Special Education Services within a Dual Language Model Paula Hougan, Bilingual Special Education Teacher email@example.com Patti Williams, Monolingual Special Education Teacher, Curriculum Facilitator for Special Education firstname.lastname@example.org Goals and Objectives for the Session Participants will: •Gain a deeper understanding of students that have a disability and are also English Language Learners (ELL) •Learn how one school district defined and created a system that supports students that have a disability and are also English Language Learners •Learn ways to address the needs of students that have a disability and are also English Language Learners Diverse Community City of Woodstock Demographics • Population: 24,770 • Hispanic or Latino: 5,852 (above the state average) • 2011 Median income: $52,545 • In Woodstock: English Speakers 78% Spanish Speakers 18% Facts about Woodstock CUSD 200 Total of 12 Schools • Pre-K and Kindergarten Center • 6 Elementary Buildings • 2 Middle Schools • 2 High Schools • 1 Therapeutic Day School Total School Population: 6,675 Demographic Breakdown of District 200 Special Education • .05% of district population (83 students) receive special education services and are English Language Learners • Majority of special education staff is monolingual Are dual language classrooms appropriate placements for students with exceptionalities? Thomas and Collier (2009) English Language Learners in North Carolina. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University. A research report provided to the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. English Reading Grades 4-6 by Special Education status Lindholm-Leary 2007 Students identified as Special Ed scored very low No difference in English reading scores between English language learners and English proficient special education students No difference between Dual Language special education students and California average for students with disabilities despite the greater exposure to English instruction in California state sample. Major difference is that the Dual Language students are bilingual. Thomas & Collier • 1982-1996 School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students (collaborative research study both national in scope and practical for local decision making in schools) How to close the gap research. • 2004 The Astounding Effectiveness of Dual Language Education for All (2 decades of research from 15 different states; All regular education student groups (ELL, low SES, African-American native English speakers) benefit from participating in Dual Language programs. Thomas & Collier • Special Education students in Dual programs-SLD, SL, OHI, Autism, DD, PH • Looked closely at students given small numbers • Special education students in Dual Programs scored higher in Reading and Math than special education students not in Dual Program • More research needed • Thomas and Collier--- Special education students scored higher in dual than in non-dual classrooms. • Lindholm-Leary--- Special education students scored similarly in dual and non-dual classrooms. • HOWEVER--- Lindholm-Leary makes two interesting points. ¿? ¿? ¿? ¿? ¿? ¿? • Based on test score analysis there is no evidence that students with exceptionalities will be harmed by participating in dual language classes. In fact, given the higher test scores that accompany such participation, a dual language placement for these students may well be more appropriate than a nondual language class. As always, each student’s case and characteristics must be considered separately but this research finds no reason to exclude these students from dual language programs as a matter of policy. (Thomas & Collier 2009) WOODSTOCK D200 model • Collaborative model (mono, dual, sped) • Dual program is LRE–sped services • Strong native language support during early years • ACCESS information to inform instruction • Attention to Pillars of literacy development • Transition to English sped services when student can benefit --then • Spanish literacy supported as part of regular dual curriculum. RtI (Response to Intervention) Process Entire School Testing Data Day of all Students • Team approach—principal, grade level teachers, psychologist Recommendations—strategies, interventions may be recommended Teacher goes back and implements Problem Solving Model • Continued concerns by teacher • Problem solving team • Data driven decisions • Intervention recommendations • Progress monitoring • Intervention checklist • Problem solving process may occur several times on a student Cautions & Concerns