Training School Personnel to Implement FBA/BIP - basicfba

Report
Basic FBA to BSP:
Evidence of Efficient
Training of School
Personnel
Sheldon Loman, PhD
Chris Borgmeier, PhD
Kathleen Strickland-Cohen,
Ph.D., BCBA-D
www.basicfba.pbworks.com
Who’s here?
o Administrators?
o Teachers?
o Paraprofessionals?
o Behavior Specialists?
o Higher Education Members?
o Other related services?
o Others?
FBA is….
• an empirically supported practice that has
been demonstrated to improve both the
effectiveness & efficiency of behavioral
interventions in schools
• Blair, Umbreit, & Bos, 1999; Carr et al., 1999; Ingram, Lewis-Palmer, & Sugai,
2005; Lee, Sugai, & Horner, 1999; Newcomer & Lewis, 2004.
Newcomer
& Lewis,
2004
CHALLENGES SCHOOLS
FACE TODAY ARE NOT
FINDING WHAT WORKS,
BUT IMPLEMENTING
WHAT WORKS.
FIXSEN, NAOOM, BLASE, FRIEDMAN, & WALLACE, 2005
Since 1997 FBA has not been implemented widely in schools.
Not due to lack of knowledge, but to practicality of use
Concern
• As schools adopt Tier 2 and Tier 3 supports, the
Basic Message:
behavior specialists in the district are often
overwhelmed with requests to conduct functional
Any
time assessments
you feel overwhelmed
the answer
behavioral
and building behavior
support
is likely to include investing in the training
plans.
of others.
District Behavior
Support Specialist
Train and
coach PBIS
at all three
tiers
Support
Teams
building
behavior
support
plans from
Assessment
information
Train 1-2
people per
school to
conduct
“basic”
FBA/BSP
A Proactive Approach to Behavior Support
Planning
• Majority of problem behaviors that teams encounter do not
require comprehensive FBA-BSP (Loman & Horner, in press)
• Using simplified FBA-BSP procedures that “match” the level and
intensity of problem behavior
• Provide FBS at the first signs of persistent problem behavior
Basic FBA:
Complex FBA:
Behaviors and Maintaining
Functions are Easily Defined
and Identified
Behaviors and Maintaining
Functions Vary, and are not Easily
Defined and/or Identified
Current Issues and Needs in
Your District…
• Do people already know how to do FBA in your schools?
• Can a district leader teach FBA/BSP procedures in a reasonable
amount of time?
• Are the basic FBA/BSPs developed by school personnel valid for
improving student behavior?
• Do our school teams understand the CRITICAL FEATURES of
function-based interventions ?
• Do we have materials that are practical and effective for use by
district specialists?
We hope you will learn to…
• Identify the research-base for the use of a practical approach
to training school personnel to conduct FBA/BSPs
• Identify the procedures for school district behavior support
specialists to use in training school personnel to conduct
practical FBA/BSPs
• Identify a process for creating capacity in schools to support
the development and implementation of function-based
interventions
“Scaling Down to Scale up”
• Scott, Alter, & McQuillan (2010)
• In order for FBA to be applied in typical
classrooms we need to simplify the
practices associated with effective FBA
• It is essential to use straightforward
language, rationale, and examples of how
FBA can be applied in the context of
classroom
11
“Work Smarter NOT Harder…”
By using the 4 P’s
• Proactively build capacity- Train 1-2 school personnel in each
school with a “flexible” role to conduct FBA/BSPs for students
with mild/moderate problem behaviors
• Parsimonious tools- Use simple tools and terminology that are
relatable to school personnel
• Practical Trainings- Provide short training sessions that teach
“less more thoroughly” based on established instructional
practices
• Prioritized follow-up- Through use of quick in-training
assessments to determine those participants that will require
more follow-up coaching
Responsive Instruction
Student is Progressing
Evaluate Response to
Instruction
Progress Monitoring
Determine Student Skills
& Expectations of
Performance
Need for Instructional Modification
Deliver Instruction
Student, Grade, & Home
Plan Instruction:
ü What to teach
ü How to teach
ü How to evaluate progress
Instructional Response
Format of
Basic/Practical FBA Training Sessions
Objectives
Checks for
Understanding
Review
Comments/
Questions
Activities
Tasks
Key Points
Available at: www.basicfba.pbworks.com
Basic FBA Training Series
• 4 training sessions on conducting functional behavioral assessments (FBA)
for students with mild to moderate behavioral problems in schools.
• The training series teaches participants to conduct interviews and
observations in such a way as to precisely determine the relationship
between student problem behavior and the context:
– What the problem behaviors are.
– When, Where, & Why a student’s problem behaviors occur.
• A summary of this information will help an individual student team
develop effective behavioral supports that:
-prevent problem behaviors from occurring
-teach alternative behaviors
-& effectively respond when problem behaviors occur.
Basic FBA process
D.A.S.H.
