class, so lets review
what we need to do today. Be Respectful, Be Safe, Be a Problem Solver
•
Establish criteria for prompts and points
• If you raise your hand, use an appropriate tone of voice, and ask for help when
needed, you will earn full points for being respectful.
• If you follow directions, keep personal space, and take a break when needed, you
will earn full points for being safe.
• If you use a problem solving strategy (look at the board, read directions, ask a
peer or teacher for help) when you have a problem, you will earn full points for
being a problem solver.
•
Teacher provides feedback (positive, correct action, positive)and students earn points
• JaQuan you did a great job of meeting the Be Respectful and Be Safe
expectations.
• JaQuan you struggled with being a problem solver when you did not have all the
materials for the activity. How can you be a better problem solver tomorrow?
• JaQuan, you should be proud of yourself for earning full points for the
expectations of Be Respectful and Be Safe.
End of the day Check-Out
• Consistent location (same time, same place)
• Adult positive greeting
So nice to see you at the end of the day JaQuan!
• Total points, calculate percentage and enter data
• Your total points for the day are ___________
• Your percentage for the day is ___________
• Daily or weekly reinforcements for meeting goals
• JaQuan you are working towards __________
• Quick debrief with student
• I see you meet expectations in English and Social Studies. What did you do to be
successful there?
• You had some difficulty in Math. What were some roadblocks to being successful
there?
• How can you improve your total points and percentage tomorrow?
• Provide parent communication
• Make sure to share and talk about your DPR with an adult at home and get the
DPR signed.
Turn & Talk
• In groups of three, take turns practicing the cycle of
Check-in Check-Out based on the provided scenario.
• Have one participant take on the role of the adult, one
participant take on the role of the child, and the third
participant will provide feedback on the interaction.
• Rotate through the roles and stages of CICO
– Morning Check-In
– Throughout the Day Check-In
– End of the Day Check- Out
Sample
Behavioral
Progression
With Check
In/Check
Out
20
Tier 2 ~ Small Group Interventions
(approx. 2-10 students)
Social Skills Groups
• Provides specific social skills
training/instruction, based
on the student’s identified
function of behavior
• Can be used to teach
replacement social
behaviors identified from
the school-wide matrix
(desired behaviors)
Academic Intervention Groups
• Teach students specific skills
that they should be using in
place of the inappropriate
behaviors. For example,
how to use graphic
organizers or a step sheet to
support work completion
Who are these interventions for?
Social Skills Group
Academic Intervention Groups
• Students who consistently
demonstrate the inability to
interact appropriately with
peers or adults in academic
and non academic setting
• Students who consistently
demonstrate inappropriate
or escape/avoid behaviors
when presented with a
specific academic task
• Students who would benefit
from direct instruction on
targeted skills
• Students who benefit from
direct instruction on
targeted academic skills to
help remove the “academic
antecedent”
Set up of Small Intervention Groups
• Focus on one skill
intervention at a time
– Provide 3 or 4 adaptations of skill
• 3 to 6 students
• Min. 45 mins/Max. 60 mins
• 2 or 3 x per week for 8
weeks
• Booster sessions every 2 – 4
weeks
Social Skills
and/or
• Peer relations
• Complimenting others, offering
help, inviting peers to play
• Self-management skills
• Controlling temper, following rules,
compromising
• Academic skills
• Completing work independently,
listening to teacher direction,
producing acceptable quality work
• Compliance skills
• Following directions, following rules,
using free time appropriately
• Assertion skills
• Initiating conversation,
acknowledging compliments
Academic Deficit?
• Acquisition Deficit
• Absence of knowledge for
executing skill or failure to
discriminate which skills are
appropriate in specific
situations (can’t do)
• Performance Deficit
• Skill is present in repertoire,
but student fails to perform at
acceptable levels (won’t do)
• Fluency Deficit
• Lack of exposure to sufficient
or skilled models, insufficient
rehearsal or
low
rates or inconsistent delivery
of reinforcement of skilled
performances
Sample Social Skills Session
Time
Greet students and introduce session goal(s)
5
Define the featured social skill
3
Initiate “Tell” phase
1. Provide learning objective for featured social skill
2. Introduce the skill by asking how it will be helpful to students and situations in which they could
use the skill.
