Cont - Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

Report
FUNCTIONAL
BEHAVIORAL
ASSESSMENT
13th IDEA Academy for Administrative Law
Judges and Impartial Hearing Officers
July 16, 2014, Seattle, WA
JEROME M. SATTLER
Copyright © 2014 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.
Introduction

This PowerPoint presentation entitled
“Functional Behavioral Assessment” is
based on Chapter 13 of Foundations of
Behavioral, Social, and Clinical
Assessment of Children, 6th Edition.
Additional references also are included.
Quotes
It is the close observation of little things
which is the secret of success in business,
in art, in science, and in every pursuit in
life.
—Samuel Smiles, Scottish political reformer
(1812–1904)

Quotes

The unfortunate thing about this world is
that good habits are so much easier to
give up than bad ones.
—W. Somerset Maugham, British novelist
(1874–1965)
Overview of FBA [1]





Theory Underlying Functional Behavioral
Assessment
When Is a Functional Behavioral
Assessment Needed?
Conditions Surrounding the Problem
Behavior
Functions of Challenging Behavior
Guidelines for Conducting a Functional
Behavioral Assessment
Overview of FBA [2]




Assessing Behavior Through Observations
Assessing Behavior Through Interviews
Formulating Hypotheses to Account for the
Problem Behavior
Behavioral Intervention Plans (BIP)
Kurt Lewin’s (1936) Behavioral
Formula [1]
Lewin proposed that behavior is a function
of person and environment, using the
following formula:
B = f (P, E)
B refers to Behavior (individual's overt,
observable behavior)

Lewin’s Behavioral Formula [2]






Examples of Behavior
To obtain a preferred item or activity
To escape or avoid a setting or activity
To get attention
To communicate
To self-stimulate
To gain control or power
Lewin’s Behavioral Formula [3]
B = f (P, E)
P refers to Person (person’s cognitive,
emotional, and motivational traits)
Lewin’s Behavioral Formula [4]





Personality Types
 Reserved
Extraverted
 Sympathetic
Critical
 Disorganized
Dependable
 Calm
Anxious
 Conventional
Open to new
experiences
Lewin’s Behavioral Formula [5]







Features of Personality
Expectancies
Self-control
Self-monitoring
Goal setting
Problem solving
Self-reward
Observational learning
Lewin’s Behavioral Formula [6]



Features of Personality (Cont.)
Reinforcements (e.g., responses by others
to a person’s behavior that increase or
decrease the likelihood of reoccurrence of
the behavior)
Self-efficacy (e.g., person’s confidence in
performing a particular behavior)
Emotional coping responses (e.g.,
strategies or tactics used to deal with
emotional stimuli)
Lewin’s Behavioral Formula [7]



Questions About Personality and
Behavior
Does the person want to perform the
behavior?
How much social pressure does the
person feel to perform the behavior?
Does the person feel in control of his or
her behavior?
Lewin’s Behavioral Formula [8]


Questions About Personality and
Behavior (Cont.)
How similar is the person’s perceptions
and beliefs to those of the other members
in the group?
How dependent is the person on other
group members to achieve a goal?
Lewin’s Behavioral Formula [9]
B = f (P, E)
E refers to Environment (factors external to
the person)
Physical Environment
 Temperature
 Humidity
 Altitude
 Light
 Air quality
Lewin’s Behavioral Formula [10]








Sociocultural environment
Social structures
Social roles
Language
Mores and customs
Situational demands and expectations
Presence of other people
Behaviors of other people
Social incentives
Lewin’s Behavioral Formula [11]




Interpretation of Lewin’s Formula
It is critical to evaluate the interaction of
person and environment in order to
understand behavior
A person’s understanding of a situation is
an active, constructive process
Each person sees things differently
Each person’s behavior is subject to
change with time and situation
Lewin’s Behavioral Formula [12]
Interpretation of Lewin’s Formula (Cont.)
 A person who jumps to causal conclusions
too early or fails to see the correct cause
and affect relationship may not act
appropriately
 Situational influences are both overt and
subtle
Lewin’s Behavioral Formula [13]
Interpretation of Lewin’s Formula (Cont.)
 People subjectively interpret situations
 Behavior can be altered by changes in a
person’s environment
 Situational forces (including personal
needs and group pressure) can impel an
individual to move toward or away from
specific behaviors
Lewin’s Behavioral Formula [14]


References
Kihlstorm, J. (n.d.). The Person-Situation
Interaction. Retrieved from
http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~kihlstrm/PxS
Interaction.htm
Ross, L., & Nisbett, R. E. (1991). The
person and the situation: Perspectives of
social psychology. New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill.
Lewin’s Behavioral Formula [15]


References (Cont.)
Lewin, K. (1936). Principles of topological
psychology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
University of Twente. (n.d.). Social
cognitive theory. Retrieved from
http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzic
ht/Theory%20clusters/Health%20communi
cation/Social_Cognitive_theory/
What is FBA? [1]


It is a comprehensive, multimethod, and
multisource assessment process
It is a versatile technique for evaluating a
range of problem behaviors in many
different settings
What is FBA? [2]

It is designed to arrive at an understanding
of a student’s problem behavior
 Find the relationship between the
student’s problem behavior and specific
environmental events
 Determine why a student engages in a
problem behavior
 Develop a BIP
What is FBA? [3]