Define behavior in observable & measurable terms
Ask about behavior by interviewing staff & student
Session #1
Session #2
-specify routines where & when behaviors occur
-summarize where, when, & why behaviors occur
See the behavior
Session #3
-observe the behavior during routines specified
-observe to verify summary from interviews
Hypothesize: a final summary of where, when & why behaviors occur
Session #4
16
Basic FBA vs
Comprehensive FBA
Focus of this
training series
Practical FBA
Comprehensive FBA
For:
Students with mild to
moderate problem
behaviors (behaviors that
are NOT dangerous or
occurring in many settings)
Students with moderate to
severe behavioral
problems; may be
dangerous and/or
occurring in many settings
What:
Relatively simple and
efficient process to guide
behavior support planning
Time-intensive process that
also involves archival
records review, familycentered planning, and
collaboration with agencies
outside of school
Conducted by whom:
School-based personnel
(e.g., teachers, counselors,
administrators)
Professionals trained to
conduct functional
assessments with students
with severe problem behaviors
(e.g., school psychologists,
behavior specialists)
17
Session #1:
Defining & Understanding Behavior
• Overview of the Practical FBA training series and introduces
concepts, examples, and practice opportunities for participants to
learn how to:
(a) Define behavior (WHAT),
(b) Identify events that predict WHEN & WHERE the specific
behavior occurs
(c) Identify the function of behavior (WHY), and
(d) Construct functional behavioral summary statements
TASK: Find someone at their site whom they may conduct a practice
interview with next week.
Always start with the Behavior
1- Once you have defined the behaviors (the What)
2- & know the Where & When the behaviors occur #2 (Routine &
Antecedents)
3- Then want to find out WHY (the outCome of the behavior…what
happens right afterwards)
2
1
3
Antecedent/Trigger:
Behavior:
Consequence/OutCome
When _____ happens….
the student does (what)__
..because (why) ______
19
What is the pay-off of the problem behavior?
Problem
Behavior
Escape/
Avoid
Something
Obtain/Get
Something
Stimulation/
Sensory
Tangible/
Activity
Social
Adult
Peer
20
Create a Hypothesis Statement for
Johnny’s Behavior
After interviewing Mr. Smith and conducting several observations of Johnny in
the third grade classroom, the team determined that during less structured
class time (free time, cooperative group art projects, etc.), Johnny tears up
his paper and stomps his feet. After Johnny engages in this behavior his
peers laugh at him.
Routine: During __(some routine e.g.: Third
_______________
grade classroom
Antecedent/Trigger:
“When ..”
Less structured
class time
Behavior:
“Student does..”
Tears up paper &
stomps feet
Consequence/OutCome:
“Because..”
Peers laugh at him
Therefore, the function of
the behavior is to:
21
get/avoid
Peer Attention
Session #2:
Investigating Behavior
• Review content from the first session
• Instruction, modeling, and practice opportunities in
conducting FACTS interviews with staff and students
(modified from Borgmeier, 2005)
• Practice constructing behavioral summary statements from
each interview.
TASK: Complete a practice FACTS interview with a staff
member at school site.
Follow-up
Make sure to ask follow-up questions in the right column of Antecedents &
Consequences section
ANTECEDENT(s): Rank Order the strongest triggers/predictors of problem behavior in the
routine above. Then ask corresponding follow-up question(s) to get a detailed understanding
of triggers ranked #1 & 2.
Environmental Features (Rank order strongest 2)
Follow Up Questions – Get as Specific as possible
1 X a. task too hard
If a,b,c,d or e - describe task/demand in detail __writing sentences,
paragraphs, letters, journals, etc. student cannot write because they
don’t know how to read or spell fluently______________________
If f - describe purpose of correction, voice tone, volume etc.
_________________________________________________
If g, h, I, j or k - describe setting/activity/content in detail
____Independent work involving writing or reading; works better
in small groups if he doesn’t have to read or write____________
_________________________________________________
If l – what peers?
___ g. large group instruction
___ b. task too easy
___ h. small group work
_X_ c. bored w/ task
___ i. unstructured time
_X_ d. task too long
___ j. transitions
___ e. physical demand 2_X k. independent work
3_X f. correction/reprimand ___ l. with peers
___ m. Other, describe ______________________
_______________________________________
Select #1
Ranked
Answers to
Insert into
Summary
Have Teacher
Rate the
Statement
Session #3:
Observing & Summarizing Behavior
• Review content from previous training sessions & practice
interviews from week before
• Instruction & practice opportunities (using videos) for
participants to conduct ABC observations of students within
routines identified as settings in which the problem behavior
occurs most frequently (based upon the staff FACTS interviews).
• Participants practice constructing summary statements based
upon data from their observations to verify or modify summary
statements derived from their FACTS interviews.
TASK: Complete a practice ABC observation at school site.
Videos used in training available from Sopris West:
Scott, T. M., Liaupsin, C., & Nelson, C. M. (2005).