3. Define a specific skill.
4. Discuss why the skill is important.
5. Outline steps for performing the behavior.
5
Initiate “Show” phase
1. Model the behavior (positive and negative)
2. Model discreetly each of the major steps for enacting the featured skill.
3. With student helper, direct a role play of a typical situation.
4. Lead a discussion of alternative behaviors to accomplish the social behavior objective.
10
Initiate “Do” phase with role-play
1. Ask students to define the skill
2. Ask students to state the steps required to accomplish the skill
3. Repeat critical steps for enacting the behavior.
4. Ask students to model the skill in role plays.
5. Ask other students to provide feedback for the student using the skill in the role plays
15
Review and provide homework assignment
5
Provide feedback about group’s performance and specify date/time for next session
2
Sample Academic Intervention Session
Time
Greet students and introduce session goal(s)
5
Define the featured academic skill
3
Initiate “Tell” phase
1. Provide learning objective for featured academic skill
2. Introduce the skill by asking how it will be helpful to students
3. Define a specific academic skill.
4. Discuss why the academic skill is important.
5. Outline steps for performing the academic skill.
5
Initiate “Show” phase
1. Model the academic skill
2. Model discreetly each of the major steps for enacting the featured skill.
3. Lead the student through guided practice of multiple demonstrations of the academic skill.
4. Lead a discussion of alternative academic skills that could also be used to achieve the objective
10
Initiate “Do” phase
1. Ask students to define the skill
2. Ask students to state the steps required to accomplish the skill
3. Repeat critical steps for the academic skill.
4. Ask students to model the skill through independent practice.
5. Provide feedback for the student on their independent use of the skill
15
Review and provide homework assignment
5
Provide feedback about group’s performance and specify date/time for next session
2
• Within your groups,
develop a “sample
lesson plan” for a social
skills group.
• Develop the “tell, show,
and do” components of
the skill.
Pick from one of the
social skills
• Peer relations
• Self-management skills
• Academic skills
• Compliance skills
• Assertion skills
Small Group
Intervention
Progression
Tier Three Supports
• Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
• Wraparound
• Student Targeted Aggression Replacement Training (START)
• Rehabilitation, Empowerment, Natural Supports, Education,
and Work (RENEW)
• Special Education Services
– Individualized Education Program
We will be focusing on the behavior pathway and the
development of a BIP because the other Tier Three Supports are
multi-dimensional and beyond the scope of this training
What is behavior?
• An observable activity in a human that unfolds
in a predictable sequence
• Most behaviors are externally observable (can
be seen)
–
–
–
–
Smiling
Hitting
Crying
Laughing
• Behaviors that are observable can be clearly
defined and measured (counted or timed)
Behavioral Pathway
Setting Event
Triggering
Antecedent
Problem
Problem
Behavior
Behavior
Maintaining
Consequence
Hypothesis: When (setting event) occurs, and (the antecedent
happens) the (problem behavior) because in order to (function).
Behavioral Pathway
4. Setting Events
Infrequent
events that
affect value
of main.
conseq.
2. Triggering
Antecedents
Preceding
events that
trigger or
occasion
1. Problem
Behavior
Set of
related
behaviors of
concern
3. Maintaining
Consequences
Following
events that
maintain
behaviors of
concern
5. FUNCTION
Why the
student
engages in
the behavior
Hypothesis: When (setting event) occurs, and (the antecedent
happens) the (problem behavior) because in order to (function).
Setting Events
“Could someone help me with these?
I’m late for math class.”
Setting Events
Setting events help explain why people respond differently at different
times when presented with the same set of events or triggers.