Comment: It is better to conduct an FBA
when student first displays a potentially
serious problem behavior, rather than
waiting until the behavior becomes
extremely disruptive
Some Assumptions Underlying
an FBA [1]



Challenging behaviors do not occur in a
vacuum
Behaviors occur in response to an
identifiable stimuli
Behaviors are governed by the
consequences that follow them
Some Assumptions Underlying
an FBA [2]

Behavior is a form of communication
 “I am tired.”
 “I am bored.”
 “I'm still upset at what happened earlier”
Some Assumptions Underlying
an FBA [3]


Behaviors serve a function
 To get something (e.g., attention,
money, good grades)
 To avoid/escape something (e.g.,
punishment, embarrassment)
Source: McIntyre, T. (n.d.). Functional
Behavioral Assessment (FBA).Retrieved
from
http://www.behavioradvisor.com/FBA.html
Factors to Consider in
Conducting an FBA [1]


What is the problem behavior?
Is the behavior disruptive to others?
 Is the behavior destructive?
 Is the behavior aggressive?
 Is the behavior noncompliant?
Factors to Consider in
Conducting an FBA [2]

Is the behavior disruptive to the student
himself or herself?
 Is it because of problems with
inattention?
 Is it because of problems with staying
seated?
 Is it because of problems following
directions?
Factors to Consider in
Conducting an FBA [3]



What are the conditions under which the
problem behavior occurs?
What events trigger the problem behavior?
What consequences follow the problem
behavior?
Factors to Consider in
Conducting an FBA [4]

What are the probable reasons for or
causes of the problem behavior?
 Biological
 Social
 Cognitive
 Affective
 Environmental
Factors to Consider in
Conducting an FBA [5]

What some functions are served by the
problem behavior?
 Getting attention
 Getting a preferred item (access)
 Getting out of doing something (escape)
 Getting sensory stimulation
 Getting power or control
 Communicating feelings, wants, and
needs
Examples of
Functions of Behavior [1]


Attention—Behavior designed by a
student to get attention from others by
either verbalizations or physical actions
Example: Sam wants Ms. Z’s attention, but
has limited communication skills. Sam
pinches his teacher. Ms. Z responds with
the verbalization, “Ouch, that hurts! Calm
hands Sam.”
Examples of
Functions of Behavior [2]


Access to preferred items—Behavior
designed by a student to get a preferred
item or to participate in an particular
activity
Example: Kim loves her computer. Kim
refuses to write. Her teacher allows her to
type her spelling words on a computer.
Examples of
Functions of Behavior [3]

Escape or avoidance—Behavior
designed to get out of doing something
that a student does not want to do
Examples of
Functions of Behavior [4]

Example: Tim is sitting at his desk in his
classroom. His teacher hands out a math
worksheet. Tim begins his work, but after
he completes a couple of problems, he
asks to use the bathroom. He leaves the
room and by the time he returns, the class
is working on a different activity. Tim is not
asked to complete the activity.
Examples of
Functions of Behavior [5]


Sensory Stimulation—Behavior designed
to give a student a pleasing internal
sensation or to remove from a student a
displeasing internal sensation (e.g., pain).
Examples: Henry rocks back and forth
because it is enjoyable or Kim rubs her
knee to sooth it after banging it off the
corner of a table.
Examples of
Functions of Behavior [6]


To get power or control—Behavior
designed by a student to change the
behavior of another person because of
resentment at being controlled (e.g.,
student may be manipulative, defiant,
stubborn, rebellious, and/or noncompliant).
Examples: When the teacher says up, a
student says down or when the teacher
says black, a student says white.
Examples of
Functions of Behavior [7]


To communicate feelings, wants, and
needs—Behavior designed to express a
student’s feelings and desires
Example: After a frustrating lesson, a
student says to the teacher that she does
not feel good and wants to go to the timeout room.
Examples of
Functions of Behavior [8]

Source:
http://www.njea.org/PDFs/Review_Jan201
0_autism_Table1.pdf
When is an FBA Needed? [1]


When student with a disability violates a
code of student conduct (IDEA 2004, Sec.
615)
And either a change in placement is
needed, such as an
 Interim alternative educational setting
 Another setting
 Suspension
When is an FBA Needed? [2]

Or the IEP Team determines that the
behavior was a manifestation of the
student’s disability and, therefore, must
implement a BIP
Case Illustration [1]


Problem behavior: Student tears up a
math worksheet in class
Possible reasons: Student is
 Bored
 Confused about the assignment
 Distracted
 Angry
Case Illustration [2]

Environmental events:
 Teacher sees only the torn math paper
 Teacher punishes student for being
disrespectful
 Other students get distracted and may
feel anxious
Case Illustration [3]

Consultation: An FBA will be needed
 To help clarify the student’s motivation
for tearing the worksheet
 To assist in planning a BIP that matches
the source of the problem
Case Illustration [4]