Team-based Functional Assessment and Intervention
Planning: A Simplified Teaming Process. Longmont,
CO: Sopris West.
Session #4:
Function-based Behavior
Support Planning
• Review of concepts, skills from first three sessions
• Review practice ABC observations & summarizing results
• Provide opportunities for participants to practice the
skills that they have learned in conducting interviews,
observations, and constructing behavioral summary
statements
• Introduce the Competing Behavior Pathway and ideas for
helping individual student support teams in designing
function-based behavioral supports.
Summary of Behavior - Shane
Setting Event Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
Teacher/Staff Interview Summary Statement
Academic Failure in
previous class that
day
Difficult tasks, any
word problems &
most math
operations
Work refusal,
doodling, not follow
directives, yells at
teacher, disruptive
Avoid math task,
doodling, work
refusal, sent to office
ABC Observation Summary Statement
Negative
relationship w/
teacher???
Teacher
confrontation
Work refusal,
doodling, yells at
teacher, disruptive
Avoid teacher
confrontation, avoid
math task, to office
Final Summary of Behavior (move to Behavior Plan)
Negative
relationship w/
teacher & previous
academic failure
1.
2.
Teacher
confrontation
Math task
Work refusal,
doodling, yells at
teacher, disruptive
Avoid math task &
teacher confrontation
COMPETING PATHWAYS
BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
PLANNING
Neutralize/
eliminate
setting
events
Add relevant
& remove
irrelevant
triggers
Teach
alternative
that is more
efficient
Add effective &
& remove
ineffective
reinforcers
Examination of Efficacy of
Basic FBA
Loman & Horner (2013)
• To determine if staff with flexible roles in schools (e.g., counselors,
administrators) can be trained to conduct FBA for students with mild
to moderate behavior problems (i.e., students with recurring
problems that do not involve physical aggression or violent
behaviors).
• To determine the efficacy and acceptability of Practical FBA methods
and tools with school personnel.
Methods: 3 Phases of the Study
Phase 1- Practical FBA training on FBA tools & methods provided
to 12 school professionals.
-Pre- & Post-Tests of FBA knowledge
Phase 2- 10 of the 12 Trained participants conducted an FBA
according to procedures they were taught for one
student within their school.
-Using Practical FBA tools: interviewed, observed,
and hypothesized summary of student behavior.
Phase 3- Functional analyses conducted by researcher to test each
participant’s hypothesis/summary statement
-Experimental manipulations to determine the efficacy of
the Practical FBA training .
Results: Phase 2
Strongly
Agree
Acceptability Ratings
6
5.6
5.5
5.7
5.5
5.6
5.3
Agree
5.5
5.7
5.4
5
5
4
3
2
1
Equipped me
Strongly
disagree
Will Use Again
Suggest to
Others
Tools Easy to
Use
Teacher FACTS Student FACTS
N=10
ABC Form
Confident
Inform
Intervention
Time
Reasonable
Overall Benefit
Participant 2
Hypothesis: Access Adult Attention
All 10 of the FAs confirmed
the Hypothesis Statements
Percentage of Intervals with Occurrence of Problem Behaviors
100%
90%
80%
70%
Control Condition
60%
Escape Condition
50%
Attention Condition
IOA
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
1
2
3
Sessions
4
5
Contributions of Study
• Use of Basic FBA v. Comprehensive FBA
• Proactive, Parsimonious, Practical
• School personnel can conduct “valid” FBAs for students with
mild to moderate behavioral problems.
• Usefulness & acceptability of training/tools
• Utility of FACTS interview tool, but implications of essential
direct observation validation
• Ideas on how to organize personnel within a school/district to
implement best practices
How has
Practical FBA been used?
• Designed to be used by someone well-versed in FBA and
behavioral principles (e.g., behavior specialist, school
psychologist) to train school personnel.
• School Districts have trained instructional assistants,
teachers, principals, vice principals, counselors, and
specialists from elementary, middle, and high schools.
• Many places in the U.S. and Internationally are using
Practical FBA to train school personnel to conduct FBA.
From Basic FBA to
Practical Training on
Function-based Interventions
• The most important purpose of conducting FBA
is to inform the development of Behavior
Support Plans that directly address the
FUNCTION of student behavior
FBA-BSP in Schools: How are we doing?
• Growing body of research showing that FBA can be
effectively conducted by typical school personnel
• (Crone, Hawken, & Bergstrom, 2007; Dukes, Rosenberg, & Brady, 2007; Loman,
2010; Maag & Larson, 2004; Renshaw et al., 2008; Scott, Nelson, & Zabala, 2003)
However…
• Schools continue to struggle to utilize FBA information to
build BSPs
• (Blood & Neel, 2007; Cook et al., 2007, 2012; Scott & Kamps, 2007; Scott, Liaupsin,
Nelson, & McIntyre, 2005; Van Acker, Boreson, Gable, & Potterton, 2005)
In One Hour Can We Train You
to Identify Effective
Behavioral Interventions for
Challenging Students?