When Considering Special Education “Overidentification can have negative consequences for children with respect to their self-esteem, their attitudes about schooling, and even their future educational opportunities.” (page 213) “Equally important, and possibly on the rise, is the problem of underidentification. Underidentification occurs when a dual language child has a language or learning disability, but it goes unnoticed or undiagnosed, because it is assumed the poor performance in school or in the majority language and in language-related academics are the result of learning two languages.” (page 213) Dual Language Development & Disorders, A Handbook on Bilingualism & Second Language Learning 2nd Edition, Joahanne Paradis, Fred Genesee, Martha B. Crago Eligibility for Special Education • Movement away from standardized testing • Use of information collected through problem solving process Problem solving process answers questions: What level of support does the student need to be successful and achieve growth toward performance that is equivalent to grade level peers? • Decisions based on multiple pieces of data and classroom performance Professional Development for Special Education Monolingual Teachers • In services to build background knowledge • Benefits of dual language • Language acquisition stages • Appropriate expectations • Awareness training about cultural differences • Respect • Learn • Understand Professional Development for Special Education Monolingual Teachers • Training on Instructional Considerations and Techniques • Comprehensible input, gestures, use of pictures, use of manipulatives, project based learning, use of realia, syntax structure • Language frames • Adaptations • Training on reading and interpreting WIDA Access scores Strategies to Support ELL Special Education Student in General Education Classroom • Cooperative learning • Multiple forms of representation—visual, auditory, tactile • Supports/accommodations for instruction in both languages • Alternate assessments-dramatizations, projects, panel discussions, portfolios • Connect to prior learning • Cultural considerations Strategies to Support ELL Special Education Student Reading—Early Literacy, Phonics Top Down • Oral Comprehension Skills • Knowledge of the World • Content knowledge gained from prior schooling • Life experiences • Motivation T • Decoding words interpreting text • Knowledge of how the L1 &L2 work: • Knowledge of text and discourse structure Knowledge of phrase and sentence structure Knowledge of words and word structure Dual Language Development & Disorders, Joahanne Paradis, Fred Genesee, Martha Crago • Phonological awarenesss • Knowledge of letters and sounds • Phonological memory • Rapid automatized naming of letters, digits, or objects • Concepts about print Bottom Up Strategies to Support ELL Special Education Student Reading—Fluency • Holistic strategies—poems, chants • Literacy rich classroom—labels, charts, word wall, students “read the room” • Familiar stories available for rereading • Partner reading Strategies to Support ELL Education Student Reading—Comprehension • Concept Maps • Shared Reading • Directed – Listening – Thinking Activity • Reciprocal Teaching • Illustrations • Metacognitive strategies • Question types Strategies to Support ELL Special Education Student Reading—Vocabulary • Younger, students with minimal English, teach functional and conversational words at first –over, under, more, less, in, out, etc. (demonstrate) • Don’t assume understanding • Academic vs. key vocabulary • Pair picture or object with definition, Not dictionary definition, student friendly definition and use in a sentence www.ldoceonline.com (Longman’s Dictionary) www.learnersdictionary.com (Merriam Webster) • Pre-teach to support classroom (especially good for math since taught in English) • • • • Directly teach idioms Use examples and non-examples Word families—summary, summarize, summation Teach prefix and connect to known words (re: rebuild, redo, recurrent) Strategies to Support ELL Special Education Student Writing • Graphic organizers • Focus on a few skills at a time • Allow “picture” writing for writing for emerging writers • Photography stories • Interactive journals • Process Writing prewiritng, drafting, revising, editing & publishing • Use Language Experience Approach Strategies to Support ELL Special Education Student Project GLAD (Guided Language Acquisition & Design) • Stand alone strategies that could be used by monolingual resource teachers • Cognitive Content Dictionary • Sentence Patterning Chart • Exploration Report • Inquiry