Possible BIP:
 (1) If student is bored, he or she may
need more challenging work
 (2) If student is confused about the
assignment, he or she may need skills
remediation
 (3) If student is distracted, he or she
may need a quiet work area
 (4) If student is angry, he or she may
need counseling for anger issues
Continuum of Disruptive
Behavior
See Figure 13-1 on page 414 in the main
text
Other Purposes of an FBA
When a student
 Is rejected by peers and needs help
 Is in need of a more restricted placement
because of problematic behavior
 Has a BIP that involves excessively
intrusive procedures (e.g., restraints or
isolation)
 Is not responsive to the current BIP
FBA and
Functional Behavioral Analysis [1]
In an FBA you can use
 Interviews
 Rating scales
 Questionnaires
 Behavioral observations
 Anecdotal records
 Diaries
 Other formal and informal assessment
procedures
FBA and
Functional Behavioral Analysis [2]
In a functional behavioral analysis you can
use (also call Functional Analysis)
Procedures designed to manipulate the
environment in order to see how the child’s
behavior changes
FBA and
Functional Behavioral Analysis [7]
Example: To determine whether a child is
seeking attention
1. In one condition give the child a toy
immediately following the challenging
behavior
2. In another condition give the child
attention immediately following the
challenging behavior
FBA and
Functional Behavioral Analysis [8]
Example: To determine whether a child is
seeking attention (Cont.)
3. Count and graph the number of times the
child engages in challenging behavior in
each condition
FBA and
Functional Behavioral Analysis [9]
Hypothesis:
 If the rate of challenging behavior is higher
when the child receives attention for his or
her behavior than when he or she receives
a toy following his or her behavior, we can
hypothesize that the child is seeking
attention
FBA and
Functional Behavioral Analysis [10]


Comment on Functional Behavioral
Analysis
A functional behavioral analysis can be
part of an FBA
Sometimes after an FBA has been
completed, the function of the behavior is
still unclear
FBA and
Functional Behavioral Analysis [11]

Comment on Functional Behavioral
Analysis (Cont.)
The assessor should try to account for the
functions of the challenging behavior by
setting up situations to determine which
function is more applicable
FBA and
Functional Behavioral Analysis [12]


Comment on Functional Behavioral
Analysis (Cont.)
A functional behavioral analysis should be
reserved only for situations in which the
functions of behavior are not clear based
on the results of formal and informal
assessment procedures
A functional behavioral analysis should be
carried out only by trained professionals
FBA and
Functional Behavioral Analysis [13]


Comment on Functional Behavioral
Analysis (Cont.)
The method can pose dangers to the child
if not done correctly
Before a functional behavioral analysis is
performed, the potential risks that are
involved need to be considered and
whether those risks are justified by the
potential outcome
FBA and
Functional Behavioral Analysis [14]

Source: Starin, S. (2011). Functional
behavioral assessment. Retrieved from
http://www.wrightslaw.com/info/discipl.fab.
starin.htm
Interdisciplinary IEP Team
Needs to Conduct FBA [1]
Psychologists, counselors, and behavior
specialists
 Assess behavior and deal with challenging
behavior
Social workers
 Assess family relations and provide
counseling services
Nurses
 Assess physical illnesses and evaluate the
effects of medication
Interdisciplinary IEP Team
Needs to Conduct FBA [2]
General education teachers
 Teach the course curriculum and manage
the classroom
Special education teachers
 Educate students with disabilities
Speech and language pathologists
 Assess and treat students with
communication disorders
Interdisciplinary IEP Team
Needs to Conduct FBA [3]
Parents
 Provide a nurturing family environment
(hopefully) and provide information about
students’ developmental functioning,
behavior at home, and behavior in the
community
Interdisciplinary IEP Team
Needs to Conduct FBA [4]


Comment on the Interdisciplinary
IEP Team
Each member of the Interdisciplinary IEP
Team makes a unique contribution to an
FBA and BIP
All of the information provided by the IEP
Team needs to be included in the FBA and
BIP
Conditions Surrounding The
Problem Behavior [1]
Antecedent Events
These are events that occur prior to the
behavior or situation and may maintain the
behavior
 They may predispose the student to
engage in the problem behavior
 Some events are immediate and direct
 Student strikes back after being hit by
another student
Conditions Surrounding The
Problem Behavior [2]

Antecedent Events (Cont.)
Other events, also called setting events,
are distal (remote) and indirect
 Argument with a parent before school
lessens the student’s ability to cope with
stressors
 Student’s failure to take his or her
medicine affects his or her behavior
Conditions Surrounding The
Problem Behavior [3]

Antecedent Events (Cont.)
Other events, also called setting events,
are distal (remote) and indirect (Cont.)
 These events “set up” the occurrence of
the problem behavior
 They may be removed from the
setting and difficult to observe
 But they still may have a direct
relationship to the problem behavior
Conditions Surrounding The
Problem Behavior [4]


Antecedent Events (Cont.)
Some events may be social
 A student is rejected by another student
 A student bullies another student
And other events may be associated with
an activity
 Teacher giving a lecture in class
 Students working in groups
Other Types of
Antecedent Events [1]








Student’s level of alertness
Student’s level of fatigue
Student’s nutritional intake
Student’s exercise patterns
Student’s sleep patterns
Student’s reaction to medication
Student’s physical injuries
Student’s anxiety level
Other Types of
Antecedent Events [1]



Student’s allergies
Student’s environment
 Noise level
 Temperature
 Lighting
 Furniture
Student’s daily schedule
Other Types of
Antecedent Events [2]

Student’s classroom teacher
 Regular teacher
 Substitute teacher
Other Types of
Antecedent Events [3]

Student’s home
 Quality of interactions among family
members
 Divorce
 Birth of a sibling
 Moving
 Father or mother losing job
Other Types of
Antecedent Events [4]

Student’s community
 Friendship patterns
 Available community centers
 Noise level
 Transportation
 Level of violence and crime
Consequent Events [1]