•
•
•
•
Fatigue (lack of sleep)
Staffing pattern
Previous conflict
Transitions
– Changes in routines
• Time of day
– Mornings/Afternoons
• Day of Week
– Mondays and Fridays
• Feelings of inadequacy
• Changes in other
environments
– Spending the night with one
parent versus another
• Challenges due to a
disability
• Hunger (lack of food)
• Illness/Allergies
• Medications
– Side Effects
– Wearing Off
• Traumatic event
• Seasonal
– Winter Months
– Holiday Time
– Rainy/Gloomy Weather
Antecedents
Antecedents trigger behaviors.
Factors
Observable and measurable characteristics of the environment that are
present (immediately) prior to the occurrence of the behavior
Physical Setting
Over/under sensory stimulation: noise, crowding, temperature; missing
or present materials, furniture configurations, work and space
organization
Social Setting
Guest teacher, people present or absent, interaction
patterns in or around the student
Academic Factors
Mismatch between instructional materials/teaching strategies and
student learning profile.
Scheduling Factors
Lack of explicitly stated/taught procedures, absence of a visual schedule,
unanticipated changes to t he routine, specific times within the schedule
(daily or class)
Degree of
Independence
Mismatch between the level required to complete a task independently
and student ability
Degree of
Participation
Group size (too large/too small), subject, location (class, teacher),
frequency of participation (expectation too high/too low)
Social Interaction
Mismatch between student need: to communicate with peers and time
allotted to do so; to receive peer attention, social status, or respect
Degree of Choice
Lack of choice-making opportunities, choice options: too many, too broad
Antecedents have a directly functional
cause/effect (if this, then that) relationship to
the occurrence of a targeted behavior
WHERE and WHEN
the behavior occurs.
– Where= Routines where the
problem behavior is most likely
– When= Specific events within a
routine that predict the
problem behavior
– Where (Routine), When
(Antecedent)  Student does
(Behavior)
Examples
– During lunch, when told
to shut up by a peer, Ben
hits the student
– During language arts,
when asked to read
aloud in class, Tracy gets
up and tells jokes
– During circle time, when
praised Jessie starts
crying
Consequences or Response to Behavior
Consequences or Response to Behavior
• They are observable and measurable events in the
environment that occur following behavior
• Consequences are functionally related to behavior.
The behavior is said to prompt environmental
consequences (response or reaction).
• Consequences may, in turn, sustain or strengthen that
behavior (reinforce), or weaken or suppress that
behavior (punish).
Common Responses to Behavior
Depending on the function of the student’s behavior, each of
these responses can serve to either reinforce or suppress the
behavior, therefore we must consider function carefully.
•
teacher attention (smiles, prompts, scolds)
•
•
being ignored or left alone
•
•
•
peer attention
being sent away
getting a toy, or a good grade
a satisfying level of physical activity
Function
Behavior
Gain/
Obtain
Tangible or
Preferred
Activity
Social
Sensory
Adult
Function Based Thinking
“The WHY of Behavior”
Avoid/
Escape
Peer
Most Common Functions of Behavior
Obtain/ Get :
To Avoid/ Escape:
 Peer attention (positive or negative)
 Difficult Task
 Adult attention (positive or negative)
 Boring Task
 Desired activity
 Easy Task
 Desired object/ items
 Sensory stimulation: auditory,
tactile, etc.
 Physical demand
 Non-preferred activity
 Peer
 Staff
 Reprimands
 Sensory Stimulation
Examples of Function in School
• Obtain/Get Reinforcers
–
–
–
–
I yell because others look at me
I fight because others listen to me
I wander because people talk to me
I hit in order to get toys from other
kids.
• Escape/Avoid Aversives
– I cry when work gets hard because
someone will help me
– I throw a book during math class
because the teacher will remove me
from class
– I stand out of the way during PE
because the other game participants
will avoid throwing me the ball.