• Borgmeier, Loman, & Hara (under review)
41
Participants (n=361)
• NorthWest PBIS Conference Attendees
• Oregon (n=150 & n=51)
• Washington (n=46)
• Vancouver, British Columbia Training
(n=22)
• School District in Washington (n=20)
• Portland State University Students (n=72)
Critical
Features
of BSP
RACER
Replace problem behavior by teaching a socially acceptable, efficient behavior
that allows student to obtain the pay-off/function
Antecedent strategies to directly address triggers to prevent problems &
prompt replacement behaviors based on the function of behavior
Correct behaviors by quickly & effectively redirecting student to replacement
behavior
Extinguish behaviors by ensuring that problem behaviors do NOT pay off for the
student (i.e. does not result in the function of behavior)
Reinforce replacement & desired behaviors based on function/pay off for the
student
Pre-Test/
Post-Test
Design
1 hour
training +
15 min
for Pre &
Post-test
Consequence Intervention:
Reinforcing Positive Behavior
Steps in
Identifying
Reinforcers?
1. Identify an
intervention to
Reinforce the
Alternate
Behavior
2. Identify an
intervention to
Reinforce the
Desired
Behavior
Critical features
of Reinforcers?
a) Is reinforcer
valued? (start
w/ function of
behavior)
b) Are
expectations
& timeframes
reasonable for
the student?
Yes or No?
Why?
Results
Overall Mean Increase by 30%
Percent Correct Pre v Post
By Function
Escape Maintained
Percent Correct By Intervention Element
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
89%
84%
93%
89%
86%
77%
74%
65%
61%
57%
36%
26%
83%
56%
Pre
Post
Attention Maintained Percent Correct By Intervention
Element
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
88%
78%
83%
96%
85%
95%
73%
68%
61%
53%
38%
75%
52%
42%
Pre
Post
Training Team
Leaders
50
From Basic FBA to BSP
Training Series (Strickland-Cohen,
Loman, & Borgmeier, 2012)
• Intended for use by district behavior specialists to build school
capacity for providing function-based support for student with mild
to moderate challenging behavior
• For training school-based professionals who:
• Have an understanding of basic behavioral theory
• Have some training related to and experience with the FBA
process
• Have the role/responsibility of leading team-based
behavior support planning
Four 1-hour Training Sessions
• Session #1: Using FBA data to identify
alternative/replacement behaviors
• Session #2: Identifying and selecting functionbased prevention, teaching, and consequence
strategies
• Session #3: Contextual fit, implementation and
evaluation planning
• Session #4: Leading a BSP team
Screening and Assessment
Responsive Instruction
Student is Progressing
Evaluate Response to
Instruction
Progress Monitoring
Determine Student Skills
& Expectations of
Performance
Need for Instructional Modification
Deliver Instruction
Student, Grade, & Home
Plan Instruction:
ü What to teach
ü How to teach
ü How to evaluate progress
Instructional Response
Assessing Knowledge of BSP Development
• 10-item screening test
• Basic behavioral knowledge
• 50 item pretest
• Assessed ability to:
• List the critical features of behavior support plans
• Identify missing or incorrect items on sample plan
• Discriminate between Function-Based, Neutral, and
Contraindicated strategies
• In science, when asked to work with a partner or small group Jacob (6th grade)
makes inappropriate comments, pushes materials off his desk and refuses to do
his work. This is most likely on days when an altercation with a peer has occurred
prior to science. Based on the data collected, the team agreed that the function of
Jacob’s behavior is to avoid working with peers.
Function-Based (FB)? Neutral (N)? or Contraindicated (C)?
FB Teach student to appropriately request a break from working with his partner(s).
1. ____
C When problem behavior occurs, allow student to work alone.
2. ____
FB Develop a behavior contract with the student specifying that if he works successfully
3. ____
with peers for a specified part of lab time, he can spend the remainder of class time working
independently.
N Review class rules about respectful interactions with peers at the beginning of class.
4. ____
C When problem behavior occurs, send student to resource classroom to the complete
5. ____
activity.
FB When presenting assignments on days when Jacob has had a previous peer altercation,
6. ____
provide a choice of working either individually or with a peer partner.
N Provide tokens that can be exchanged for items at the school store when student
7. ____
engages in appropriate peer interactions.
N Provide pull-out social skills training 2 times per week for 20 minutes.