These are events that occur after the
problem behavior
Information is obtained about consequent
events by interviewing those who were in
the setting and observed the event
 Teacher
 Other children
 Other adults
Consequent Events [2]

Examples of Types of Consequences
Negative consequences
 Punishment implemented by the person
in charge
 Student sent home
 Student sent to principal’s office
 Suspension
Consequent Events [3]

Examples of Types of Consequences
Social consequences
 Praise
 Corrections
 Changes in seating arrangements
 Peers may laugh at or ignore the
student
 Peers may inform teacher about the
problem behavior
Consequent Events [4]


Tangible consequences
 Stickers
 Points
 Food (if permitted by the parent)
Activity consequences
 More time on the computer
 Reduced homework
Functions of Challenging
Behavior [1]
Positive reinforcement: To get something,
such as
 Social attention
 A tangible object
 An activity
 Sensory stimulation
Functions of Challenging
Behavior [2]
Negative reinforcement: To escape or avoid
something, such as
 Performing a difficult, boring, or extremely
easy task
 Complying with a request or demand
 Avoiding attention from others
 Experiencing undesired internal
stimulation
Outcome Considerations

Comment: If the behavior enables the
individual to obtain the desired outcome,
there is a higher probability that the
behavior will be repeated
Examples of Behavioral Events in
the Classroom [1]
Students learn to use socially appropriate
behaviors
 Raise their hand to gain the teacher’s
attention
 Raise their hand to get extra assistance on
a difficult task
 Raise their hand to indicate that they are
finished with a task
Examples of Behavioral Events in
the Classroom [2]
Students learn to use socially appropriate
behaviors (Cont.)
 Use words to tell another student to leave
them alone
 Use words to tell another student to stop
teasing
Examples of Behavioral Events in
the Classroom [3]
Students learn to use socially inappropriate
behaviors (Cont.)
 Push other students to gain access to the
first place in line
 Close their textbooks to get the teacher to
assist them with difficult work
 Fail to comply with their teacher’s request
to enhance their social status with peers
Examples of Behavioral Events in
the Classroom [4]
Students learn to use socially inappropriate
behaviors (Cont.)
 Disrupt lessons so that the teacher will ask
them to leave the classroom
 Display self-injurious or aggressive
behavior to avoid having to comply with
the teacher’s request
Other Considerations About
Problem Behaviors [1]
(1) More than one problem behavior may
serve the same or a similar function
For example: To gain the teacher’s
attention, a student
 Talks out of turn
 Leaves the classroom without permission
 Touches another student’s property
Other Considerations About
Problem Behaviors [2]
(2) The same problem behavior might serve
different functions in different contexts
For example: A student might use profanity
 To gain peer attention in the hallway
 To be removed from a difficult lesson in
class
Other Considerations About
Problem Behaviors [3]
(3) Problem behaviors may be displayed in
strings or chains of behavior
For example: The first loud talking displayed
by a student might function to gain adult
attention and as the interaction escalates,
loud talking might function to escape the
confrontation
Underlying Context for an FBA







It is a problem-solving process
It is designed to arrive at an understanding
of the problem behavior
Variables need to be identified that may
control the behavior
Antecedent events need to be identified
Consequent events need to be identified
Student’s motivation must be considered
Environmental context must be considered
Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [1]
Step 1. Define the problem behavior by
using objective, clear, concise, and
measurable terms
 Type of problem behavior
 When the problem behavior occurs
 Where problem behavior occurs
 Conditions in the location when the
problem behavior occurs
Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [2]
Step 1. Define the problem behavior by
using objective, clear, concise, and
measurable terms (Cont.)
 Individuals present when the problem
behavior occurs
 Conditions present before the problem
behavior occurs (antecedent events)
 Conditions present after the problem
behavior occurs (consequent events)
Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [3]
Step 1. Define the problem behavior by
using objective, clear, concise, and
measurable terms (Cont.)
 Peer behaviors associated with the
problem behavior
 Adult behaviors associated with the
problem behavior
Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [4]
Step 2. Perform the assessment
 Review the student’s records
 Results from prior psychological or
psychoeducational evaluations
 Teachers’ comments on report cards
 Disciplinary records
 Anecdotal home notes
 Medical reports
Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [4]
Step 2. Perform the assessment
 Review the student’s records (Cont.)
 Descriptions of prior interventions
 Results of prior interventions
Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [5]
Step 2. Perform the assessment (Cont.)
 Conduct systematic behavioral
observations
 Interview the student, teacher, parents,
and other individuals as needed
 Conduct other formal and informal
assessments as needed
Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [6]
Step 3. Evaluate assessment results
 Identify any results that may indicate
 Purpose or cause of the problem
behavior, its significance, and possible
interventions
 Student’s, teacher’s, and parents’
understanding of the problem behavior
Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [7]
Step 3. Evaluate assessment results
(Cont.)
Questions to consider:
 Does the student realize that he or she
has a problem behavior?
 Do the parents realize that their child has
a problem behavior?
 Does the student’s problem behavior
significantly differ from that of his or her
classmates?

Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [8]
Step 3. Evaluate assessment results
(Cont.)
Questions to consider:
 Does the student understand the school’s
rules for appropriate conduct?
 Does the problem behavior lessen the
likelihood of successful learning for the
student and/or other students?

Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [9]
Step 3. Evaluate assessment results
(Cont.)
Questions to consider:
 Does the student’s problem behavior
represent a behavioral deficit (e.g., too
little behavior of a particular type) or
behavioral excess (e.g., too much
behavior of a particular type)?

Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [10]
Step 3. Evaluate assessment results
(Cont.)
Questions to consider:
 Is the student’s problem behavior serious,
persistent, and chronic or mild, occasional,
and temporary?
 If the behavior persists, is some
disciplinary action likely to result?

Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [11]
Step 3. Evaluate assessment results
(Cont.)
Questions to consider:
 Is the student’s problem behavior a threat
to himself or herself and/or to other
students?
 Does the student have the skills necessary
to learn and perform new behaviors?

Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [12]
Step 3. Evaluate assessment results
(Cont.)
Questions to consider:
 Have past efforts to address the problem
behavior been successful or
unsuccessful?

Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [13]
Step 4. Develop plausible hypotheses to
account for the problem behavior
 Try to explain the relationship between the
problem behavior and the situations in
which the problem behavior occurs
Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [14]
Step 5. Formulate a BIP to improve problem
behavior by working with the IEP Team.
Step 6. Start the BIP as soon as possible.
Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [15]
Step 7. Evaluate the effectiveness of the BIP
periodically
 Interview the student, teachers, and
parents
 Observe the student
 Monitor the student’s progress
 Administer other assessments as needed
Seven Steps in Conducting an
FBA [16]
Step 7. Evaluate the effectiveness of the BIP
periodically (Cont.)
 Make any necessary modifications in the
BIP
 Evaluate the effectiveness of the
modifications periodically
Assessing Behavior Through
Behavioral Observations [1]

Observe the student in several different
settings
 Classroom
 Gym
 Cafeteria
 Playground
Assessing Behavior Through
Behavioral Observations [2]



During different types of activities
 Lectures
 Study periods
 Group activities
 Sports
At different times during the day
On several days
Goals of Behavioral Observations




To describe the student’s problem
behavior
To describe the setting(s) in which the
problem behavior occurs
To describe the conditions surrounding the
problem behavior
To describe the factors that may be
maintaining the problem behavior
Background Considerations in
Conducting Behavioral
Observations [1]

Task is to gain a better understanding of
the student’s problem behavior
 In different contexts
 Under different conditions
Background Considerations in
Conducting Behavioral
Observations [2]


And to determine the relationship between
the student’s problem behavior and the
existing
 Classroom conditions
 Or other setting conditions
Initial observations can serve as a
baseline for monitoring the BIP
Background Considerations in
Conducting Behavioral
Observations [3]


Observations may have an intraindividual
focus, in which a student’s own
performance is compared across
 Different environments
 Different tasks
Question: Is the student’s behavior
consistent across environments and
across tasks?
Background Considerations in
Conducting Behavioral
Observations [4]


Observations also may have an
interindividual focus, in which a student’s
performance is compared with
 The norm group
 Or a peer(s)
Question: Is the student’s behavior
considerably different from that of his or
her peers?
Background Considerations in
Conducting Behavioral
Observations [6]

Task is to identify the factors in the
environment that may be maintaining the
problem behavior including the
 Settings
 Tasks
 Reward contingencies (e.g., positive
reinforcement, such as attention, access
to favorite activity)
Background Considerations in
Conducting Behavioral
Observations [6]

Task is to identify the factors in the
environment that may be maintaining the
problem behavior including the (Cont.)
 Relief contingencies (e.g., negative
reinforcement, such as escaping from
tasks and responsibilities)
Background Considerations in
Conducting Behavioral
Observations [7]



Comment
Interindividual focus is thus used for
screening
Intraindividual focus is thus used for a
more comprehensive individual
assessment
For an example of a classroom
observation checklist see Table C-1 on
page 78 in the Resource Guide
Background Considerations in
Conducting Behavioral
Observations [8]


Comment (Cont.)
For an example of a observation checklist
for rating a child in a classroom see Table
C-2 on page 80 in the Resource Guide
See Chapters 8 and 9 in the main text for
more information about behavioral
observations
Assessing Behavior Through
Interviews [1]

Behavioral assessment interview can serve
many purposes
 Identifying and describing problem
behaviors
 Identifying and describing
 Antecedents
 Consequences
 Factors influencing the problem
behavior
Assessing Behavior Through
Interviews [2]



Behavioral assessment interview can serve
many purposes (Cont.)
 Formulating hypotheses about the
function of the problem behavior
See pages 417–418 in the main text for
interviewing a student
See page 418 in the main text for
interviewing a teacher
Assessing Behavior Through
Interviews [3]

See Table B-15 on pages 67–70 in the
Resource Guide for additional questions for
interviewing a teacher
Assessing Behavior Through
Interviews [4]

Also valuable for obtaining case history
material are three questionnaires in the
Resource Guide
 Background Questionnaire (Table A-1
on pages 1–10)
 Personal Data Questionnaire (Table A-2
on pages 11–16)
 School Referral Questionnaire (Table A3 on pages 17–19)
Assessing Behavior Through
Interviews [5]


Other sources of information
 Student’s school records
 Student’s medical records
 Parent interview (Table B-9 on pages
40–43 in the Resource Guide)
For more information about interviewing,
see Chapters 5, 6, and 7 in the main text
Recording FBA Information