Behavior Pathway Diagram
Elementary Example (JaQuan)
Setting Events
4
No attention
from peers
Triggering
Antecedents
2
Sees peers
playing with
one another
Problem
Behavior
1
Slaps peer on
the back
Function: Get/Obtain Peer Attention
Maintaining
Consequences
3
Get/Obtain
peer’s
attention
(peer yells at
student)
Turn & Talk
Read the following student scenarios and map the student’s
behavior and determine the function of the student’s behavior
Setting Events
Triggering
Antecedents
Problem
Behavior
Maintaining
Consequences
4
2
1
3
Function:
When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication &
teachers present multiple task demands, she
makes negative self-statements & writes profane
language on her assignments. Teaching staff
typically send her to the office with a discipline
referral for being disrespectful.
What
function?
Avoid
difficult
tasks
Setting event
Misses 12:30
medication
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
Teachers
make
multiple
task demands
Sequoia makes
negative selfstatements &
writes profane
language
Teacher sends
Sequoia to
office for being
disrespectful
Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased
several times by his friends before class. When he
enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair.
Caesar immediately says “what are you staring
at?” His teacher immediately sends him to inschool detention.
Escape adult &
What
peer function?
attention
Setting event
Caesar is
teased several
times about his
hair by his
friends before
class
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
His teacher
stares at his
hair in class
Caesar asks
his teacher
what she’s
staring at
His teacher
sends him to
in-school
detention
After developing a function based hypothesis....
We can then begin to consider:
• How to prevent behaviors from occurring
• Teach replacement behaviors
• Use the principles of reinforcement to
change behavior
Prevention-Setting Events & Antecedents
What is OUT of your control in
terms of classroom systems?
What is IN your control in terms
of classroom systems?
Setting Events may be out of our control but we can try to
lessen the impact of some common setting events
Setting Event
Strategy
Missed
Breakfast
Make sure child has breakfast (i.e. school breakfast program)
Up late playing
video games
Talk with parent about appropriate bed times & help them set
up a “bed-time” reinforcement system at home
Allow child to rest during “free times”
Evicted from
home
Contact the school’s McKinney-Vento Coordinator
Running
temperature
Have child check in with nurse
Did not take
ADD
medication
Provide alternative tasks
Have nurse give medication at school
Transition
Provide child a schedule and use predictable routines
Preset a child 5 minutes prior to transition
Argued with
peer at
breakfast
Check in with adult in the cafeteria before the school day begins
Using Positive Interactions to Prevent or Lessen
the Impact of Antecedents
• Be explicit about directives
– I need students to raise their hands and wait to be
called on during group discussion.
• Acknowledge students who are complying
with directives
– I like how Dylan got his materials out and is waiting
quietly.
• Provide a non-verbal visual or cue to indicate
to a student that they need to modify their
behavior
– Tug of ear
– Hand raised
• Try to maintain at least a 4:1 ratio
– For every corrective statement, make four positive
statements
Antecedent Prevention~ Can I add or modify?
Time
•
•
•
•
More/less of the assignment
Breaks
Chunking
Pacing techniques
Space
•
•
•
•
Proximity
Assigned buddy
Study carrel
Work areas clearly identified
Instruction/
Materials
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ability level
Hands on
Manipulatives
Sequencing trays
Notebook organizers
Enlarged print
Interactions
•
•
•
•
Supportive
Voice volume and words
Positive self-talk
Verbal praise
Functionally Equivalent Replacement
Behaviors (FERBs):
• Should be as easily performed as
the problem behavior
• Problem behaviors are irrelevant
when
• Should be taught and reinforced
– Behavior skills must be taught
as intentionally and
systematically as academic
skills are taught
• Problem behaviors are inefficient
when
• May become unnecessary once
environmental supports are in
place OR the student has learned
new skills OR becomes more
proficient than the inappropriate
behvior
– Child doesn’t need to escape
anymore
– Child has access to positive events
more commonly
– Alternative behavior is available
– Alternative behavior is taught
• Problem behaviors are ineffective
when
– Problem behavior NO LONGER
works- it does not get the child
what they want to obtain or what
they want to avoid.