8. ____
Delivering Instruction: HOW
TO TEACH DESIRED SKILLS
Principles of Instructional Design
(Gilbert, 1978; Kame’enui, Carnine, Dixon, & Burns, 2007; Sidman & Stoddard, 1966; Yoon, Duncan, Lee,
Scarloss, & Shapley, 2007)
•
•
•
•
•
Building on Background Knowledge
Conspicuous Strategies
Mediated Scaffolding
Judicious Review
Strategic Integration
Responsive Instruction
Student is Progressing
Evaluate Response to
Instruction
Progress Monitoring
Determine Student Skills
& Expectations of
Performance
Need for Instructional Modification
Deliver Instruction
Student, Grade, & Home
Plan Instruction:
ü What to teach
ü How to teach
ü How to evaluate progress
Instructional Response
Format of
Basic FBA to BSP Training Sessions
Objectives
Checks for
Understanding
Review
Comments/
Questions
Activities
Tasks
Key Points
Objectives for Session #1: Identifying Alternative and
Desired Behaviors
By the end of this training session Team Leaders will be able to:
1.
Label the essential components of an FBA summary statement
2.
Describe the three essential characteristics of alternative behavior
3.
Identify examples and non-examples of appropriate alternative
behaviors given sample scenarios
4.
Construct an example summary statement including antecedents,
behavior, consequences, and function, providing examples of
appropriate and inappropriate alternative behaviors
From FBA to BSP
• The most important purpose of conducting FBA is
to inform the development of comprehensive
Behavior Support Plans that directly address the
FUNCTION of student behavior
• Start with FBA results, specifically the
Summary Statement
After we defined the behavior (the What) &
know Where & When & Why the behavior
occurs…
Then: We ask: Are there any events that happen outside of the
routine that “SET UP” the behavior (make it more likely to occur)?
Building on Background
Knowledge
4
2
1
3
Setting Events
Antecedents/ Triggers
Behavior
Consequence/
Outcome
Activity #2 (page 10)
What is wrong with / missing from this summary statement?
Sarah often leaves her seat without permission, walks around the room
and makes faces at peers. Sarah’s peers laugh or tell her to stop. This
behavior is more likely if she has forgotten to take her medication before
school. The function of Sarah’s behavior is to gain access to teacher
attention and to escape tasks.
Routine: _____________
Setting event
Sarah forgets
to take
medication
Antecedent
Behavior
Out of seat,
faces at peers
Consequence
Attention from Peers
Function:
Adult and Peer Attn
Escape from Tasks
From FBA to BSP
• The most important purpose of conducting FBA is
to inform the development of comprehensive
Behavior Support Plans that directly address the
FUNCTION of student behavior
• Start with FBA results, specifically the
Summary Statement
Developing a Competing Behavior Pathway
Summary Statement:
We already have this!!!
Desired
Behavior
Natural
Consequence
Problem
Behavior
Maintaining
Consequence
Conspicuous Strategies
Targeted Routine
Setting
Event
Antecedent
Alternative
Behavior
We always start with the
Alternative Behavior
Essential Characteristics of a
Replacement Behavior
• An appropriate Replacement Behavior:
• Serves the same function as the problem behavior
• Is easier to do and more efficient than the problem
behavior
• Replacement Behaviors require less physical effort & provide quicker,
more reliable access to desired outcome/response than problem
behavior
• Is socially acceptable
Identifying Appropriate Alternative Behavior
• When Pam is asked to work on long-division
problems in math class, she argues, refuses to work,
and uses profanity in order to avoid/escape the
1. Serve
same
difficult task.
Which is the best alternative behavior?
• Move to sit by another student
• Request adult attention
• Request an easier task/worksheet
• Ask if she can play on the computer instead
• Ask for a reward for completing the task
Function?
Does it
provide
escape?
2. Is Behavior
easier to do
than problem
behavior?
3. Is Behavior
socially
acceptable?
Objectives for Session #2: Identifying FunctionBased Behavior Support Strategies
By the end of this training session Team Leaders will be able to:
1.
Describe the different types of behavior support strategies/interventions
that must be included as part of the BSP
2.
Discriminate between function-based and non-function-based antecedent
strategies
3.
Identify function-based strategies for rewarding alternative/desired
behavior AND minimizing the payoff for problem behavior
4.
Label missing and incorrect components, when provided with sample
behavior support plans
Review #1 (pg. 15)
•
What are the three essential characteristics of alternative
behavior?
1.
2.
3.
Same function as the problem behavior
Easier to do than the problem behavior
Socially acceptable
Judicious Review
REVIEW (PG. 15)
• Name
two problems with this competing behavior
pathway.
Complete
writing task
Success, teacher
acknowledgment
Routine: Language Arts
Breaks from
school
(weekends,
illness,
holidays)
Asked to
complete
Independent
writing tasks
Function:
Disrespect
and Disruption
Escape academic
tasks and
Access peer
attention
Raise hand & ask
for break
Identifying Behavior Support Strategies
Setting
Event
Strategies
Antecedent
Strategies
Eliminate or
Neutralize Setting
Events
Prevent/Modify
“Triggers”/ Prompts
for Alt/Des
Teaching
Strategies
Teach Alternate /
Desired Behavior
Consequences
Strategies
Reinforce Alt/Des
Behavior
Team identifies a
range of strategies/
interventions to
address:
- Prevention
- Teaching
- Consequences
Response to Problem
Behavior/
We consider the
FUNCTION of the problem behavior when
selecting these strategies.