See Table F-1, pages 113–115 in the
Resource Guide for a Functional
Behavioral Assessment Recording Form
See Table F-2, page 116 in the Resource
Guide for a Functional Behavioral
Assessment Brief Recording Form
See Table F-3, pages 117–118 in the
Resource Guide for a Checklist of
Possible Antecedent Events, Behaviors,
and Consequent Events
Formulating Hypotheses to
Account for Problem Behavior [1]

Hypotheses serve to
 Summarize assessment results
 Offer explanations for a student’s
problem behavior
 Guide the development of the BIP
Formulating Hypotheses to
Account for Problem Behavior [2]

In developing hypotheses to account for
the problem behavior, consider the
 Antecedents that trigger the problem
behavior
 Consequences that maintain the
problem behavior
 Interaction of all relevant factors
Formulating Hypotheses to
Account for Problem Behavior [3]
Key questions related to the school
environment
 Does the student misbehave in order to
escape from
 Ineffective instruction?
 Frustration arising from his or her
inability to cope with the learning
environment?
 Does the student’s misbehavior result in
peer rejection?
Formulating Hypotheses to
Account for Problem Behavior [4]
Information needed to develop hypotheses
(see pages 419–420 in the main text)
1. Type of problem behavior
2. Where the problem behavior occurs
3. When the problem behavior occurs
4. Characteristics of the antecedent events
and setting related to the problem
behavior
Formulating Hypotheses to
Account for Problem Behavior [5]
Information needed to develop hypotheses
(Cont.)
5. Situations or personal events that might
induce the problem behavior, including
actions of others that increase, decrease,
or trigger the problem behavior
6. Consequences associated with the
problem behavior
7. Relevant student background factors
associated with the problem behaviors
Formulating Hypotheses to
Account for Problem Behavior [6]
Information needed to develop hypotheses
(Cont.)
8. Relevant environmental background
factors associated with the problem
behavior
9. Functions or purposes—including
escape, attention or control, and selfregulation—served by the problem
behavior
Formulating Hypotheses to
Account for Problem Behavior [7]
Information needed to develop hypotheses
(Cont.)
10. How the student reacts to the problem
behavior
11. How others react to the problem behavior
12. Teachers’, parents’, and other concerned
individuals’ levels of understanding of the
problem behavior
13. Student’s attitude about the learning
environment
Formulating Hypotheses to
Account for Problem Behavior [8]
Information needed to develop hypotheses
(Cont.)
14. Student’s attitude about his or her
parents, siblings, and peers
15. Cognitive and motivational resources that
the student has for coping with the
problem behavior
16. Student’s, family’s, school’s, and
community’s strengths and resources for
change
Formulating Hypotheses to
Account for Problem Behavior [9]


Four examples of hypotheses developed
on the basis of a FBA
See page 420 in the main text
Behavioral Intervention Plans
(BIP) [1]


Philosophy of a BIP
A BIP should foster cooperation among
teachers, related service providers,
administrators, family members, and
outside agency personnel
A BIP may require considerable time and
effort
Behavioral Intervention Plans
(BIP) [2]

Philosophy of a BIP (Cont.)
A BIP that deals effectively with problem
behaviors in their early stages of
development can help reduce the severity
of future behavior problems
Behavioral Intervention Plans
(BIP) [1]

Philosophy of a BIP (Cont.)
A BIP ideally will
 Allow the most appropriate behavior
changes to transfer across settings
 Be effective with more than one problem
behavior
Behavioral Intervention Plans
(BIP) [3]


Purpose of BIP
To help student develop more appropriate
behaviors
To reduce the frequency and severity of
the problem behavior
Behavioral Intervention Plans
(BIP) [4]

Purpose of BIP (Cont.)
To replace undesirable behavior with
desirable behavior that serves the same
function for the student
 A replacement behavior is an
alternative, positive, and desirable
behavior that serves the same function
and need as the problem behavior
 It is a behavior that the student can do
or learn
Behavioral Intervention Plans
(BIP) [5]

Purpose of BIP
To replace undesirable behavior with
desirable behavior that serves the same
function for the student (Cont.)
 It is supported by the environment
 It should be as effective and powerful as
the problem behavior
Behavioral Intervention Plans
(BIP) [6]

Purpose of BIP
To replace undesirable behavior with
desirable behavior that serves the same
function for the student (Cont.)
 It should be implemented across
settings
 It should result in an efficient and
meaningful alternative for the student
Behavioral Intervention Plans
(BIP) [7]



General Strategy in Formulating a BIP
Arrange antecedent events so that the
replacement behavior is more likely to be
encouraged
Arrange consequent events so that the
replacement behavior is more likely to be
reinforced
Arrange consequent events so that the
problem behavior is less likely to be
reinforced
Behavioral Intervention Plans
(BIP) [8]

General Strategy in Formulating a BIP
(Cont.)
Select prompts that provide the minimal
amount of help necessary to enable the
student to perform the acceptable
behavior
Behavioral Intervention Plans
(BIP) [9]

Examples of Prompts
Indirect verbal or nonverbal prompt—
telling the student that something is
expected, but not exactly what
 “Now what?”
 Using body language, such as an
expectant facial expression or hand
motioning with a shrug
Behavioral Intervention Plans
(BIP) [10]


Examples of Prompts (Cont.)
Direct verbal prompt—telling the student
what he or she is expected to do or say
 “Put your cell phone away.”
Gesture—indicating with a motion what
the student is supposed to do
 Pointing
Behavioral Intervention Plans
(BIP) [11]