Function
Escape/Avoid
Replacement Behaviors
Ask for help
Ask for a break
Express need/concern using appropriate words, cards, pictures, or signals
Ask for a different setting , choice of an alternative task, or responsibility
Use daily or weekly “opt out” card (a pass for an activity or task)
Use arm gestures to express need for personal space
Request time with teacher or counselor
Seek out a trusted friend
Attention
Raise hand
Request counseling time
Ask to work with a peer
Ask for a high five
Ask for a turn
Request opportunity to lead lesson, state opinion, help others etc
Use appropriate words to communicate about overwhelming elements
Request a whole class or individual stretch break
Use predetermined deep tissue activity (stress ball, hand massage etc)
Use agreed-upon card, picture, or signal to request appropriate item
Request predetermined food or other item for oral input
Use self-management statements
Ask for item politely
Ask teacher for assistance with obtaining tangible item
Select another activity until it is his or her turn
Sensory
Tangible
Teach Replacement Behaviors
through Explicit Direct Instruction
• Model how to demonstrate skill
• Provide explicit instructions
• Rehearse skill
• Provide feedback
• Practice in natural setting
• Reinforce students for demonstrating the skill
Asking for Assistance
• Model how to demonstrate skill
– Model how to raise one’s hand quietly
– Demonstrate using examples and non-examples
• Example – Hand raised in the air, eyes on the teacher,
mouth closed, ears open
• Non-example – Hand waving in the air, eyes wandering,
shouting the person’s name
• Provide explicit instructions for demonstrating skill
– Raise hand high enough to be seen by others & hold hand still
– Eyes directed towards the person, mouth closed, ears open
– When acknowledged, ask in a calm tone of voice “Can you
please help me?” or some variation of this question
– Wait patiently (explain what patiently looks like) for a response
Asking for Assistance Continued..
• Rehearse social skill
– Practice it through role play
• Provide feedback on social skill
– Let students know what they have done well first and then
give points for improvement
• Practice social skills in natural setting to promote
generalization
– Practice the raising the hand in the classroom
• Reinforce students for demonstrating social skill
– Provide verbal positive reinforcement when students raises
their hands or approximates the behavior
Turn & Talk
• Pick a FERB
– Ask for a break
(escape/avoid)
– Ask to work with a peer
(get/obtain attention)
– Use appropriate words to
communicate about
overwhelming elements
(escape/avoid sensory)
– Ask for an item (get/obtain
tangible)
• Plan an Explicit Direct
Instruction Sequence for the
FERB
– Model how to demonstrate
skill
– Provide explicit instructions
– Rehearse skill
– Provide feedback
– Practice in natural setting
– Reinforce students for
demonstrating the skill
Response
to
Behavior
• Pre-correct with explicit directives
• Use prompts/cues to signal to the student to use the FERB
• Ignore negative behaviors when possible (especially attention seeking
behaviors)
• Immediately recognize positive behaviors (especially approximations)
• Praise others for appropriate behaviors to encourage other
students to comply
• Model positive thinking
– “I am capable of completing this assignment if I use my strategies”
Response
to
Behavior
• Showcase students strengths
– “Nina demonstrated problem solving skills when she used a strategy to
help her solve the math problem”
• Encourage students to engage in self-assessment regularly of
their behavior
– Use transition time as a check point
• Use “wait time” after giving a request to avoid power struggle
• Teach and model self-talk strategies
– “I can solve this problem”
– “I can use my replacement behavior”
• Offer two choices of ways to perform work that will still achieve
the objectives of the assignment
Reinforcement
Behavior acts on the environment
Produces a consequence
Consequence strengthens behavior
Positive Reinforcement
• There is an occurrence of a
behavior
Negative Reinforcement
• There is an occurrence of a
behavior
• There is an ADDITION of a
stimulus (object, event,
person) or increase in
intensity of the stimulus
(Consequence)
• There is a REMOVAL of a
stimulus (object, event,
person) or decrease in
intensity of the stimulus
(Consequence)
• Results in strengthening
behavior
• Results in strengthening
behavior
Positive Reinforcers
• Giving (adding)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Praise
Stickers
Privileges
Attention
Tokens
Good grades
Free time
Time with preferred person
Extra credit
A prize
An award
Food
A smile
Positive feedback
Negative Reinforcers
• Taking away (removal)
•
– A deadline
– An assignment
– A quiz/test
– A consequence
– Criticism
– Poor grades
Removing an aversive stimulus
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Stopping one’s ridicule
Stopping one’s teasing
Stopping one’s yelling
Stopping one’s crying
Stopping one’s whining
Stopping one’s staring
Stopping one’s pouting
Stopping laughing at someone
Positive or Negative?