Selecting Antecedent Strategies: Modifying
Triggers
When identifying preventive antecedent strategies:
- Eliminate or alter the antecedent so student will no longer
need to use problem behavior
The BEST antecedent MODIFICATIONS directly
address:
#1. The identified ANTECEDENT
#2. The FUNCTION of the problem behavior
Antecedent Interventions Directly address the
identified antecedent
• When asked to read aloud in class, Kyle makes inappropriate
comments and pushes his book off his desk
• Antecedent = Asked to read aloud in class
• Potential options that directly address the antecedent
Mediated Scaffolding
• Give student passage in advance to practice pre-reading
• Do not ask student to read aloud in class
• Let student read 1 sentence directions that he is familiar with, instead of
entire paragraphs from the text
• Now, why is Function important?
Antecedent interventions must address the
function the problem behavior serves
• When asked to read aloud in class, Kyle makes
inappropriate comments and pushes his book off his desk
to avoid public speaking (not related to reading difficulty;
related to extreme social anxiety).
• Does the Intervention Address the Function of Behavior
• Give student passage in advance to practice pre-reading
• Do not ask student to read aloud in class (or respond publicly)
• Let student read 1 sentence directions they are familiar with, instead of
entire paragraphs from the text
Identifying Antecedent Strategies
• When Pam is asked to work on long-division problems
in math class, she argues, refuses to work, and uses
profanity to avoid/escape the difficult task.
Addresses:
1.Antecedent?
Function?
• Which is the best antecedent modifying strategy to
prevent problem behavior?
• Have student check in with teacher at beginning of class
• Give student more time to complete the difficult tasks
• Give student an easier math assignment she can be successful
with
• Warn student she will be sent to office for using profanity
• Allow student to practice long-division on the computer
Activity 1 (pg. 20)
• Complete the next one on your own.
• Please write ‘yes’ or ‘no’ for each option AND explain why or why
not?
Identifying Antecedent Strategies
• When asked to read independently at his seat,
Ronnie makes inappropriate noises and makes
faces at peers. Based on the FBA data collected,
the team agreed that the function of Ronnie’s
behavior is to obtain peer attention.
• Which is the best antecedent modifying
strategy?
• Provide student with an easier reading assignment
• Remind student of school rules related to respectful
behavior
• Allow student to wear headphones during
independent reading
• Ask student to work quietly 1:1 with a ‘reading buddy’
• Have student check in with the teacher at the
beginning of class
Evaluating Response to
Instruction
• On-going Formative Evaluation
• Utilize multiple response formats throughout
• Written responses
• Circle correct answer / Fill in the blank / short answer
• Share-outs, Think-Pair-Share
Responsive Instruction
• Culminating activities –
used to adjust teaching
Student is Progressing
Evaluate Response to
Instruction
Progress Monitoring
Determine Student Skills
& Expectations of
Performance
Need for Instructional Modification
Deliver Instruction
Student, Grade, & Home
Plan Instruction:
ü What to teach
ü How to teach
ü How to evaluate progress
Instructional Response
Routine 1st Period Writing
Setting Event
Parent brings to
school (does not
interact with peers
on bus)
Desired Behavior
Consequence
Complete writing
assignment and turn in
work
Good grades, teacher
acknowledgement
Antecedent
Problem Behavior
Asked to finish
homework or
write in his
journal
independently
Out of seat (walking around
room), making noises, and
talking to peers
Consequence/Function
Access Peer Attention
Peers laugh and talk with him,
and talk about it after class
Alternative Behavior
Ask to work with a peer
Setting Events
Manipulate Antecedent
Arrange time for positive
adult attention before writing
on days when student is
brought by parent
Remind student before
independent-work time that he
may choose to work quietly with
a peer
Teach Behavior
Alter Consequences
Strategic Integration
Allow student to sit with
preferred peer in 1st period
writing
Teach student to appropriately
ask to work with a peer
Explicitly teach what “on-task”
behavior looks like (and does not
look like) in writing class
Rewards
Student can work with peer when
asks appropriately
Student can earn 5 minutes of free
time with a peer, if stays on task
for 90% of period for 5
consecutive days
Response to Problem
When student starts to get out of
seat/engage in problem behavior,
remind him to ask appropriately to
work with a peer
Objectives for Session #3: Contextual Fit,
and Implementation and Evaluation
Planning
By the end of this training session Team Leaders will be able to:
1.
Explain the meaning and importance of “contextual fit”
2.
Describe the necessary components of an implementation plan
3.
Describe the essential components of an evaluation plan and provide
examples of appropriate short- and long-term goals and data collection
procedures when provided with a sample BSP
4.
Explain how data are reviewed and decisions are made based on those
data during BSP review meetings
What is Contextual Fit? Why is It
Important?