Examples of Prompts (Cont.)
Modeling—showing the student what to do
Partial physical assistance—providing
minimal supported guidance for the
student
Full physical assistance—providing handunder-hand guidance to help the student
complete the desired task
Developing the BIP [1]
Background Components
The BIP should
 Be practical
 Be workable
 Be reasonable
 Have clearly stated goals and objectives
 Be relevant to the function of the behavior
 Be tailored to the student’s needs
 Be culturally appropriate
Developing the BIP [2]
Background Components (Cont.)
The BIP should
 Be consistent with the student’s
background, skill level, and resources
 Include appropriate reinforcers and
punishers
 Include making changes in the antecedent
conditions
 Include making changes in the
consequences
Developing the BIP [3]

Focus on preventing the problem behavior
from occurring
 By changing the classroom environment
as needed
 By improving instructional strategies and
classroom management techniques
 By minimizing or preventing setting
events that promote the problem
behavior
Developing the BIP [4]


Have incremental improvement goals
designed to reduce the problem behavior,
rather than one large-scale improvement
goal
Have a high level of acceptance by those
responsible for carrying out the BIP
Components of the BIP [1]

Description of the problem (target)
behavior
 Frequency
 Duration
 Intensity
 Latency
 Settings where the problem behavior
occurs
Components of the BIP [2]

Description of the problem (target)
behavior (Cont.)
 People present in the setting
 Times of day when the problem
behavior occurs
Components of the BIP [3]


Description of specific, measurable goals
Interventions needed
 To alter relevant antecedent events
 To teach replacement behaviors
 To provide consequences for the
problem behavior
Components of the BIP [4]




Statement of when interventions will start
Statement about how frequent the
interventions will be
Methods that will be used to evaluate the
results of the intervention
Names of the professionals responsible for
each part of the assessment and
intervention
Examples of BIP Strategies [1]

Conference with the student and parents
and/or with student and teacher (and
parents)
 Is an alternative educational placement
needed?
 Can teacher provide easier access to
desired items or activities?
 Does the student need counseling
services?
Examples of BIP Strategies [2]

Conference with the student and parents
and/or with student and teacher (and
parents) (Cont.)
 Should the student be sent to the
principal’s office or home after he or she
misbehaves?
 Should the student be suspended?
 Should privileges be taken away?
 Should time-outs be used?
Examples of BIP Strategies [3]

Conference with the student and parents
and/or with student and teacher (and
parents) (Cont.)
 Should the student be assigned to work
with a peer?
 Do classroom rules and expected
behavior for the whole class need to be
clarified?
 Do home rules need to be clarified?
 Do clear limits need to be set in the
classroom and at home?
Examples of BIP Strategies [4]

Link the function of the behavior to an
appropriate intervention
 If the function of the problem behavior is
to get attention, try to shift attention
away from the inappropriate behavior
Examples of BIP Strategies [5]

Give the student choices related to class
assignments
 Choosing between different tasks
 Choosing when to begin and end an
activity
 Choosing where to work
Examples of BIP Strategies [6]




Give the student leadership roles
Have the student complete self-monitoring
forms (see Chapter 9 in the main text and
Appendix D, pages 99–103 in the
Resource Guide)
Include a written behavioral contract
Restate rules as often as needed
Examples of BIP Strategies [7]

Manage the antecedent variables in order
to minimize the probability of the
occurrence of the problem behavior and
prevent its escalation
Examples of BIP Strategies [8]

Modify instructional procedures and
assignments to suit the student’s
instructional level
 Adjust time limits
 Give easier, smaller units of work and
fewer problems
 Give simplified, clearer, and more
detailed step-by-step instructions
 Provide extra assistance
Examples of BIP Strategies [9]



Modify instructional procedures and
assignments to suit the student’s
instructional level (Cont.)
 Use graphic organizers (i.e., visual
representations of the material that the
student is learning)
Remind the student to ask for help as
needed
Prevent conflict on the bus ride to school
Examples of BIP Strategies [10]

Provide one-on-one skill training on how to
perform the desired behavior
 Modeling
 Role playing
 Practice and repetition
 Frequent prompts
Examples of BIP Strategies [11]



Respond quickly if the student asks for or
needs help
Redirect the student’s behavior when the
problem behavior is about to start
Remove unintended consequences that
may be reinforcing the problem behavior
 Example: Prevent the student from
avoiding required classroom tasks
through misbehavior
Examples of BIP Strategies [12]

Teach adaptive social skills and
replacement behaviors that are not in the
student’s repertoire, such as how to
 Request help
 Ask for an item
 Follow transition routines
 Wait one’s turn
 Request a break
 How to request attention
Examples of BIP Strategies [13]

Reward appropriate behavior with
reinforcers
 Verbal praise
 Positive social reinforcement
 Point system
 Tangible reinforcements
 Snacks or treats (with parent’s approval)
 Desired objects
 Recreational and leisure reinforcements
Examples of BIP Strategies [14]