•
A teacher smiles at a student and
praises him when he stays in his seat
and pays attention in the classroom.
As a result, the student is more likely
to sit in his seat and pay attention.
•
– Positive Reinforcement
•
A teacher passes out an in-class
assignment and a student immediately
states: “I’m not doing this” and throws
the assignment on the floor. The
teacher immediately sends the learner
to the principal’s office. The next day,
when the teacher hands out the
assignment, the student states: “I’m
not doing this” and throws the
assignment on the floor. The teacher
sends the student out again.
– Negative Reinforcement
A teacher passes out an in-class
assignment to a class and states: “Any
student who finishes this now, won’t
have homework tonight.” All of the
students immediately begin working on
the assignment.
– Negative Reinforcement
•
A student is answering study guide
questions. When she can’t figure out
an answer to a question, she asks her
teacher. Her teacher tells her the
correct answer. As a result, she is
more likely to ask her teacher for
answers to questions she doesn’t
know.
– Positive Reinforcement
Considerations when Using
Positive or Negative Reinforcement
• Immediacy
• How quickly the reinforcer
follows the behavior
• Contingency
• How often the reinforcer
follows the behavior
• Magnitude
• Intensity of reinforcer
• Individual Differences
• Not all stimuli are equally
reinforcing to everyone
Acquisition Reinforcement Schedule
•
Reinforcer (verbal or tangible) should be given or taken away immediately
after the behavior is demonstrated or approximated
– Student asks for help and the teacher gives help immediately.
– Student asks for a break and the teacher takes away the demand immediately.
•
Every time the behavior is demonstrated or approximated the reinforcer
should be given or taken away
– Student asks peer for a turn. The teacher verbally praises the student every time
the student asks appropriately for a turn.
– Student asks for a choice in assignment. The teacher takes away the demand
and provides an alternative way to complete the same assignment.
•
The reinforcer should be perceived to be of high value to the student
– Student uses their FERB and earns extra free time with an adult every time they
demonstrate the behavior (i.e. 1 minute for every demonstration of behavior).
– Student uses their FERB and a part of a homework assignment is taken away
(i.e. 1 problem is taken away for every demonstration of behavior).
Putting all the pieces together…
• Utilizing the behavior pathway to understand the
function of the student’s behavior
• Using the function of the student’s behavior to
select a FERB
• Use the FERB to develop a competing pathway
• Use the competing pathways to develop a BIP
Behavior Pathway Diagram
Elementary Example ~ JaQuan
Setting Events
4
No attention
from peers
Triggering
Antecedents
2
Sees peers
playing with
one another
Problem
Behavior
1
Slaps peer on
the back
Function: Get/Obtain Peer Attention
Maintaining
Consequences
3
Peer yells at
student
Competing Pathway
BUILDING A SUPPORT PLAN
Summary Statement/Competing Behavior Pathways Diagram
Asks peer for
attention
appropriately
Desired Behavior
No
attention
from peers
Setting Event(s)
Sees peers
playing with
one another
Antecedent Trigger(s)
Slaps peer on
the back
Problem Behavior
Taps peer
on shoulder
Alternative Replacement
Behavior
Get/obtain
peer attention
Maintaining
Consequences
Get/obtain
peer attention
Maintaining
Consequences
Get/Obtain Function-Based Solutions
To lessen the impact of a lack of peer attention for this student, set up
opportunities for this student to interact with their peers positively.