• Contextual fit refers to the extent to which support
strategies “fit” with:
• The skills and values of the implementers
• The available resources
• Administrative structure/support
• In other words… How FEASIBLE are the strategies?
• Strategies with good “fit” are more likely to be
implemented accurately and consistently
Rating Contextual Fit
During Science class, Jacob often makes inappropriate
comments, pushes materials off his desk and refuses to do his
work.
• To evaluate the effectiveness of Jacob’s BSP, the team members
have suggested that his teacher:
Collectatcontinuous
sec partial
interval
data on
Indicate
the end of5each
class period
if Jacob
of of
each
of his
hadthe
( 0,occurrence/non-occurrence
1-3, or 4 or more ) instances
problem
problem behaviors
behavior
Critical Components of Behavior Support Plans
• #1: Complete Competing Behavior Pathway
• #2: Function-Based Preventive, Teaching, and
Consequence Strategies
• #3: Implementation Plan
• #4: Evaluation Plan
Implementation Planning: Who will do
What, by When?
Consider:
• What specific activities will be involved?
• Developing materials (ex. reinforcement system)
• Designing and teaching curriculum
• Data collection design
• Who is responsible for implementing each part of the
intervention?
• When will each part of the plan be implemented?
Evaluation Planning: How Will We Measure
Progress??
The team identifies:
- Short-term goal
EVALUATION PLAN
Behavioral Goal (Use specific, observable, measurable descriptions of goal)
What is the short-term behavioral goal?
- Long-term goal
- Specific evaluation
procedures
- Date to meet and
evaluate the
effectiveness of the
plan
_________ Expected date
What is the long-term behavioral goal?
_________ Expected date
Evaluation Procedures
Procedures for Data Collection
Data to be Collected
Person
Responsible
Is Plan Being
Implemented?
Is Plan Making a
Difference?
Plan date for review meeting (suggested within 2 weeks) ________________
Timeline
Objectives for Session #4: Leading a Team through
the Behavior Support Planning Process
By the end of this training session Team Leaders will be able to:
1.
Describe the role of the team leader in guiding the BSP process
2.
Identify the specific activities that the team leader will engage in prior to,
during, and after the BSP meeting
3.
Identify specific questions that the team leader will use to guide the BSP
development process
4.
Lead a “team” of professionals through the process of developing a sample
BSP
Before the Meeting
Team Leader:
• Read FBA results and determine if FBA contains a COMPLETE
summary statement, including:
•
•
•
•
Operational definition of problem behavior
Routine(s) in which problem behavior occurs
Antecedents (setting events & triggers)
Primary consequence / Function of the problem
behavior
• Meeting place should provide access to a white board/markers or a
projector/LCD screen (or other means of display)
Identifying Strategies: Questions for the
Team Setting
Antecedent
Teaching
Consequences
Event
Strategies
Strategies
Eliminate or
Neutralize Setting
Events
Prevent/Modify
“Triggers”/ Prompts
for Alt/Des
How can we
arrange the
environment to
Prevent problem
behavior?
How will we
prompt the
alternative
behavior?
Strategies
Teach Alternate / Desired
Behavior
Strategies
Reinforce Alt/Des Behavior
How will we:
How will we
teach a
replacement
behavior?
What skills
can we teach
to move
toward the
desired
behavior?
-Reward the Alt
behavior?
-Maximize
payoff for
approximations
of desired
behavior?
Response to Problem
Behavior
How will we
Minimize the
Payoff for the
problem
behavior?
Evaluating Response to
Instruction
• Summative Evaluation
• Final activity – given scenario and FBA summary
statement, lead team in BSP development
• Opportunity to practice and ask questions while moving through BSP
development process
• Posttest data
• Application in real
settings WOO HOO!!
Responsive Instruction
Student is Progressing
Evaluate Response to
Instruction
Progress Monitoring
Determine Student Skills
& Expectations of
Performance
Need for Instructional Modification
Deliver Instruction
Student, Grade, & Home
Plan Instruction:
ü What to teach
ü How to teach
ü How to evaluate progress
Instructional Response
Research Questions
PHASE1. Is there a change in participant knowledge related to BSP
development following 4 one-hour ‘From Basic FBA to BSP’
I
training sessions?
2.
PHASE
II
Are BSPs developed by participating behavior support teams
viewed as a) technically adequate by external expert behavior
analysts and b) contextually appropriate by the team members
who implement the plans?
PHASE3. Is there a functional relationship between the implementation of
team-developed function-based behavior support plans and
III
improvement in student behavior?
a. Are team-developed behavior support strategies implemented with
fidelity by typical school personnel in typical settings?