Chart • Other components that can be incorporated: writer’s workshop, pictorial input charts, cooperative strip paragraphs Strategies to Support ELL Special Education Student Math • Use of manipulatives • Use of acting out strategies • Re-teaching • Focus on number sense • Foundation skills • Concepts • Patterns, classification • Language frames • Visual supports Strategies to Support ELL Special Education Student AIM4S3 (Achievement Inspired Math for Scaffolding Student Success) Chant Title and Author: Circles by Albertina Silva and Jimmy Quiroz There are circles everywhere The sun, the moon Up in the air There are circles everywhere Wheels on the bus take us there There are circles everywhere Intervention Programs • Spanish interventions: • • • • • • • • Conocimiento Fonológico Si Puedo Estrellita Read Naturally (Spanish version) Reading A-Z (books in Spanish) Translation/re-explanation of math Wiggleworks (books in Spanish) Mi munda en palabras • English interventions: • • • • • • • • Reading Mastery Michael Heggerty Phonemic Skills Orton-Gillingham multi-sensory reading instruction Guided reading Read Naturally (English), Six-Minute Solution Soar to Success, Early Success Wiggleworks Starfall Common Core—Speaking & Listening • Addresses different aspects • • • • • • • Conversation Ask and answer questions Describe Collaboration Orally report Summarize (orally) Adapt speech to variety of contexts PARCC Considerations given for ELL students as well as students with disabilities UDL (Universal Design for Learning) Accommodations Jessie • Bilingual PreK-at risk program • Severe language impairment • Home language Spanish and English • Parents used concurrent translation • Chiclegum Diego Contracted meningitis in Mexico No Kindergarten Entered 50/50 January 1st grade Collaboration of dual and sped staff Modifications through IEP Cochlear implant after 2nd At grade level by 3rd grade in Spanish Erik • Attended bilingual PreK & K • Attends Target program • Parent involvement/Regular written notes • Medical concerns noted at AR Edgar Bilingual PreK-K BIP & 1-1 assistant added in 1st grade 3rd grade at grade level reading math (IEP) 4th independent 5th bilingual bi-literate bicultural at his level Any Questions? References • Deno, S., & Wiley, H. (2005). Oral reading and maze measures as predictors of success for English learners on a state standards assessment. Remedial and Special Education (26), 207-214. • Banks, J. (2009). Teaching strategies for ethnic studies. Boston, MA: Pearson. • Archer, A. (2011). Dynamic vocabulary instruction. Conference workshop. • Moore, D., Short, D., Tatum, A. Tinajero, J., & Bernabei, G. (2009). INSIDE, language, literacy, and content, teacher’s edition. Carmel, CA: National Geographic Publishing. • Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (2007). Effective literacy and English language instruction for English learners in the elementary grades. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Education. • Collier,V.P.,&Thomas, W.P. (2004 winter) The astounding effectiveness of dual language education for all . NABE Journal of research and Practice 2:1. Protheroe, N. (2011). Effective instruction for Englishlanguage learners. Principal, 90(3) p 26-29 Jan/Feb. Retrieved from https://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds • Short, D. (1991). Integrating language and content instruction: strategies and techniques. National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, Washington, D.C. • Crago, M., Genesee, F., & Paradis, J. (2010). Dual language development & disorders a handbook on bilingualism & second language learning. Baltimore, MD: Brooks Publishing. • Peregoy, S. F. & Boyle, O.F. (2005). Reading, writing, and learning in ESL: A resource book for K12 teachers (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. • Mayer, E. & Meyer, L., (2011). Achievement Inspired Mathematics for Scaffolding Student Success (AIMS4S3 ). Dual Language Education of New Mexico Monograph Series, 4 (20H). • GLAD: Guided Language Acquisition and Design. California Department of Education. Lindholm-Leary,K.J. (2001) Dual Language Education Clevedon, UK:Multilingual Matters. References • Thomas, W.P., & Collier, V.P. (2009). English Learners in North Carolina, 2009. Fairfax, • VA: George Mason University. A research report provided to the North Carolina • Department of Public Instruction. • Thomas, W.P, & Collier V.P. (2010) English Learners in North Carolina-Year 2. Fairfax, Va. George Mason University.` • Lindholm-Leary,K.J. (2001) Dual Language Education Clevedon, UK:Multilingual Matters.