Setting Event
Set up a peer
mentoring
program with an
older child to
interact/model
appropriate
behavior with
student during
non-academic
situations (free
time area,
cafeteria,
hallways, specified
time period)
Antecedent
Consistent adult
supervision
1 minute check in
with a peer during
independent
activities
Sit student next to
peers who are most
likely to have
positive interactions
with the student
Partner student with
a peer for group
activities
Behavior
Consequence
Teach the student to
ask peers for
attention by tapping
the peer on the
shoulder
Verbally reinforce the
student when he
uses the FERB and
students who have
responded
appropriately
Teach the student to
respond to both
Use acquisition
positive and negative reinforcement
peer responses
schedule with a
student selected
Use a peer model to
reinforcer
demonstrate how to
ask for attention
If the student reverts
appropriately
to slapping, remove
Practice with asking the student from
student attention (i.e.
for attention and
responding to peers time away)
When involved in a situations where the BIP strategies are
unsuccessful, deescalate the situation and promote safety..

Isolation or removal of
involved student

Allow time for student to
“cool down.”

Removal of other students
for safety reasons

Utilize calm, detached
responses to student







Speak respectfully
Use simple language
Acknowledge cooperation
Withdraw if problems escalate
Give student space
Do not communicate “urgency to gain
control”
Contact appropriate support
staff, administration, and
parents
Progress monitoring
• Implement a plan and check to see if it
working
– Ask yourself, how will we know if the plan is
effective?
– What measureable goal can be set for the
student and be reasonably monitored?
– How often should progress be checked?
Over _________________ (time period)
__________ (student) will
______________ (demonstrate what behavior)
in ____ out of ____ (measurement) to
________________ (why)
Quick Ways to Progress Monitor
How to Progress Monitor
•
Checklists
•
Direct Observations
How often to Progress Monitor
• Daily
• Weekly
•
Tally charts
•
Graphs
• Bi-weekly
•
Student self-assessment
• Monthly
•
Daily Progress Reports
•
Others?
• Quarterly
Goals, Progress Monitoring, Reinforcement
• Goal
– Over a three day period, JaQuan will tap peers on the
shoulder when requesting attention in 7 out of 10
occurrences to secure peer attention appropriately.
• Progress Monitoring Method
– Checklist (did JaQuan use the strategy or not) during
peer activities
• Acquisition Reinforcement Schedule
– Verbal praise after every use of FERB
– Extra free time with peers earned when goal is
achieved
We also need to monitor fidelity..
Did the implementer
complete the step?
Task Analysis of Intervention
PREVENT Component
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
TEACH Component
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
REINFORCE Component
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
TOTAL (# Yes / # Total)
Percent Score
Questions to ask ourselves..
• Have we addressed the setting events by using the
setting event strategy?
• Have we used the preventative practices to address
antecedents?
• Have we taught students what to do instead? Have we
reviewed? Rehearsed? Practiced? Reinforce?
• Are our responses to the behavior matching the
function? Are we reinforcing appropriate behavior?
Final Thoughts
• Understanding how behavior unfolds will help you to
engage in better problem solving. When in doubt, map the
pathway!
• Use the pathway to develop your solutions. A one to one
correspondence will help you to identify the problem and
pick an effective solution.
• Set realistic goals and progress monitor. If they are being
achieved, raise the bar. If not, go back to the pathway.
• Make sure you are holding up your end of the bargain. A
plan that treats all aspects of the problem is more likely to
succeed. Check fidelity!
Acknowledgements
•
•
•
•
•
•
PBIS OSEP Technical Assistance Center
National Center on Intensive Intervention
Missouri PBIS
Illinois PBIS
Behavior Management Intervention Manual
Teacher’s Encyclopedia of Behavior
Management
• Office of Education – Ventura County

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