Study- Design by Phase
• Phase 1: From “Practical FBA” to BSP training series
• 13 school psychologists, counselors, special education teachers basic
behavioral knowledge
• Assess change in knowledge
• Phase 2: Six team leaders guided behavior support teams
in development of BSP for 1 student
• BSPs assessed for technical adequacy (3 outside experts)
• Contextual fit (school-based team members)
• Phase 3: Student BSPs implemented
• Direct observation data to assess:
• Impact on student behavior
• Fidelity of Implementation (experimental)
Results
Pre/Post-Test Results: Assessment of BSP Knowledge
Pre Test
Participant
Post Test
Percent Change
1
63% (A)
96% (B)
+33%
2
67% (A)
84% (B)
+17%
3
69% (A)
94% (B)
+25%
4
65% (A)
86% (B)
+21%
5
60% (A)
88% (B)
+28%
6
63% (A)
90% (B)
+27%
7
43% (A)
82% (B)
+39%
8
61% (B)
92% (A)
+31%
9
63% (B)
82% (A)
+19%
10
45% (B)
80% (A)
+35%
11
67% (B)
90% (A)
+23%
12
61% (B)
86% (A)
+25%
13
80% (B)
94% (A)
+14%
Mean
62%
88%
+26%
Intervention
Baseline
100
Sebastian
75
Problem Behavior
50
Implementation Fidelity
Engagement
25
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
100
25
26
27
Bailey
75
Problem Behavior
50
Implementation Fidelity
25
Engagement
0
% 10 sec intervals
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
100
25
26
27
Micah
75
Problem Behavior
50
Implementation
Fidelity
Engagement
25
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
100
25
26
27
Charlie
75
Problem Behavior
50
Implementation Fidelity
25
Engagement
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
100
75
Gareth
Problem Behavior
Implementation Fidelity
50
Engagement
25
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Sessions
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Basic FBA to BSP: Bethel School
District
• 43 Elementary/Middle participants
• School Psychologists
• PBIS Team Leaders & Members
• Administrators
• Significant range in amount of participants
experience/knowledge related to FBA/BSP
• Three 2-hour sessions
• Session 1: FBA Interviewing & Observations
• Session 2: Selecting Function-based Interventions
• Session 3: Implementation & Evaluation Planning
93
Participant #
BETHEL BASIC FBA
to BSP PRE-POST
DATA
Pretest Range = 31 to 84%
Posttest Range = 64 to 96%
Pretest
Posttest
% Change
1
38%
64%
26%
2
44%
67%
23%
3
54%
71%
17%
4
50%
72%
22%
5
54%
72%
18%
6
58%
72%
14%
7
48%
73%
25%
8
52%
78%
26%
9
64%
78%
14%
10
62%
80%
18%
11
82%
80%
-2%
12
31%
84%
53%
13
41%
84%
43%
14
56%
84%
28%
15
58%
84%
26%
16
58%
84%
26%
17
60%
84%
24%
18
38%
86%
48%
19
42%
86%
44%
20
48%
86%
38%
21
58%
86%
28%
22
68%
92%
24%
23
77%
92%
15%
24
80%
92%
12%
25
84%
92%
8%
26
56%
96%
40%
27
74%
96%
22%
28
80%
96%
16%
29
80%
96%
16%
AVG
AVG
SD
58%
58%
0.15
83%
83%
0.09
25%
25%
Next Steps: Sustainability
• Initial District Participants
• Re-take pre/posttest
• Evaluate current plans
• District Factors Survey
• Coaching
• Administrative Support
• Time & Resources
Basic FBA to BSP:
School District in Washington
• 24 participants from 5 Elementary School teams
• School Psychologists
• PBIS Team Leaders & Members
• Administrators
• Six 90-minute sessions
•
•
•
•
•
•
Session 1: Defining Behavior
Session 2: Asking/Interviewing about Behavior
Session 3: Seeing/Observing Behavior
Session 4: Critical Features of BSP
Session 5: Contextual Fit within Critical Features
Session 6: Behavior Evaluation & Implementation Planning
96
FBA Knowledge & Skills Test
97
BSP
Pre &
Post Test
Percent Correct Pre v Post
By Function
New Basic FBA to
BSP Training Modules
• Module 1- Teaching Basic Principles**
• Module 2- FBA: Practice Interviewing
• Module 3- FBA: Practice Observing
• Module 4- Critical Features of BSP**
• Module 5- Building BSP from FBA
• Module 6- Leading a Team
• Module 7- Implementing/Coaching
“Work Smarter NOT Harder…”
By using the 4 P’s
• Proactively build capacity- Train 1-2 school personnel in each
school with a “flexible” role to conduct FBA/BSPs for students
with mild/moderate problem behaviors
• Parsimonious tools- Use simple tools and terminology that
are relatable to school personnel
• Practical Trainings- Provide short training sessions that teach
“less more thoroughly” based on established instructional
practices
• Prioritized follow-up- Through use of quick in-training
assessments to determine those participants that will require
more follow-up coaching
Thank You for Attending!
• Slides and materials may be found at:
• www.basicfba.pbworks.com
• More information please email:
• [email protected][email protected][email protected]

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