Maura

Report
Rice Consortium
•Methodology
1-Phase Behavior
Salinity Maps for Optimal Blends
2-Static Adsorption
Two-phase titration
3-Dynamic Emulsification/Demulsification
Maura Puerto
4- 26-2011
1
Phase Behavior Methodology:
High °C, Variable-hard brines
Salinity Maps for Optimal Blends
Best Blend : Foam, lowest possible IFT
Injection Composition
4/13/2015
2
Mapping for Best Blend Selection
1. Triton X200 and IOS 20+ 0342………..90°C , 120°C
2. Avanel S70 and IOS 20+ 0342………. 90°C , 120°C
3. Avanel S150 and IOS 20+ 0342……… 90°C , 120°C
The mapping is helping on the
interpretation of coreflooding test
results
4/13/2015
3
90°C
Triton X200
100
IOS 0324
Seawater
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
Type I
90
10
Desirable
80
20
•Surfactant propagation
• Foam formation
70
Bø
30
60
40
50
50
Type II
Undesirable
40
30
60
70
20
80
10
90
0
100
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Bø
80
90
100
Formation Water
Test Sample
4
90°C
Avanel S70
100
Bø
IOS 0342
Sea Water
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
100
0
90
10
80
20 Bø
70
30
Dilution path
60
40
50
50
Type II
40
60
30
70
20
80
10
90
0
100
0
10
20
30
40
Formation Brine
50
60
70
80
90
100
5
120°C
Sea Water
Avanel S70
Bø
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
100
0
90
10
Type I
80
IOS 0342
20
70
30
60
40
50
50
40
60
30
70
Type II
20
80
10
90
0
100
0
10
20
30
40
50
Formation Brine
60
70
80
90
100
Bø
Solubility Map of Blends Synthetic sea water (Ca , Mg)
b-C16,17 - 9EO GS and IOS 20-24
IOS
GS
A suitable choice for injection in an EOR process is the 50/50 blend,
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7
Procedure _Static Adsorption
Sample Preparation
Blank (B)
Test Sample (TS)
•Weigh solution , ~ 20-25 cc, into two 40 cc vial
•Weigh dolomite powder ~ 0.7-1.2 gram in TS
•Insert stirrer in TS and condenser in B and TS
•Immerse B &TS in 90°C oil bath
•Let B and TS reach test temperature
•Mix TS on a stirring plate for 10-15 sec
•Return TS to bath
Repeat for at least 3 times within 2 days
•Let TS to equilibrate _Clear Supernatant_
•Titrate 3 aliquot of each supernatant
•Plot Data
•Calculate Concentration by Slope* Titrant conc.
Titrant, ml
2.5
2
Oil
Bath
1.5
1
0.5
2 mM
4
6
4/13/2015
8
2 mM
4
6
8
0
0
0.5
1
Sample, ml
1.5
2
2.5
8
REMARKS
• Salinity Maps could be used for fast screening of
surfactants for EOR process of variable sources of
brine composition for injection and formation brines:
• Reliable two, two-phase titration procedures developed
for determining static adsorption at 90°C…
•For mixtures of anionics: Epton’s (Methylene Blue) for
Total (A1+A2)
•For anionics+ soaps : Bromocresol for Total (A1+Asoap)
and Epton’s for A1
•Rice developing HPLC Procedure for assesing
adsorption of individual surfactant in mixture
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9
END
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10
Example of Selection of Optimal Blend, Bø
Triton X-200_Enordet 0342
50/50:FB/SW S-Akal 90°C
Triton X200
9/1
8/2
7/3
6/4
5/5
4/6
3/7
2/8
1/9
IOS 0342
Bø
4/13/2015
Set B Triton X-200_Enordet 0342 in 50_50 FB_SW and 1cc SLO 90°C .JPG
11
4/13/2015
12
Dynamic
Emulsification/Demulsification
Maura Puerto
Tarek Hariz
Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
13
Objective
• Develop apparatus for consistently testing
Emulsification/Demulsification of crude oils
One-pass
Mini-Loop
14
One-Pass Emulsification
Oil
Pressure
Transducer Card
and Computer
Pressure
Transducer
Brine
CV
Frit
CV
HPLC
Pump
Crude Oil/Emulsion
15
Example of One-pass emulsification
29% 3.5% NaCl / 71% crude oil
Rate =7cc/min.
Each sample collected ~2.5 minutes.
Red line: volume of brine in samples
At the top :. After Sample 6 collected Sample 1 has being aged for 15 minutes
At the bottom: Samples after 96 hours of aging
16
Pressure
Transducer
Card and
Computer
Mini-Loop
Pressure
Transducer
Demulsifier
Brine
Crude
Oil/Emulsion
Positive Displacement
Pump
17
Effect of Shear
981 sec-1
685 sec-1
18
Emulsification-Demulsification
Crude Oil
Brine Injection
Demulsifier
Injected
Emulsion with
Demulsifier 65 cP
50/50 Water/Oil
Emulsion 200 cP
(NMR case)
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19
Percent Water Cut
4/13/2015
e = o e
k
k = 5.5
 = water cut
20
Thanks For Coming
Pemex Chevron
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21
Calculations
• Calculating apparent viscosity from pressure
drop measured
• Hagen–Poiseuille equation
22
The Viscosity Of Crude -Oils Emulsions
William Woelflin
Drilling an Production Practice 1942
Page 152
” ...the viscosity ratio (
temperature”
Woelflin's correlation
http://www.fortunecity.com/tatooine/falcon/502/emulflo2.html
e / o ) for a given brine content is independent of
e = o e
k
k = constant
 = water cut
Many computer
software for pipeline hydraulics calculation normally assume
Woelflin's correlation for wet oil viscosity up to an inversion point which is usually assumed to
be the same (typically 0.6) for all oils. The weakness of this approach lies in the following:
•Woelflin's equation assumes total emulsification of the oil-water mixture which is far from the
real situation in the pipe. The equation takes no account of the varying degrees of mixing in
practice.
•Wholesale
pipes.
application of the equation would lead to over -estimation of pressure loss in
•It is inaccurate to assume that all oils have the same inversion water-cut. The error in
equipment specification due to this assumption could be large, especially for water cuts close
to the inversion point. Crude oils generally have differ.
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25
80
App.
Viscosity
centipoises
Delta P
psi
20
70
60
50
15
40
10
30
20
5
10
0
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Minutes
Emulsion Bottom 6.3X Hydrophobic Slide
% Oil
% Water
Drop size
Average m
Top
63.2
36.8
34.8
Bottom
39.6
60.4
31.4
NMR values
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