Reward appropriate behavior with reinforcers
(Cont.)
 Additional privileges
Provide reinforcements immediately following
the behavior
Gradually increase the reinforcement interval
Maximize reinforcements for positive
behavior
Minimize reinforcements for negative
behavior
Examples of BIP Strategies [15]
Positive strategies to change the classroom
environment to prevent the problem
behavior from occurring
 Allow legitimate movement
 Change seating arrangements
 Increase the distance between desks
 Increase the ratio of adults to students
 Make changes in the student’s class
schedule
Examples of BIP Strategies [16]
Positive strategies to change the classroom
environment to prevent the problem
behavior from occurring (Cont.)
 Remove distracting materials from the
classroom
 Seat the student near the teacher or near
a positive peer model
 Use resource rooms
Other Aspects of a BIP [1]



Use crisis management procedures to
ensure safety and de-escalation of the
student’s problem behavior
Ensure that the individual staff members
know their roles and responsibilities for
implementing the BIP
Incorporate safeguards to ensure that the
student receives reinforcement for positive
behavior and not for the problem behavior
Other Aspects of a BIP [2]

Provide appropriate setting(s) for the BIP
 In a “calming” zone created in the
classroom
 In a hallway outside the classroom with
a desk and chair
 In the counselor’s office
 In a monitored time-out room
 In a student services intervention room
Examples of Hypotheses and
Possible Interventions

Some examples of hypotheses and
possible interventions based on functional
behavioral assessments are shown on
pages 422–423 of the main text
Monitoring the BIP [1]



Questions to Consider
Is the BIP being implemented as
proposed?
Which short-term and long-term goals
have been reached?
What information is helpful in the teacher’s
anecdotal notes, the checklists completed
by the teacher, and the student’s
completed self-monitoring forms?
Monitoring the BIP [2]




Questions to Consider (Cont.)
Is the student using replacement
behaviors?
Is the student acquiring new skills?
Is the student using the new skills in
different situations?
Has the problem behavior decreased to an
acceptable rate?
Monitoring the BIP [3]




Questions to Consider (Cont.)
What barriers still remain that hinder the
student’s learning?
Is the student’s academic performance
improving or deteriorating?
Does the student understand the
consequences of his or her actions?
Is the student able to control his or her
behavior?
Monitoring the BIP [4]



Questions to Consider (Cont.)
Are the student, teachers, parents, and
members of the IEP Team satisfied with
the BIP and its outcomes?
Do the student, teachers, parents, or IEP
Team have any suggestions for improving
the BIP?
What modifications, if any, need to be
made in the BIP?
Troubleshooting Unsuccessful
BIPs[1]





Was the BIP more difficult to implement
than originally thought?
Did the BIP need more time to be
successful?
Did the BIP need additional supports
and/or resources?
Was the BIP designed poorly?
Was the BIP poorly implemented?
Troubleshooting Unsuccessful
BIPs[2]




Was the problem behavior poorly defined?
Were the hypotheses accurate?
Were the interventions formulated
appropriately?
Were the individuals assigned to carry out
the BIP adequately trained?
Troubleshooting Unsuccessful
BIPs[3]


Were the student’s cultural and linguistic
background, personality, temperament,
cognitive skills, physical skills, and
adaptive skills adequately considered?
Did the BIP take into account the
classroom, family, and community
environments?
Reformulating the BIP

Determine the reasons the BIP was
unsuccessful and then modify the BIP as
needed:
 Collect additional data
 Revise the hypotheses
 Modify the interventions
 Provide additional training and technical
assistance to those who are carrying out
the BIP
Examples of BIPs


Two brief examples of BIPs are on pages
423–424 of the main text
An extensive BIP is shown on pages 425–
426 of the main text
Example of a BIP for Crisis
Management [1]
Problem behavior: John has a history of
throwing chairs when he gets frustrated.
1. John will be given a cue that he can use
to indicate that he is getting upset and
needs to cool down.
Example of a BIP for Crisis
Management [2]
2.



Once he gives the cue to the teacher, he
has been told that he has the following
options:
Go to the hall with a staff member
Go to the resource room
Ask to see a staff member
Example of a BIP for Crisis
Management [3]
3.
4.
If the teacher sees that John is becoming
upset and is not using the cue for help,
teacher should say: “I see you’re getting
upset. I need you to choose one of your
options.”
If John is unable to make a choice, he will
be directed to go to a time-out room or an
area where he will remain until he can
demonstrate that he is in control of his
behavior.
Example of a BIP for Crisis
Management [4]
5.
6.
If he says that he cannot control his
behavior, he should be seen staff
member as soon as possible.
If he goes back to the classroom and
throws furniture or otherwise endangers
himself or others, he will be removed from
the classroom.
Example of a BIP for Crisis
Management [5]
7.
8.
9.
His parents will be called (or the parents’
designated person) to come and get
John.
John’s options will again be explained to
him when he returns to school.
The IEP Team will meet as soon as
possible to review the BIP and make
modifications as needed.
Example of a BIP for Crisis
Management [6]
10.
In counseling, the following behavioral
expectations will be explored:
 Raise hand to ask for assistance
 Ignore the inappropriate behavior of
others
 Stay on task
 Make positive comments about self and
others
 Participate appropriately in activities
Example of a BIP for Crisis
Management [7]
10.
In counseling, the following behavioral
expectations will be explored: (Cont.)
 Remain in own personal area
 Work without distracting others
 Follow directions
 Complete assignments
Example of a BIP for Crisis
Management [8]

Source: Project Stay. (n.d.). What is a
behavior intervention plan? Retrieved from
http://projectstay.com/pdf/BehaviorInterve
ntionPlan.pdf

similar documents